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  • lansoprazole (drug)

    proton pump inhibitor: …proton pump inhibitors include omeprazole, lansoprazole, and rabeprazole.

  • Lanston, Tolbert (American inventor)

    typesetting machine: …in 1885 another American inventor, Tolbert Lanston, perfected the Monotype (q.v.), a machine in which type is cast in individual letters. Both machines were made possible by the development of machine tools, specifically, the mechanical punch cutter. A third process, the Intertype (q.v.), developed later, also sets type by the…

  • Lanst?rtzerin Courage, Die (work by Grimmelshausen)

    Hans Jacob Christoph von Grimmelshausen: … include Die Lanst?rtzerin Courage (1669; Courage, the Adventuress)—which inspired Bertolt Brecht’s play Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder (1941; Mother Courage and Her Children)—and Das wunderbarliche Vogelnest (1672; “The Magical Bird’s Nest”). One part of the latter, translated as The False Messiah (1964), is about an adventurer whose

  • Lantana (plant genus)

    Lantana, genus of more than 150 shrubs native to tropical America and Africa and belonging to the verbena family (Verbenaceae), order Lamiales. Common lantana (L. camara), growing to 3 metres (10 feet) tall, is a weed in tropical America, but elsewhere it is much used as a garden plant. It blooms

  • Lantana camara (plant)

    conservation: Introduced species: &gt;Lantana camara, for example, which were introduced as ornamental plants, have destroyed huge areas of grazing land worldwide.

  • Lantana montevidensis (plant)

    Lantana: Trailing lantana (L. montevidensis), from South America, is a small-leaved, drooping, thinly branched species that bears rose-lavender flowers. Other species are variously known as yellow sage, weeping (or trailing) lantana, and polecat geranium.

  • Lantao Island (island, Hong Kong, China)

    Lantao Island, island located about 6 miles (10 km) west of Hong Kong Island, part of the New Territories of Hong Kong, a special administrative region of China. About 17 miles (27 km) long and 6 miles (9.5 km) wide, it has an area of 58 square miles (150 square km). Consisting of mountains rising

  • Lantau Island (island, Hong Kong, China)

    Lantao Island, island located about 6 miles (10 km) west of Hong Kong Island, part of the New Territories of Hong Kong, a special administrative region of China. About 17 miles (27 km) long and 6 miles (9.5 km) wide, it has an area of 58 square miles (150 square km). Consisting of mountains rising

  • Lantau Peak (mountain, Hong Kong, China)

    Hong Kong: Relief: …3,064 feet (934 metres) on Lantau Peak and 2,851 feet (869 metres) on Sunset Peak. Extending southeastward from Mount Tai Mo, the Kowloon Peak attains an elevation of 1,975 feet (602 metres), but there is an abrupt drop to about 650 feet (198 metres) at Devil’s Peak. Victoria (Hong Kong)…

  • Lante, Villa (villa, Bagnaia, Italy)

    garden and landscape design: Italian: …between the beds) of the Villa Lante at Bagnaia (begun 1564) is designed neither for solitary enjoyment nor for a crowd but for a select, discerning company—as is the garden of the far more splendid Villa Farnese at Caprarola (completed 1587). The most remarkable mid-16th-century garden, that of the Villa…

  • lanterloo (card game)

    Loo, gambling card game often mentioned in English literature. The name derives from the French lanturlu, the refrain of a popular 17th-century song. Popularity of the game faded in the 20th century. The players may number from five to about nine, each playing for himself. A standard 52-card deck

  • lantern (lighting)

    Lantern, a case, ordinarily metal, with transparent or translucent sides, used to contain and protect a lamp. Lamp-containing lanterns have been found at Pompeii, Herculaneum, and other classical sites. They have been made of iron, silver, gold, and tin and their sides of horn, talc, leather,

  • lantern (architecture)

    Lantern, in architecture, originally an openwork timber construction placed on top of a building to admit light and allow smoke to escape. Something of this idea persists in medieval examples such as the lantern above the central octagon of Ely Cathedral (14th century). The term lantern soon came

  • Lantern Festival (holiday)

    Lantern Festival, holiday celebrated in China and other Asian countries that honours deceased ancestors on the 15th day of the first month (Yuan) of the lunar calendar. The Lantern Festival aims to promote reconciliation, peace, and forgiveness. The holiday marks the first full moon of the new

  • lantern fish

    Lantern fish, any of the numerous species of small, abundant, deep-sea fish of the family Myctophidae. Some lantern fish live in the depths to 300 metres (about 1,000 feet) by day, but at night they may approach the surface. Others live deeper and do not approach the surface. They are somewhat

  • lantern of the dead (architecture)

    Lantern of the dead, small stone structure with windows in the upper part, in which lamps were placed to mark the position of a cemetery at night. Their use, which seems limited to western and central France, is probably owing to a traditional survival of primitive Celtic rather than Christian

  • Lantern Slides (short stories by O’Brien)

    Edna O'Brien: … (1974), A Fanatic Heart (1984), Lantern Slides (1990), and Saints and Sinners (2011). She also wrote plays, screenplays for film and television, and nonfiction about Ireland. In 1999 her short study James Joyce was published to critical acclaim. She chronicled the frenetic passions of Lord Byron in Byron in Love…

  • lantern-eye fish

    Flashlight fish, any of three species of fishes in the family Anomalopidae (order Beryciformes), characterized by the presence of luminescent organs just below the eye. They are among the few species of non-deep-sea fishes to possess such organs. Bioluminescent bacteria create the light

  • Lanternaria phosphorea (insect)

    Lanternfly, (Lanternaria phosphorea), a large, brightly coloured South American plant hopper (order Homoptera) that lives on trees and is relatively uncommon. Its most remarkable feature is the inflated anterior prolongation of the head, which contains a pouchlike extension from the digestive

  • lanterne des morts, la (architecture)

    Lantern of the dead, small stone structure with windows in the upper part, in which lamps were placed to mark the position of a cemetery at night. Their use, which seems limited to western and central France, is probably owing to a traditional survival of primitive Celtic rather than Christian

  • lanternfish

    Lantern fish, any of the numerous species of small, abundant, deep-sea fish of the family Myctophidae. Some lantern fish live in the depths to 300 metres (about 1,000 feet) by day, but at night they may approach the surface. Others live deeper and do not approach the surface. They are somewhat

  • lanternfly (insect)

    Lanternfly, (Lanternaria phosphorea), a large, brightly coloured South American plant hopper (order Homoptera) that lives on trees and is relatively uncommon. Its most remarkable feature is the inflated anterior prolongation of the head, which contains a pouchlike extension from the digestive

  • Lanterns, Feast of (Buddhist holiday)

    Buddhism: Anniversaries: …events of the Buddha’s life—his birth, enlightenment, and entrance into final nirvana (parinibbana)—are commemorated in all Buddhist countries but not everywhere on the same day. In Theravada countries the three events are all observed together on Vesak, the full moon day of the sixth lunar month (Vesakha), which usually occurs…

  • lanthanide (chemistry)

    Lanthanoid, any of the series of 15 consecutive chemical elements in the periodic table from lanthanum to lutetium (atomic numbers 57–71). With scandium and yttrium, they make up the rare-earth metals. Their atoms have similar configurations and similar physical and chemical behaviour; the most

  • lanthanide contraction (chemistry)

    Lanthanoid contraction, in chemistry, the steady decrease in the size of the atoms and ions of the rare earth elements with increasing atomic number from lanthanum (atomic number 57) through lutetium (atomic number 71). For each consecutive atom the nuclear charge is more positive by one unit,

  • lanthanoid (chemistry)

    Lanthanoid, any of the series of 15 consecutive chemical elements in the periodic table from lanthanum to lutetium (atomic numbers 57–71). With scandium and yttrium, they make up the rare-earth metals. Their atoms have similar configurations and similar physical and chemical behaviour; the most

  • lanthanoid contraction (chemistry)

    Lanthanoid contraction, in chemistry, the steady decrease in the size of the atoms and ions of the rare earth elements with increasing atomic number from lanthanum (atomic number 57) through lutetium (atomic number 71). For each consecutive atom the nuclear charge is more positive by one unit,

  • Lanthanotus borneensis (lizard)

    monitor: The earless monitor (L. borneensis), a rare and little-known lizard native to Borneo, is the only species in the subfamily Lanthanotinae. It too is elongate with a relatively long neck, but the limbs are small. It grows to a length of 40 cm (16 inches).

  • lanthanum (chemical element)

    Lanthanum (La), chemical element, a rare-earth metal of Group 3 of the periodic table, that is the prototype of the lanthanide series of elements. Lanthanum is a ductile and malleable silvery white metal that is soft enough to be cut with a knife. It is the second most reactive of the rare-earth

  • lanthanum oxide (chemical compound)

    lanthanum: Highly purified lanthanum oxide is an ingredient in the manufacture of low-dispersion, high-refraction glasses for lens components. Lanthanum is often used as LaNi5-based hydrogen-storage alloys and nickel–metal hydride rechargeable batteries in hybrid automobiles. Lanthanum is added to ferrous alloys (to

  • Lantian man (anthropology)

    Lantian man, fossils of hominins (members of the human lineage) found in 1963 and 1964 by Chinese archaeologists at two sites in Lantian district, Shaanxi province, China. One specimen was found at each site: a cranium (skullcap) at Gongwangling (Kung-wang-ling) and a mandible (lower jaw) at

  • Lantian Pass (mountain pass, China)

    Shaanxi: Relief and drainage: …the Hanzhong Basin; and the Lantian Pass southeast of Xi’an, which affords a route to Nanyang in Henan and to northern Anhui province.

  • Lanting Xu (work by Wang Xizhi)

    xingshu: …of early surviving Chinese calligraphy, Lanting Xu (“Essay on the Orchid Pavilion”), written in 353 by Wang Xizhi but surviving only in several fine tracing copies and other forms of duplication such as rubbings, is written in this script.

  • Lantingxu (work by Wang Xizhi)

    xingshu: …of early surviving Chinese calligraphy, Lanting Xu (“Essay on the Orchid Pavilion”), written in 353 by Wang Xizhi but surviving only in several fine tracing copies and other forms of duplication such as rubbings, is written in this script.

  • Lantz, Walter (American animator)

    Walter Lantz, American motion-picture animator, cartoon producer, and creator of the cartoon character Woody Woodpecker. At age 16, Lantz worked as a newspaper cartoonist and began experimenting with animation that same year. In 1922 he went to work for Bray Studios in New York City, where he

  • lanugo (mammalian hair)

    hair: …first to develop is the lanugo, a layer of downy, slender hairs that begin growing in the third or fourth month of fetal life and are entirely shed either before or shortly after birth. During the first few months of infancy there grow fine, short, unpigmented hairs called down hair,…

  • Lanús (county, Argentina)

    Lanús: … (county seat) and partido (county) of Gran (Greater) Buenos Aires, eastern Argentina. It is located directly south of the city of Buenos Aires, in Buenos Aires provincia (province). Much of the early settlement of Lanús, formerly called the county of Cuatro de Junio, was linked to the colonization and…

  • Lanús (Argentina)

    Lanús, cabecera (county seat) and partido (county) of Gran (Greater) Buenos Aires, eastern Argentina. It is located directly south of the city of Buenos Aires, in Buenos Aires provincia (province). Much of the early settlement of Lanús, formerly called the county of Cuatro de Junio, was linked to

  • Lanusse, Alejandro Agustín (president of Argentina)

    Alejandro Agustín Lanusse, Argentine general and politician (born Aug. 28, 1918, Buenos Aires, Arg.—died Aug. 26, 1996, Buenos Aires), as president of Argentina from 1971 to 1973, attempted to restore democracy to the country. Born into an upper-middle-class family, Lanusse graduated from m

  • Lanuvinus, Lucius (Roman dramatist)

    Terence: …rivals, particularly one older playwright, Luscius Lanuvinus, who launched a series of accusations against the newcomer. The main source of contention was Terence’s dramatic method. It was the custom for these Roman dramatists to draw their material from earlier Greek comedies about rich young men and the difficulties that attended…

  • Lanxide process (chemical bonding)

    advanced ceramics: The Lanxide process: Another chemical bonding method is the Lanxide process, introduced by the Lanxide Company in the United States. In this process a molten metal is reacted with a gas to form a metal-ceramic composite at the metal-gas interface. As the composite grows at the…

  • Lány, Treaty of (Austria-Czechoslovakia)

    Johann Schober: …Habsburg Empire by signing the Treaty of Lány with Czechoslovakia in December 1921. But the Pan-Germans, who viewed the treaty as a possible obstruction to Austria’s ultimate union with Germany, withdrew from the government, and in May 1922 Schober resigned, returning to the post of president of police. In July…

  • Lanz, Johann Wilhelm (German potter)

    pottery: Faience, or tin-glazed ware: Figures by J.W. Lanz, who also worked in porcelain here and at Frankenthal, are to be seen. Much work was done in the fashionable Rococo style, including objects, such as clock cases and wall cisterns, and tureens in the form of fruit and vegetables. Both faience and…

  • Lanza, Adam (American shooter)

    Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting: The murder of Adam Lanza’s mother: The attack began when 20-year-old Adam Lanza killed his mother, Nancy Lanza, in the home that the two shared in Newtown. She was shot four times with a .22-calibre rifle. She had purchased the rifle, as well as an AR-15—the civilian semiautomatic version of the military M16 assault rifle—and several…

  • Lanza, Giovanni (Italian statesman)

    Giovanni Lanza, Italian statesman and political activist of the Risorgimento who was premier in 1870 when Rome became the capital of a united Italy and who helped organize the political forces of the centre-left. After graduating from the University of Turin as a doctor of medicine, Lanza

  • Lanza, Nancy (mother of Adam Lanza)

    Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting: The murder of Adam Lanza’s mother: …Adam Lanza killed his mother, Nancy Lanza, in the home that the two shared in Newtown. She was shot four times with a .22-calibre rifle. She had purchased the rifle, as well as an AR-15—the civilian semiautomatic version of the military M16 assault rifle—and several other firearms that Adam Lanza…

  • Lanza, Robert P. (American scientist)

    Robert P. Lanza, American scientist known for his research on cloning, particularly his contributions to the refinement of a somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique that enabled the generation of the world’s first human embryonic stem (ES) cells from aged somatic (body) cells. As a youth,

  • Lanza, Robert Paul (American scientist)

    Robert P. Lanza, American scientist known for his research on cloning, particularly his contributions to the refinement of a somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique that enabled the generation of the world’s first human embryonic stem (ES) cells from aged somatic (body) cells. As a youth,

  • Lanzarote (island, Canary Islands, Spain)

    Lanzarote, island, Las Palmas provincia (province), in the Canary Islands comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), Spain. It is the easternmost of the Canary Islands, in the North Atlantic Ocean. Although it rises to only 2,198 feet (670 metres) at Pe?as del Chache, it is mountainous, with

  • Lanzelet (German poem)

    Lancelot: …treatment in the German poem Lanzelet. These two themes were developed further in the great 13th-century Vulgate cycle, or “Prose Lancelot.” According to this, after the death of his father, King Ban of Benoic, Lancelot was carried off by the enchantress Vivien, the Lady of the Lake, who in time…

  • Lanzhou (China)

    Lanzhou, city, capital of Gansu sheng (province), west-central China. It is situated in the southeastern portion of the province on the upper course of the Huang He (Yellow River), where the river emerges from the mountains. Lanzhou has been a centre since early times, being at the southern end of

  • Lanzi, Loggia dei (loggia, Florence, Italy)

    Western architecture: Early Renaissance in Italy (1401–95): …Gothic building such as the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence was characterized by a large round arch instead of the usual Gothic pointed arch and preserved the simplicity and monumentality of Classical architecture. The Renaissance might have been expected to appear first in Rome, where there was the greatest quantity…

  • Lanzi, Luigi (Italian archaeologist)

    Mannerism: …century by the Italian archaeologist Luigi Lanzi to define 16th-century artists who were the followers of major Renaissance masters.

  • Lanzmann, Claude (French writer and film director)

    Claude Lanzmann, French journalist, writer, and film director best known for his film Shoah (1985), a nine-and-a-half-hour documentary on the Holocaust. Lanzmann wrote and directed several films on the Holocaust and Israel, using firsthand interviews to construct his narratives. As a journalist, he

  • Lanzón, El (Chavin god)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Chavín monuments and temples: …which has variously been called El Lanzón, the Great Image, and the Smiling God, is thought to have been the chief object of worship in the original temple. The southern arm of the temple was subsequently twice widened by rectangular additions, into which some of the original galleries were prolonged.…

  • Lao (people)

    Laos: History: The Lao people, the predominant ethnic group in present-day Laos, are a branch of the Tai peoples who by the 8th century ce had established a powerful kingdom, Nanzhao, in southwestern China. From Nanzhao the Tai gradually penetrated southward into the Southeast Asian mainland; their migration…

  • Lao Cai (Vietnam)

    Lao Cai, town, northwestern Vietnam, on the China-Vietnam border. It lies at the junction of the Red River (Song Hong) and the Nam Ti River about 160 miles (260 km) northwest of Hanoi. It is a market town for timber from the surrounding mountains and is strategically important because of its

  • Lao Country (nationalist organization, Laos)

    Pathet Lao, left-oriented nationalist group in Laos that took control of the country in 1975. Founded in 1950, the Pathet Lao (Lao Country) movement joined with the Viet Minh, the Communist-oriented Vietnamese nationalist organization, in armed resistance to French rule in Indochina. In 1956 a

  • Lao Dan (Chinese Daoist philosopher)

    Laozi, (Chinese: “Master Lao” or “Old Master”) the first philosopher of Chinese Daoism and the alleged author of the Daodejing, a primary Daoist writing. Modern scholars discount the possibility that the Daodejing was written by only one person but readily acknowledge the influence of Daoism on the

  • Lao Dong (Vietnamese political organization)

    Ho Chi Minh: The Geneva Accords and the Second Indochina War: …committee of Ho Chi Minh’s Lao Dong (Worker’s Party), it was decided that the establishment of socialism in the North was linked with the unification with the South. This policy was confirmed by the third congress of the Lao Dong, held shortly thereafter in Hanoi. During the congress, Ho Chi…

  • Lao Dun (Chinese Daoist philosopher)

    Laozi, (Chinese: “Master Lao” or “Old Master”) the first philosopher of Chinese Daoism and the alleged author of the Daodejing, a primary Daoist writing. Modern scholars discount the possibility that the Daodejing was written by only one person but readily acknowledge the influence of Daoism on the

  • Lao Issara (political movement, Laos)

    Lao Issara, Laotian political movement against French colonial control, founded in 1945. The departure of the Japanese from Laos in 1945 left the Laotian ruling elite divided over the issue of the restoration of French control. The king welcomed the French return, but Prince Phetsarath, the

  • Lao Jun (Chinese Daoist philosopher)

    Laozi, (Chinese: “Master Lao” or “Old Master”) the first philosopher of Chinese Daoism and the alleged author of the Daodejing, a primary Daoist writing. Modern scholars discount the possibility that the Daodejing was written by only one person but readily acknowledge the influence of Daoism on the

  • Lao Khamhom (Thai writer)

    Thai literature: …exception during this period was Lao Khamhom (Khamsing Srinawk), whose subtle stories about country folk, first published in a collection called Fa bo kan (1959; The Politician and Other Stories), often carry a more subversive message than is immediately apparent. Although his output was small, with most of his best…

  • Lao language

    Lao language, one of the Tai languages of Southeast Asia, and the official language of Laos. Lao occurs in various dialects, which differ among themselves at least as much as Lao as a group differs from the Tai dialects of northeastern Thailand. The latter are usually called Northeastern Thai, but

  • Lao literature

    Lao literature, body of literature written in Lao, one of the Tai languages of Southeast Asia and the official language of Laos. The rich oral tradition of poetry and folk tales possessed by the Lao-speaking people predates their written literature and maintains a wide popularity to the present

  • Lao Loum (people)

    Laos: Ethnic groups and languages: …into one of three categories: Lao Loum (“Lowland Lao”), Lao Theung (“Lao of the Mountain Slopes”), and Lao Soung (“Lao of the Mountain Tops”). These groupings have simplified administration, and even individuals in the remotest villages now typically identify themselves to visitors with this nomenclature. The scheme does not, however,…

  • Lao Patriotic Front (political organization, Laos)

    Pathet Lao: …a legal political wing, the Lao Patriotic Front (Neo Lao Hak Xat), was founded and participated in several coalition governments. In the 1960s and early ’70s the Pathet Lao fought a civil war against the U.S.-backed Vientiane regime, winning effective control in the north and east. In the spring of…

  • Lao People’s Democratic Republic

    Laos, landlocked country of northeast-central mainland Southeast Asia. It consists of an irregularly round portion in the north that narrows into a peninsula-like region stretching to the southeast. Overall, the country extends about 650 miles (1,050 km) from northwest to southeast. The capital is

  • Lao People’s Party (political party, Laos)

    Laos: Constitutional framework: …effectively controlled by the communist Lao People’s Revolutionary Party (LPRP). This party, in alliance with the Vietnamese communists, carried out the revolution that ended in its seizure of power and the abolition of the monarchy. Top government positions—beginning with the president, who is head of state, and the prime minister,…

  • Lao People’s Revolutionary Party (political party, Laos)

    Laos: Constitutional framework: …effectively controlled by the communist Lao People’s Revolutionary Party (LPRP). This party, in alliance with the Vietnamese communists, carried out the revolution that ended in its seizure of power and the abolition of the monarchy. Top government positions—beginning with the president, who is head of state, and the prime minister,…

  • Lao Shan (mountain, China)

    China: The Shandong Hills: …(900 metres); the highest point, Mount Lao, reaches 3,714 feet (1,132 metres). The western part is slightly higher, rising to 5,000 feet (1,524 metres) at Mount Tai, one of China’s most sacred mountains. The Shandong Hills meet the sea along a rocky and indented shoreline.

  • Lao She (Chinese author)

    Lao She, Chinese author of humorous, satiric novels and short stories and, after the onset of the Sino-Japanese War (1937–45), of patriotic and propagandistic plays and novels. A member of the Manchu ethnic minority, Shu Sheyu served as principal of an elementary school at age 17 and soon worked

  • Lao Soung (people)

    Laos: Ethnic groups and languages: The Lao Soung group includes peoples who have migrated into northern Laos since the early 19th century and speak Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao) or Tibeto-Burman languages. Among the most prominent of those communities are the Hmong, Mien (also called Man or Yao), Akha (a subgroup of Hani peoples),…

  • Lao Tai (people)

    Laos: Ethnic groups and languages: Lao Tai peoples of the Lao Loum group also once had a clear political hierarchy and a stratified social structure. Black Tai tribal organization, for instance, had three levels: the village, which was the smallest unit; the commune, which comprised several villages; and the muong,…

  • Lao Theung (people)

    Laos: Ethnic groups and languages: The Lao Theung peoples are scattered throughout Laos and speak Austroasiatic (Mon-Khmer) languages. They are probably the original inhabitants of the country, having migrated northward in prehistoric times. Unlike the Lao Loum, the Lao Theung had no political or social structure beyond the village. They were…

  • Lao Tzu (Chinese Daoist philosopher)

    Laozi, (Chinese: “Master Lao” or “Old Master”) the first philosopher of Chinese Daoism and the alleged author of the Daodejing, a primary Daoist writing. Modern scholars discount the possibility that the Daodejing was written by only one person but readily acknowledge the influence of Daoism on the

  • Lao, Mount (mountain, China)

    China: The Shandong Hills: …(900 metres); the highest point, Mount Lao, reaches 3,714 feet (1,132 metres). The western part is slightly higher, rising to 5,000 feet (1,524 metres) at Mount Tai, one of China’s most sacred mountains. The Shandong Hills meet the sea along a rocky and indented shoreline.

  • Lao-ho-k’ou (China)

    Laohekou, city, northern Hubei sheng (province), China. It is situated on the east bank of the middle Han River, some 30 miles (50 km) northwest of Xiangfan. Historically, it was a town under the administration of Guanhua county. It was established as a city first in 1948 and again in 1951, but

  • Laoag (Philippines)

    Laoag, city, northwestern Luzon, Philippines. It lies on the north bank of the nonnavigable Laoag River, a few miles above the latter’s mouth on the South China Sea. Laoag was first occupied by the Spaniards in 1572 and is now the largest city in northern Luzon. A trade centre for an agricultural

  • Laocan youji (work by Liu E)

    Chinese literature: 19th-century native prose and poetry: …E, whose Laocan youji (1904–07; The Travels of Lao Can ), a fictional account of contemporary life, pointed to the problems confronting the tottering Qing dynasty.

  • Laocoon (work by Lessing)

    Gotthold Ephraim Lessing: Rising reputation as dramatist and critic.: One is the great treatise Laokoon: oder über die Grenzen der Malerei und Poesie (1766; “Laocoon; or, On the Limits of Painting and Poetry”). Here he took issue with the contemporary art historian Johann Winckelmann, specifically over his interpretation of the “Laocoon,” a famous sculpture of Hellenistic times (c. 1st…

  • Laoco?n (Greek mythology)

    Laoco?n, in Greek legend, a seer and a priest of the god Apollo; he was the son of Agenor of Troy or, according to some, the brother of Anchises (the father of the hero Aeneas). Laoco?n offended Apollo by breaking his oath of celibacy and begetting children or by having sexual intercourse with his

  • Laoco?n (Greek sculpture)

    Hellenistic age: The arts: Laoco?n, a portrayal of anguish, shows the figure of the priest Laoco?n and his two sons in the grip of two snakes. The sculpture, in immobile stone, is bursting with dynamism and energy.

  • Laoco?n (painting by El Greco)

    El Greco: Later life and works: …most Renaissance artists, is the Laocoon (1610–14). For ancient Troy he substituted a view of Toledo, similar to the one just discussed, and he displayed little regard for classical tradition in painting the highly expressive but great, sprawling body of the priest.

  • Laocoon: or, On the Limits of Painting and Poetry (work by Lessing)

    Gotthold Ephraim Lessing: Rising reputation as dramatist and critic.: One is the great treatise Laokoon: oder über die Grenzen der Malerei und Poesie (1766; “Laocoon; or, On the Limits of Painting and Poetry”). Here he took issue with the contemporary art historian Johann Winckelmann, specifically over his interpretation of the “Laocoon,” a famous sculpture of Hellenistic times (c. 1st…

  • Laodameia (Greek mythology)

    Protesilaus: His bride, Laodameia, was so grief stricken that the gods granted her request that Protesilaus be allowed to return from the dead for three hours. At the expiration of the time she accompanied him to the underworld, either by taking her own life or by immolating herself…

  • Laodice (wife of Antiochus II)

    Ptolemy II Philadelphus: Life: …to dismiss his former wife, Laodice. Thus freed for the moment from Seleucid opposition and sustained by the considerable financial means provided by the Egyptian economy, Ptolemy II devoted himself again to Greece and aroused new adversaries to Antigonid Macedonia. While the Macedonian forces were bogged down in Greece, Ptolemy…

  • Laodicea (ancient cities, Asia)

    Laodicea, the ancient name of several cities of western Asia, mostly founded or rebuilt in the 3rd century bc by rulers of the Seleucid dynasty, and named after Laodice, the mother of Seleucus I Nicator, or after Laodice, daughter (or possibly niece) of Antiochus I Soter and wife of Antiochus II

  • Laodicea ad Lycum (ancient city, Turkey)

    Denizli: …the economic position of ancient Laodicea ad Lycum, 4 miles (6 km) away, when that town was deserted during wars between the Byzantines and the Seljuq Turks in the 12th century. By the 14th century, as Ladik (Lādīq), Denizli had emerged as an important Turkish town noted for its woven…

  • Laodicea, Synod of

    church year: Sunday: 300), but a synod of Laodicea (c. 381) enjoined Christians not to “Judaize” but to work on the sabbath and rest, if possible, on the Lord’s Day. The Old Testament commandment of sabbath rest received a spiritual interpretation from the Church Fathers when they applied it to Sunday—e.g.,…

  • Laoet Island (island, Indonesia)

    Laut Island, island off the southeastern coast of Borneo, Kalimantan Selatan provinsi (“province”), Indonesia. Laut Island lies in the Makassar Strait, 105 miles (169 km) east of Banjarmasin city. It is 60 miles (100 km) long north to south and 20 miles (30 km) wide east to west, and it covers an

  • laogai (Chinese prison policy)

    Harry Hongda Wu: …assumed personal responsibility for exposing laogai (“reform through labour”), “a vast prison machine that crushes all vestiges of humanity—not only flesh and blood but spirit and ideals as well.” He founded the Laogai Research Foundation in 1992 and served as its executive director.

  • Laoguantai culture (anthropology)

    China: 6th millennium bce: …be identified in the northwest: Laoguantai, in eastern and southern Shaanxi and northwestern Henan, and Dadiwan I—a development of Laoguantai culture—in eastern Gansu and western Shaanxi. The pots in both cultures were low-fired, sand-tempered, and mainly red in colour, and bowls with three stubby feet or ring feet were common.…

  • Laohekou (China)

    Laohekou, city, northern Hubei sheng (province), China. It is situated on the east bank of the middle Han River, some 30 miles (50 km) northwest of Xiangfan. Historically, it was a town under the administration of Guanhua county. It was established as a city first in 1948 and again in 1951, but

  • Laoighis (county, Ireland)

    Laoighis, county in the province of Leinster, east-central Ireland, formerly called Queen’s county. The county town (seat) is Port Laoise (Portlaoise), in central Laoighis. Laoighis is bounded by Counties Offaly (north and west), Kildare (east), Carlow and Kilkenny (south), and Tipperary

  • Laois (county, Ireland)

    Laoighis, county in the province of Leinster, east-central Ireland, formerly called Queen’s county. The county town (seat) is Port Laoise (Portlaoise), in central Laoighis. Laoighis is bounded by Counties Offaly (north and west), Kildare (east), Carlow and Kilkenny (south), and Tipperary

  • Laokoon: oder über die Grenzen der Malerei und Poesie (work by Lessing)

    Gotthold Ephraim Lessing: Rising reputation as dramatist and critic.: One is the great treatise Laokoon: oder über die Grenzen der Malerei und Poesie (1766; “Laocoon; or, On the Limits of Painting and Poetry”). Here he took issue with the contemporary art historian Johann Winckelmann, specifically over his interpretation of the “Laocoon,” a famous sculpture of Hellenistic times (c. 1st…

  • Laomedon (Greek mythology)

    Laomedon, legendary king of Troy, son of Ilus and Eurydice and father of Podarces (later famous as King Priam of Troy). He brought about his own destruction by not keeping his word. When Laomedon refused to give the gods Apollo and Poseidon a promised reward for building the walls of Troy, they

  • Laon (France)

    Laon, town, capital of Aisne département, Hauts-de-France région, northern France. It lies northwest of Reims and northeast of Paris. The picturesque old town, situated on the summit of a scarped hill, stands high above the new town, which spreads out over the surrounding plain about 330 feet (100

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