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  • Lyon, Phyllis (American gay-rights activist)

    Daughters of Bilitis: …DOB were Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon, who would become well-known lesbian rights activists. During the late 1950s other DOB chapters were founded across America and in Australia too, although membership numbers remained relatively small.

  • Lyon, Sir Thomas, Master of Glamis (Scottish rebel)

    Archibald Douglas, 8th earl of Angus: …Mar and the master of Glamis, and sentence of attainder was pronounced against all three. The rebels fled to Newcastle, which became a centre of Presbyterianism and of projects against the Scottish government encouraged by Elizabeth I of England. They returned to Scotland in October 1584 and secured from James…

  • Lyon, Sue (American actress)

    Stanley Kubrick: Breakthrough to success: …with a 13-year-old girl (Sue Lyon), and Peter Sellers and Shelley Winters also submitted striking performances. Despite stirring up plenty of controversy of its own with its subject matter (particularly with the Catholic Legion of Decency), Lolita was a box-office hit.

  • Lyonet, Pieter (Dutch naturalist and engraver)

    Pierre Lyonnet, Dutch naturalist and engraver famed for his skillful dissections and illustrations of insect anatomy. Trained as an attorney, Lyonnet was a respected biologist and spent most of his time engraving objects of natural history. He made the drawings for Friedrich Christian Lesser’s

  • Lyonia (plant genus)

    Lyonia, genus of about 35 species of shrubs, of the heath family (Ericaceae), notable for its attractive white or pinkish flowers and dense foliage. All occur in North America, the Caribbean, and Asia. The leaves are alternate, have short stalks, and are smooth-edged or finely toothed; they may be

  • lyonium ion (chemistry)

    acid–base reaction: Alternative definitions: The terms lyonium and lyate ions are occasionally used in this way. In water, the lyonium and lyate ions are H3O+ and OH?; in ethanol, C2H5OH2+ and C2H5O?; and in liquid ammonia, NH4+ and NH2?. For a given solvent, an acid can then be defined as a…

  • lyonization (genetics)

    human genetic disease: Abnormalities of the sex chromosomes: …sperm) via a process called X inactivation. The phenomenon of X inactivation prevents a female who carries two copies of the X chromosome in every cell from expressing twice the amount of gene products encoded exclusively on the X chromosome, in comparison with males, who carry a single X. In…

  • Lyonnais (region, France)

    Lyonnais, historical and cultural region encompassing the eastern French départements of Loire and Rh?ne and coextensive with the former province of Lyonnais. As a former province or gouvernement of the ancien régime, Lyonnais was bounded on the north by Burgundy; on the east by Dombes, Bresse, and

  • Lyonnesse (ancient province, Scotland)

    Lothian, a primitive province of Scotland lying between the Rivers Tweed and Forth. The name, of Welsh origin but uncertain meaning, is retained in the names of the modern Scottish council areas of East and West Lothian and Midlothian and the historic region of Lothian. Occupied in the 3rd and 4th

  • Lyonnesse (mythological land)

    Lyonnesse, mythical “lost” land supposed once to have connected Cornwall in the west of England with the Scilly Isles lying in the English Channel. The name Lyonnesse first appeared in Sir Thomas Malory’s late 15th-century prose account of the rise and fall of King Arthur, Le Morte Darthur, in

  • Lyonnet, Pierre (Dutch naturalist and engraver)

    Pierre Lyonnet, Dutch naturalist and engraver famed for his skillful dissections and illustrations of insect anatomy. Trained as an attorney, Lyonnet was a respected biologist and spent most of his time engraving objects of natural history. He made the drawings for Friedrich Christian Lesser’s

  • Lyons (France)

    Lyon, capital of both the Rh?ne département and the Auvergne-Rh?ne-Alpes région, east-central France, set on a hilly site at the confluence of the Rh?ne and Sa?ne rivers. It is the third largest city in France, after Paris and Marseille. A Roman military colony called Lugdunum was founded there in

  • Lyons, Austin (Trinidadian musician)

    soca: Also in the 1990s, Trinidadian Super Blue (Austin Lyons) sang the most popular road march (song for Carnival dancing in the street) three years in a row, beginning with “Get Something and Wave” in 1991. With this song, Super Blue established a new model for Carnival music that featured a…

  • Lyons, Council of (Second [1274])

    councils of Lyon: The second Council of Lyon was convened by Pope Gregory X in 1274 after Michael VIII Palaeologus, the Byzantine emperor, gave assurances that the Orthodox Church was prepared to reunite with Rome. By acknowledging the supremacy of the pope, Michael hoped to gain financial support for…

  • Lyons, Council of (First [1245])

    Councils of Lyon, 13th and 14th ecumenical councils of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1245 Pope Innocent IV fled to Lyon from the besieged city of Rome. Having convened a general council attended by only about 150 bishops, the Pope renewed the church’s excommunication of the Holy Roman emperor

  • Lyons, David (American philosopher)

    ethics: Varieties of consequentialism: …and Limits of Utilitarianism (1965), David Lyons argued that if the rule were formulated with sufficient precision to take into account all its causally relevant consequences, rule-utilitarianism would collapse into act-utilitarianism. If rule-utilitarianism is to be maintained as a distinct position, therefore, there must be some restriction on how specific…

  • Lyons, James (American educator)
  • Lyons, Joseph Aloysius (prime minister of Australia)

    Joseph Aloysius Lyons, Australian statesman who helped form the United Australia Party in 1931. As prime minister (1932–39), he saw the country’s economic recovery from the Great Depression and increased defense activity. At the age of 17, Lyons became a teacher in the Education Department and was

  • Lyons, Nathan (American photographer, curator, and educator)

    Nathan Lyons, American photographer, curator, and educator (born Jan. 10, 1930, Queens, N.Y.—died Aug. 31, 2016, Rochester, N.Y.), helped advance the acceptance of photography as an art and as a field of study through exhibitions, writing, and workshops. As a director and curator (1957–69) for the

  • Lyons, Treaty of (France-Savoy [1601])

    Henry IV: The achievements of the reign.: …force Savoy to sign the Treaty of Lyons (1601), thereby acquiring Bresse, Bugey, and other pieces of territory on France’s eastern border. He also concluded alliances with the German Protestant princes, with Lorraine, and with the Swiss. A great French success was the mediation between Spain and the United Provinces…

  • lyophilization (industrial process)

    history of technology: Food production: …technological innovation such as accelerated freeze-drying and irradiation as methods of preservation, as well as the increasing mechanization of farming throughout the world. The widespread use of new pesticides and herbicides in some cases reached the point of abuse, causing worldwide concern. Despite such problems, farming was transformed in response…

  • Lyot, Bernard Ferdinand (French astronomer)

    Bernard Lyot, French astronomer who invented the coronagraph (1930), an instrument which allows the observation of the solar corona when the Sun is not in eclipse. Before Lyot’s coronagraph, observing the corona had been possible only during a solar eclipse, but this was unsatisfactory because

  • Lyotard, Jean-Fran?ois (French philosopher and writer)

    Jean-Fran?ois Lyotard, French philosopher and leading figure in the intellectual movement known as postmodernism. As a youth, Lyotard considered becoming a monk, a painter, and a historian. After studying at the Sorbonne, he completed an agrégation (teaching degree) in philosophy in 1950 and joined

  • Lyra (constellation)

    Lyra, (Latin: “Lyre”) constellation in the northern sky at about 18 hours right ascension and 40° north in declination. Its brightest star is Vega, the fifth brightest star in the sky, with a magnitude of 0.03. With the bright stars Deneb and Altair, Vega is part of the prominent asterism of the

  • lyra (musical instrument)

    lyre: …separately, as in the Greek lyra.

  • Lyra Apostolica (work by Newman)

    St. John Henry Newman: Mind and character: …are his contributions in the Lyra Apostolica of his Anglican days, including the hymn “Lead, kindly light,” written in 1833 when he was becalmed in the strait between Sardinia and Corsica, and The Dream of Gerontius (1865), based upon the requiem offices and including such well-known hymns as “Praise to…

  • lyra viol (musical instrument)

    viol: …solo bass, and for the lyra viol, a small bass viol (also called viola bastarda). But as the style of instrumental composition changed during the 17th century, an expressive, vocal sound in the soprano register was emphasized, and the tenor and treble viols declined in favour of the violin, with…

  • lyre (musical instrument)

    Lyre, stringed musical instrument having a yoke, or two arms and a crossbar, projecting out from and level with the body. The strings run from a tailpiece on the bottom or front of the instrument to the crossbar. Most lyres are plucked, but a few are bowed. Box lyres are instruments having a

  • Lyre (constellation)

    Lyra, (Latin: “Lyre”) constellation in the northern sky at about 18 hours right ascension and 40° north in declination. Its brightest star is Vega, the fifth brightest star in the sky, with a magnitude of 0.03. With the bright stars Deneb and Altair, Vega is part of the prominent asterism of the

  • Lyre of Orpheus, The (novel by Davies)

    The Lyre of Orpheus, novel by Robertson Davies, published in 1988. The book is the third in the so-called Cornish trilogy, which also includes The Rebel Angels (1981) and What’s Bred in the Bone (1985). This fable about the nature of artistic creation has two major plot lines. One thread concerns

  • lyre-tailed nightjar (bird)

    nightjar: The lyre-tailed nightjar (Uropsalis lyra) inhabits northwestern South America. Its outermost tail feathers may measure 60 cm (24 inches) or more, accounting for 80 to 90 percent of the bird’s total length.

  • lyrebird (bird)

    Lyrebird, (genus Menura), either of two species of Australian birds (family Menuridae, order Passeriformes) named for the shape of their tail when spread in courtship display. The name also aptly suggests a musician. Inhabiting forests of southeastern Australia, lyrebirds are ground dwellers, and

  • lyretail (fish genus)

    Lyretail, any of a half dozen species of fishes in the genus Aphyosemion of the family Cyprinodontidae (order Atheriniformes). All are freshwater species of tropical Africa. They attain lengths of five centimetres (two inches). Female lyretails are drab olive or beige, but the males are

  • lyric (poetry)

    Lyric, a verse or poem that is, or supposedly is, susceptible of being sung to the accompaniment of a musical instrument (in ancient times, usually a lyre) or that expresses intense personal emotion in a manner suggestive of a song. Lyric poetry expresses the thoughts and feelings of the poet and

  • lyric caesura (prosody)

    caesura: ” The lyric caesura is a feminine caesura that follows an unstressed syllable normally required by the metre. It can be seen in A.E. Houseman’s “they cease not fighting / east and west.”

  • lyric fiction

    American literature: Lyric fictionists: An interesting development in fiction, abetted by Modernism, was a shift from naturalistic to poetic writing. There was an increased tendency to select details and endow them with symbolic meaning, to set down the thought processes and emotions of the characters, and to…

  • Lyric Odes to the Royal Academicians (work by Pindar)

    Peter Pindar: …he became famous with his Lyric Odes to the Royal Academicians (1782–85).

  • lyric opera

    Western music: Opera: …to produce the prevailing French lyric opera. At the same time, opéra comique branched off in another direction to produce operettas, which developed into the musical comedies of the 20th century. Indigenous opera appeared in other regions, especially in Russia, Bohemia, and Scandinavia, as a result of nationalistic fervour.

  • Lyric Opera of Chicago (opera company, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Carol Fox: …Theatre of Chicago (1954; now Lyric Opera of Chicago) and served as its general manager for more than 25 years (1954–80).

  • Lyric Pieces (work by Grieg)

    Lyric Pieces, series of collections of short songs for solo piano by Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg, often considered his most characteristic work. Some of Grieg’s solo piano pieces were based upon Norwegian folk songs; others are entirely his own work, though often flavoured by the rhythms and

  • lyric poetry (poetry)

    Lyric, a verse or poem that is, or supposedly is, susceptible of being sung to the accompaniment of a musical instrument (in ancient times, usually a lyre) or that expresses intense personal emotion in a manner suggestive of a song. Lyric poetry expresses the thoughts and feelings of the poet and

  • lyric soprano (vocal music)

    soprano: …a rich, powerful quality; a lyric soprano, a lighter, singing tone; and a coloratura soprano possesses a high range (to the second C above middle C and higher) and extreme agility.

  • lyric style (painting)

    Xia Gui: Life: …of landscape sometimes called the lyric style. His ideas were developed and exploited by academy landscapists later in the 12th century, practically all of whom were to some degree his followers.

  • Lyric Theatre of Chicago (opera company, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Carol Fox: …Theatre of Chicago (1954; now Lyric Opera of Chicago) and served as its general manager for more than 25 years (1954–80).

  • Lyrical Ballads (work by Coleridge and Wordsworth)

    Lyrical Ballads, collection of poems, first published in 1798 by Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth, the appearance of which is often designated by scholars as a signal of the beginning of English Romanticism. The work included Coleridge’s “Rime of the Ancient Mariner” and Wordsworth’s

  • lyricism

    American literature: Lyric fictionists: An interesting development in fiction, abetted by Modernism, was a shift from naturalistic to poetic writing. There was an increased tendency to select details and endow them with symbolic meaning, to set down the thought processes and emotions of the characters, and to…

  • Lyrics on Several Occasions (work by Gershwin)

    Ira Gershwin: …wrote commentaries on each in Lyrics on Several Occasions (1959). Ira Gershwin continued writing until the last year of his life, rewriting lyrics for Gershwin tunes used in the musical My One and Only (1983).

  • lyriform organ

    sound reception: Anatomical evidence: …contain many slitlike openings, called lyriform organs, that have been considered as sensory in nature. Most of these organs probably have a kinesthetic function and thus provide information on local movements of body parts. There is one type of lyriform organ, however, that differs from the others in its location…

  • Lyrins, Jan (Dutch painter)

    Jan Lievens, versatile painter and printmaker whose style derived from both the Dutch and Flemish schools of Baroque art. A contemporary of Rembrandt, he was a pupil of Joris van Schooten (1616–18) and of Rembrandt’s teacher Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam (1618–20). After residing in Leiden for a

  • Lyriske sm?stykker (work by Grieg)

    Lyric Pieces, series of collections of short songs for solo piano by Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg, often considered his most characteristic work. Some of Grieg’s solo piano pieces were based upon Norwegian folk songs; others are entirely his own work, though often flavoured by the rhythms and

  • Lyrurus tetrix (bird)

    grouse: …Old World member is the black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix), of Wales, Scotland, Scandinavia, and north-central Europe; a related form (L. mlokosiewiczi) occurs in the Caucasus. The male, known as blackcock, may be 55 cm (22 inches) long and weigh almost 2 kg (about 4 pounds). He is iridescent blue-black, with…

  • Lys, Battle of the (European history)

    World War I: The Western Front, March–September 1918: …for a time that this Battle of the Lys might be turned into a major effort. The British, however, after being driven back 10 miles, halted the Germans short of Hazebrouck. French reinforcements began to come up; and, when the Germans had taken Kemmel Hill (April 25), Ludendorff decided to…

  • Lys, Jan (Italian artist)

    Western painting: Early and High Baroque in Italy: In the hands of Johann Liss (or Jan Lys) the groundwork was laid for the flowering of the Venetian school of the 18th century. Venetian painting was also enriched by the pale colours and flickering brushwork of Francesco Maffei from Vicenza, whereas Bernardo Strozzi in 1630 carried to Venice…

  • Lysacek, Evan (American figure skater)

    Evan Lysacek, American figure skater who won the men’s figure skating gold medal at the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver. Lysacek started skating at age eight when his grandmother purchased a pair of hockey skates for him. Though he initially showed no natural ability on the ice, he soon

  • Lysander (fictional character)

    A Midsummer Night's Dream: Meanwhile, two lovers, Hermia and Lysander, seek refuge in the forest near Athens when Hermia’s father demands that she marry Demetrius. Hoping to win Demetrius’s favour, Helena tells him their whereabouts and follows him to the forest, where he goes in search of Hermia. The forest is also full of…

  • Lysander (Spartan magistrate)

    Agis IV: …his uncle Agesilaus; and by Lysander, who was an ephor (magistrate with the duty of limiting the power of the king) in 243. When the rich, led by the other king, Leonidas II, defeated these proposals, Leonidas was deposed. The ephors of 242 tried to restore him to his throne,…

  • Lysander (Greek military leader)

    Lysander, Greek military and political leader who won the final victory for Sparta in the Peloponnesian War and, at its close, wielded great power throughout Greece. Nothing is known of his early career. In his first year as admiral he won a sea battle off Notium (406) and obtained support of the

  • Lysenko, Mykola (Ukrainian musician)

    Ukraine: Music: …musical life was dominated by Mykola Lysenko, whose output encompassed vocal and choral settings, piano compositions, and operas, including Natalka Poltavka, Utoplena (“The Drowned Girl”), and Taras Bulba. Other major composers of the period were Kyrylo Stetsenko, Yakiv Stepovy, and Mykola Leontovych, the latter excelling in polyphonic arrangements of ancient…

  • Lysenko, Trofim (Soviet biologist and agronomist)

    Trofim Lysenko, Soviet biologist and agronomist, the controversial “dictator” of Communistic biology during Stalin’s regime. He rejected orthodox genetics in favour of “Michurinism” (named for the Russian horticulturist I.V. Michurin), which was begun by an uneducated plant breeder fashioning

  • Lysenko, Trofim Denisovich (Soviet biologist and agronomist)

    Trofim Lysenko, Soviet biologist and agronomist, the controversial “dictator” of Communistic biology during Stalin’s regime. He rejected orthodox genetics in favour of “Michurinism” (named for the Russian horticulturist I.V. Michurin), which was begun by an uneducated plant breeder fashioning

  • Lysenkoism (scientific theory)

    Lamarckism: Lamarckism in politics: …Trofim Lysenko, the proponent of Michurinism, became the dictator of Soviet biology. A number of Communists in Western Europe followed the Soviet directives and sought to rehabilitate Lamarckism. During the next decade the discussions of Lamarckism were political rather than scientific, and a great deal of confusion was naturally introduced…

  • lysergic acid (drug)

    ergot: …is also the source of lysergic acid, from which the powerful hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is easily synthesized.

  • lysergic acid diethylamide (drug)

    LSD, potent synthetic hallucinogenic drug that can be derived from the ergot alkaloids (as ergotamine and ergonovine, principal constituents of ergot, the grain deformity and toxic infectant of flour caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea). LSD is usually prepared by chemical synthesis in a

  • lysergide (drug)

    LSD, potent synthetic hallucinogenic drug that can be derived from the ergot alkaloids (as ergotamine and ergonovine, principal constituents of ergot, the grain deformity and toxic infectant of flour caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea). LSD is usually prepared by chemical synthesis in a

  • Lysias (Syrian general)

    Maccabees: Jewish resistance.: Lysias, the Syrian general, was now the real power. A peace of a sort was agreed between Judas and the Syrian general, who was having trouble elsewhere, and the Jews secured liberty of conscience and worship. The war, however, soon resumed. Judas sent a delegation…

  • Lysias (Greek writer)

    Lysias, Greek professional speech writer, whose unpretentious simplicity became the model for a plain style of Attic Greek. Lysias was the son of Cephalus, a wealthy native of Syracuse who settled in Athens. Plato, at the opening of the Republic, had drawn a charming picture of Cephalus and his

  • Lysichitum americanum (plant)

    skunk cabbage: The ill-smelling western, or yellow, skunk cabbage (Lysichiton americanum), of the same family, having a large yellow spathe, is found from California to Alaska and eastward to Montana. Another skunk cabbage (Veratrum californicum) is the poisonous corn lily, or false hellebore, which grows from New Mexico and…

  • Lysicrates, Monument of (monument, Athens, Greece)

    Monument of Lysicrates, only extant example of the ancient Greek architectural structure known as the choragic monument. For architects in the 18th century, the Monument of Lysicrates, located in Athens, was a common inspiration for decorative

  • Lysimachia nemorum (plant)

    loosestrife: Yellow pimpernel, or wood loosestrife (L. nemorum), a low plant with slender, spreading stem and solitary, yellow flowers, is common in England. Many species of Lysimachia are visited by bees for the oil contained in hairs on the flowers rather than for nectar or pollen.…

  • Lysimachia nummularia (plant)

    Creeping Jenny, (Lysimachia nummularia), a prostrate perennial herb, of the Myrsinaceae family, native to Europe but introduced into North America as a ground cover in warm climates and as an indoor hanging plant. The opposite, nearly round leaves are about 2 cm (0.75 inch) in diameter. The

  • Lysimachia vulgaris (plant)

    loosestrife: The Eurasian yellow loosestrife (Lysimachia vulgaris), an erect plant 0.6 to 1.2 metres (2 to 4 feet) high, is common on riverbanks in England and grows in eastern North America. The branched stem bears tapering leaves in pairs or whorls and terminal clusters of deep-yellow flowers.…

  • Lysimachus (king of Macedonia)

    Lysimachus, Macedonian general, satrap (provincial governor), and king who, as one of the diadochoi (“successors”) to Alexander the Great, came to rule strategic parts of the divided Macedonian Empire. Lysimachus was one of Alexander’s bodyguards during the conquest of Asia, and, in the

  • lysimeter (hydrological instrument)

    hydrologic sciences: Evapotranspiration: …of several metres across) called lysimeters, evaluate the different components of the water balance precisely, and calculate the evapotranspiration by subtraction. A similar technique is often employed at the catchment scale, although the measurement of the other components of the water balance is then necessarily less precise.

  • lysin (biochemistry)

    fertilization: Sperm-egg association: …releases a substance called a lysin, which breaks down the egg’s vitelline coat, allowing passage of the spermatozoon to the egg. The acrosomal membrane region opposite the opening adheres to the nuclear envelope of the spermatozoon and forms a shallow outpocketing, which rapidly elongates into a thin tube, the acrosomal…

  • lysine (chemical compound)

    Lysine, an amino acid released in the hydrolysis of many common proteins but present in small amounts or lacking in certain plant proteins; e.g., gliadin from wheat, zein from corn (maize). First isolated from casein (1889), lysine is one of several so-called essential amino acids for warm-blooded

  • lysinuric protein intolerance (pathology)

    metabolic disease: Amino acid transport disorders: …ornithine in the intestines causes lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI), a disorder characterized by protein intolerance, diarrhea, unsatisfactory weight gain, osteoporosis, and rashes; late complications of LPI include kidney and lung disease. Hartnup disease is a disorder of amino acid transport in the intestines and kidneys; ataxia, a photosensitive rash, and…

  • Lysippus (Greek sculptor)

    Lysippus, Greek sculptor, head of the school at árgos and Sicyon in the time of Philip of Macedon and especially active during the reign of Philip’s son Alexander the Great (336–323 bce). Lysippus was famous for the new and slender proportions of his figures and for their lifelike naturalism.

  • Lysis (work by Plato)

    Plato: Early dialogues: The Lysis is an examination of the nature of friendship; the work introduces the notion of a primary object of love, for whose sake one loves other things. The Menexenus purports to be a funeral oration that Socrates learned from Aspasia, the mistress of Pericles (himself…

  • lysis (biological process)

    therapeutics: Blood and blood cells: … (type B or O blood), lysis of the red blood cells occurs, which can be fatal. Persons with blood type O are universal red cell donors because this blood type does not contain antigen A or B. However, because type O blood contains antibodies against both A and B, patients…

  • Lysis of Tarentum (Greek philosopher)

    Lysis Of Tarentum, Greek philosopher and member of the Pythagorean school in southern Italy. Lysis left Italy for Greece about 390 bc, after escaping a massacre of the Pythagoreans at Croton. Settling in Thebes, he became the teacher of Epaminondas (c. 420–362 bc), the Greek military commander and

  • Lysistrata (work by Aristophanes)

    Lysistrata, comedy by Aristophanes, produced in 411 bce. Lysistrata depicts the seizure of the Athenian Acropolis and of the treasury of Athens by the city’s women. At the instigation of the witty and determined Lysistrata, they have banded together with the women of Sparta to declare a ban on

  • Lysistrate (work by Aristophanes)

    Lysistrata, comedy by Aristophanes, produced in 411 bce. Lysistrata depicts the seizure of the Athenian Acropolis and of the treasury of Athens by the city’s women. At the instigation of the witty and determined Lysistrata, they have banded together with the women of Sparta to declare a ban on

  • Lysithea (astronomy)

    Jupiter: Other satellites: The closer group—Leda, Himalia, Lysithea, and Elara—has prograde orbits. (In the case of these moons, retrograde motion is in the direction opposite to Jupiter’s spin and motion around the Sun, which are counterclockwise as viewed from above Jupiter’s north pole, whereas prograde, or direct, motion is in the same…

  • lysogenic conversion (biology)

    virus: Lysogeny: …of transferring genetic information, called lysogenic conversion, imparts genes with special functions to bacterial cells without such functions. It is common in bacteria and is an important aspect of the epidemiology (incidence, distribution, and control) of infectious diseases. For example, the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the causative agent of diphtheria,…

  • lysogenic phage (virus)

    episome: Some bacterial viruses, called temperate phages, carry DNA that can act as an episome. A bacterial cell into whose chromosome the viral DNA has become integrated is called a prophage. See lysogeny.

  • lysogeny (microbiology)

    Lysogeny, type of life cycle that takes place when a bacteriophage infects certain types of bacteria. In this process, the genome (the collection of genes in the nucleic acid core of a virus) of the bacteriophage stably integrates into the chromosome of the host bacterium and replicates in concert

  • lysosomal disorder (pathology)

    metabolic disease: Lysosomal storage disorders: Lysosomes are cytoplasmic organelles in which a variety of macromolecules are degraded by different acid hydrolase enzymes. Lysosomal enzymes are coded for by nuclear DNA and are targeted to lysosomes by specific recognition markers. If a lysosomal enzyme is absent or has…

  • lysosomal storage disease (pathology)

    metabolic disease: Lysosomal storage disorders: Lysosomes are cytoplasmic organelles in which a variety of macromolecules are degraded by different acid hydrolase enzymes. Lysosomal enzymes are coded for by nuclear DNA and are targeted to lysosomes by specific recognition markers. If a lysosomal enzyme is absent or has…

  • lysosome (biology)

    Lysosome, subcellular organelle that is found in nearly all types of eukaryotic cells (cells with a clearly defined nucleus) and that is responsible for the digestion of macromolecules, old cell parts, and microorganisms. Each lysosome is surrounded by a membrane that maintains an acidic

  • lysozyme (enzyme)

    Lysozyme, enzyme found in the secretions (tears) of the lacrimal glands of animals and in nasal mucus, gastric secretions, and egg white. Discovered in 1921 by Sir Alexander Fleming, lysozyme catalyzes the breakdown of certain carbohydrates found in the cell walls of certain bacteria (e.g.,

  • lyssa (pathology)

    Rabies, acute, ordinarily fatal, viral disease of the central nervous system that is usually spread among domestic dogs and wild carnivorous animals by a bite. All warm-blooded animals, including humans, are susceptible to rabies infection. The virus, a rhabdovirus, is often present in the salivary

  • Lyssavirus (virus genus)

    virus: Annotated classification: …cattle, swine, and equines, and Lyssavirus, which includes the causative agent of rabies. Family Filoviridae Enveloped virions, variably elongated filaments 650–1,400 nm in length and pleomorphic in shape, containing a helical nucleocapsid with single-stranded negative-sense RNA (about 19 kilobases in length) and an endogenous RNA polymerase. Much

  • Lystra (ancient city, Turkey)

    Anatolia: The Old Hittite Kingdom: … (Purushkhanda; probably modern Acemh?yük); and Lusna (classical Lystra). With the exception of Landa (probably to the north), the sites are all located in the territory to the south of the K?z?l River called by the Hittites the Lower Land, suggesting the first extension of the Hittite Kingdom from its restricted…

  • Lystrosaurus (fossil tetrapod genus)

    Lystrosaurus, extinct genus of about seven species of medium-sized heavily built animals that lived from the middle of the Permian Period (298.9 million to 251.9 million years ago) until early in the Triassic Period (251.9 million to 201.3 million years ago). Lystrosaurus was part of the

  • Lysva (Russia)

    Lysva, city, Perm kray (territory), Russia. It lies along the Lysva River in the mid-Urals. First recorded in the mid-17th century, the settlement acquired an iron-smelting factory as an economic base in 1785 and became a town in 1926. Its steel industry was modernized after the October Revolution

  • Lysychansk (Ukraine)

    Lysychansk, city, eastern Ukraine, on the Donets River. In 1721 the first discovery of coal in the Donets Basin was made there at the Cossack village of Lisya Balka, which dated from 1710. It was not until 1795, however, that Lysychansk was established as the first coal-mining settlement of the

  • Lytechinus variegatus (echinoderm)

    sea urchin: Lytechinus variegatus, a pale-greenish urchin of the southeastern coast of the United States and the Caribbean, and the large, short-spined Psammechinus (sometimes Echinus) miliaris of Iceland, Europe, and western Africa use their tube feet to hold up bits of seaweed or shell as a shield…

  • Lytham St. Anne’s (resort, England, United Kingdom)

    Fylde: …sand beaches are found at Lytham and St. Anne’s (St. Anne’s-on-the-Sea), where the Ribble meets the sea.

  • Lythraceae (plant family)

    Myrtales: Family distributions and abundance: Lythraceae, the loosestrife family, containing about 650 species in 31 genera of trees, small shrubs, and perennial herbs, occurs primarily in warmer regions of both the Old World and the New World and is especially diverse in South America and Africa. It now includes the…

  • Lythrum salicaria (plant)

    loosestrife: Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), native to Eurasia and now common in eastern North America, grows 0.6 to 1.8 metres (2 to 6 feet) high on riverbanks and in ditches. It has a branched stem bearing whorls of narrow, pointed, stalkless leaves and ending in tall,…

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