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  • LHB (astronomy)

    meteor and meteoroid: Meteorites—meteoroids that survive atmospheric entry: …often referred to as the late heavy bombardment, can be seen in the ancient, heavily cratered terrains of the Moon, Mars, Mercury, and many other bodies.

  • LHC (device)

    Large Hadron Collider (LHC), world’s most powerful particle accelerator. The LHC was constructed by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in the same 27-km (17-mile) tunnel that housed its Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP). The tunnel is circular and is located 50–175 metres

  • LHD machine

    mining: Horizontal openings: drifts: Known as LHD units, these come in various sizes denoted by the volume or weight of the load that they can carry. The smallest ones have a capacity of less than 1 cubic metre (1 ton), whereas the largest have a 25-ton capacity. In small, narrow vein…

  • LHD unit

    mining: Horizontal openings: drifts: Known as LHD units, these come in various sizes denoted by the volume or weight of the load that they can carry. The smallest ones have a capacity of less than 1 cubic metre (1 ton), whereas the largest have a 25-ton capacity. In small, narrow vein…

  • Lhévinne, Josef (Russian pianist)

    Josef Lhévinne, piano virtuoso in the Romantic tradition, noted for his masterly technique, sonorous tone, and careful musicianship. Lhévinne studied at the Moscow Conservatory, made his debut in 1889 in Moscow, and won the coveted Rubinstein Prize in 1895. From 1902 to 1906 he was professor of

  • Lhévinne, Rosina (Russian pianist)

    Josef Lhévinne: His wife, Rosina Lhévinne, née Bessie (1880–1976), was an eminent pianist and teacher (her pupils included Van Cliburn, David Bar-Illan, John Browning, Mischa Dichter, and Daniel Pollack) and frequently appeared in two-piano recitals with her husband.

  • LHON (pathology)

    human genetic disease: Diseases associated with single-gene non-Mendelian inheritance: …of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), that result from inherited mutations in the mitochondrial DNA; and diseases that result from mutations in imprinted genes (e.g., Angelman syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome).

  • Lhote, André (French artist)

    André Lhote, French painter, sculptor, writer, and educator who was a prominent critic and teacher of modern art. Lhote studied decorative sculpture at the école des Beaux-Arts in Bordeaux from 1898 to 1904. About 1905 he took up painting, and a year later he moved to Paris. Lhote initially painted

  • Lhote, Henri (French ethnologist)

    African music: History: …1956 by the French ethnologist Henri Lhote in the Tassili-n-Ajjer plateau of Algeria. Attributed on stylistic grounds to the Saharan period of the Neolithic hunters (c. 6000–4000 bc), this painting is probably one of the oldest extant testimonies to music and dance in Africa. The body adornment and movement style…

  • Lhotse (mountain, Asia)

    Lhotse, (Tibetan: “South Peak”) mountain massif in the Himalayas on the border of Nepal and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. It consists of three summits, the highest of which—Lhotse I at 27,940 feet (8,516 metres)—is the world’s fourth tallest peak. Lhotse lies just south of Mount Everest, to

  • Lhotse I (mountain, Asia)

    Lhotse, (Tibetan: “South Peak”) mountain massif in the Himalayas on the border of Nepal and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. It consists of three summits, the highest of which—Lhotse I at 27,940 feet (8,516 metres)—is the world’s fourth tallest peak. Lhotse lies just south of Mount Everest, to

  • LHRH (biochemistry)

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a neurohormone consisting of 10 amino acids that is produced in the arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus. GnRH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of the two gonadotropins—luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)—by the anterior

  • LHRH agonist (drug)

    prostate cancer: Treatment: …hormone therapy involves drugs called LHRH analogs, or LHRH agonists, that chemically block the production of androgens. Side effects of hormone therapy may include reduced libido, abnormal growth or sensitivity of the breasts, and hot flashes. Orchiectomy, or removal of the testes, cuts off the tumour’s supply of testosterone. This…

  • LHRH analog (drug)

    prostate cancer: Treatment: …hormone therapy involves drugs called LHRH analogs, or LHRH agonists, that chemically block the production of androgens. Side effects of hormone therapy may include reduced libido, abnormal growth or sensitivity of the breasts, and hot flashes. Orchiectomy, or removal of the testes, cuts off the tumour’s supply of testosterone. This…

  • Lhut, Daniel Greysolon, Sieur Du (French soldier and explorer)

    Daniel Greysolon, Sieur DuLhut, French soldier and explorer who was largely responsible for establishing French control over the country north and west of Lake Superior. The city of Duluth, Minn., was named for him. DuLhut became an ensign in the regiment at Lyon in 1657, and about 1665 he became

  • Lhuyd, Edward (Welsh linguist and naturalist)

    Cornish literature: …1700 the linguist and naturalist Edward Lhuyd visited Cornwall to study the language. His Arch?ologia Britannica (1707) reproduces Boson’s folk tale “John of Chyannor” in a phonetic script, the only example of a secular prose story in historical Cornish. William Bodinar’s letter (1776), the last surviving text in historical Cornish,…

  • LHWP (water project, Lesotho)

    Lesotho: The Lesotho Highlands Water Project: Of primary importance to the country is the Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP), a large-scale water-transfer plan involving Lesotho and South Africa. Although similar plans had been discussed since the 1930s, the LHWP first took shape in the late 1980s and…

  • Li (chemical element)

    Lithium (Li), chemical element of Group 1 (Ia) in the periodic table, the alkali metal group, lightest of the solid elements. The metal itself—which is soft, white, and lustrous—and several of its alloys and compounds are produced on an industrial scale. atomic number 3 atomic weight 6.941 melting

  • Li (African people)

    Cameroon: Cultural life: The powerful masks of the Bali, which represent elephants’ heads, are used in ceremonies for the dead, and the statuettes of the Bamileke are carved in human and animal figures. The Tikar people are famous for beautifully decorated brass pipes, the Ngoutou people for two-faced masks, and the Bamum for…

  • li (Chinese philosophy)

    Li, Confucian concept often rendered as “ritual,” “proper conduct,” or “propriety.” Originally li denoted court rites performed to sustain social and cosmic order. Confucians, however, reinterpreted it to mean formal social roles and institutions that, in their view, the ancients had abstracted

  • li (bronze work)

    Li, Chinese bronze, wide-mouthed cooking vessel that was supported by three legs shaped like pointed lobes. These legs were well articulated on the body of the vessel and formed an extension of the interior volume. A coarse pottery, li was made in the Neolithic Period (c. 3000–2000 bc); this shape

  • Li (Asian people)

    Li, indigenous people of Hainan Island, off the southern coast of China, and an official minority of China. The official name Li is applied to a number of different local groups, most of whom speak languages distantly related to the Tai language family. Until Chinese linguists created a romanized

  • Li Ang (emperor of Tang dynasty)

    Wenzong, temple name (miaohao) of the 15th emperor (reigned 827–840) of the Tang dynasty (618–907) of China. He attempted unsuccessfully to free the court from the influence of the palace eunuchs, who had usurped much of the imperial power. His carefully laid plots against the eunuchs all misfired,

  • Li Ao (Chinese scholar)

    Li Ao, Chinese scholar, poet, and official who helped reestablish Confucianism at a time when it was being severely challenged by Buddhism and Daoism. Li helped lay the groundwork for the later Neo-Confucianists of the Song dynasty (960–1279), who systematically reformulated Confucian doctrine.

  • Li Bai (Chinese poet)

    Li Bai, Chinese poet who rivaled Du Fu for the title of China’s greatest poet. Li Bai liked to regard himself as belonging to the imperial family, but he actually belonged to a less exalted family of the same surname. At age 24 he left home for a period of wandering, after which he married and

  • Li Bi (Vietnamese leader)

    Ly Nam De, founder of the first Vietnamese dynasty mentioned in extant historical records and Vietnam’s first great champion of independence. Ly Nam De led a successful revolt against the Chinese governor of Giao-chao province in 542 and captured the capital at Long Bien. Two years later he

  • Li Bihua (Chinese author)

    Hong Kong literature: Some of the works of Li Bihua (English pen name: Lilian Lee) in the 1980s and 1990s can also be considered historical. The more renowned ones are Bawang bie ji (1985; Farewell My Concubine; film 1993), Qinyong (1989; “A Terra-cotta Warrior”), and Chuandao fangzi (1990; The Last Princess of Manchuria).

  • Li Bo (Chinese poet)

    Li Bai, Chinese poet who rivaled Du Fu for the title of China’s greatest poet. Li Bai liked to regard himself as belonging to the imperial family, but he actually belonged to a less exalted family of the same surname. At age 24 he left home for a period of wandering, after which he married and

  • Li Ch’ing-chao (Chinese poet)

    Li Qingzhao, China’s greatest woman poet, whose work, though it survives only in fragments, continues to be as highly regarded as it was in her own day. Li Qingzhao was born into a literary family and produced well-regarded poetry while still a teenager. In 1101 she married Zhao Mingcheng, a noted

  • Li Ch’un-feng (Chinese mathematician and astronomer)

    Li Chunfeng, Chinese mathematician and astronomer. Li was the son of a widely educated state official. He was given a position in the Imperial Astronomical Bureau in 627, following his critique of the Wuyin calendar, which had been introduced in 619. Later he submitted a report concerning the

  • Li Changji (Chinese poet)

    Li He, brilliant Chinese poet who showed great promise until his untimely death at age 26. Literary legend describes Li He as a man of guicai (“devilish talent”) who composed his haunting verses by jotting down single lines on small slips of paper while on horseback, dropping the slips into an

  • Li Chao-tao (Chinese painter)

    jinbi shanshui: …Li Sixun and his son Li Zhaodao, who was said to have changed his father’s style, even surpassed it, and who spurred an interest in seascapes. This style was also employed by some conservative artists of later centuries such as the Song painters Zhao Boju and Zhao Bosu and the…

  • Li Cheng (Chinese painter and scholar)

    Chinese painting: Song (960–1279), Liao (907–1125), and Jin (1115–1234) dynasties: Li Cheng, a follower of Jing Hao who lived a few years into the Song, was a scholar who defined the soft, billowing earthen formations of the northeastern Chinese terrain with “cloudlike” texture, interior layers of graded ink wash bounded by firmly brushed, scallop-edged contours.…

  • Li Chengjian (Chinese prince)

    Taizong: The succession: …designation of his eldest son, Li Chengjian, as heir apparent, that son’s unacceptable behaviour eventually resulted in his banishment and death. Taizong was forced to give the succession to his ninth son, Li Zhi (the future Gaozong emperor), who was not his preferred heir.

  • Li Chi (Chinese archaeologist)

    Li Chi, archaeologist chiefly responsible for establishing the historical authenticity of the semilegendary Shang dynasty of China. The exact dates of the Shang dynasty are uncertain; traditionally, they have been given as from c. 1766 to c. 1122 bce, but more recent archaeological evidence has

  • Li Chi (Chinese literature)

    Liji, (Chinese: “Record of Rites”) one of the Five Classics (Wujing) of Chinese Confucian literature, the original text of which is said to have been compiled by the ancient sage Confucius (551–479 bc). During the 1st century bc the text was extensively reworked by Dai De (Elder Dai) and his cousin

  • Li Chieh (Chinese architect)

    Chinese architecture: The Song (960–1279), Liao (907–1125), and Jin (1115–1234) dynasties: …Hao and the state architect Li Jie were educated men. The latter is known today chiefly as the compiler of Yingzao fashi (“Building Standards”), which he presented to the throne in 1100. This illustrated work deals in encyclopaedic fashion with all branches of architecture: layout, construction, stonework, carpentry, bracketing, decoration,…

  • Li Chih-sui (Chinese physician)

    Li Zhisui , (LI CHIH-SUI), Chinese physician (born 1919, Beijing, China—died Feb. 13, 1995, Carol Stream, Ill.), was the personal physician and confidant of Chairman Mao Zedong and author of The Private Life of Chairman Mao (1994). Li received his medical degree from the West Union University M

  • Li Chih-tsao (Chinese mathematician and astronomer)

    Li Zhizao, Chinese mathematician, astronomer, and geographer whose translations of European scientific books greatly contributed to the spread of Western science in China. Originally from a military family, Li was made a jinshi (the highest scholar-official title in imperial China) in 1598. In 1601

  • Li Chin-chung (Chinese official)

    Wei Zhongxian, eunuch who completely dominated the Chinese government between 1624 and 1627, ruthlessly exploiting the population and terrorizing the official class. He is usually considered by historians to have been the most powerful eunuch in Chinese history. Wei’s career began as a butler in

  • Li Chongguang (Chinese poet and ruler)

    Li Yu, Chinese poet and the last ruler of the Nan (Southern) Tang dynasty (937–975). Li Yu succeeded his poet father, Li Jing, as ruler in 961. His country was invaded in 974 by Taizu, founder of the Song dynasty (960–1279). When Li Yu’s capital, Jinling, fell the next year, he surrendered and was

  • Li Chunfeng (Chinese mathematician and astronomer)

    Li Chunfeng, Chinese mathematician and astronomer. Li was the son of a widely educated state official. He was given a position in the Imperial Astronomical Bureau in 627, following his critique of the Wuyin calendar, which had been introduced in 619. Later he submitted a report concerning the

  • Li Cunxu (Chinese leader)

    Five Dynasties: …by one of its generals, Zhuangzong (personal name Li Cunxu), who established the Hou (Later) Tang dynasty in 923. Although Zhuangzong and his successors ruled relatively well for 13 years, the Hou Tang was finally terminated when one of its generals, Gaozu (personal name Shi Jingtang), overthrew his master with…

  • Li Dan (emperor of Tang dynasty)

    Ruizong, temple name (miaohao) of the sixth emperor of the Tang dynasty of China. He was placed on the throne by his mother, the future empress Wuhou, in 684, before she decided to set him aside and rule the country herself in 690. This was the first such usurpation in Chinese history. Although

  • Li Daoyuan (Chinese author)

    Chinese literature: Prose: …Buddhist Temples in Luoyang”), and Li Daoyuan, author of Shuijingzhu (“Commentary on the Water Classic”). Although both of these works seem to have been planned to serve a practical, utilitarian purpose, they are magnificent records of contemporary developments and charming storehouses of accumulated folklore, written with great spontaneity and artistry.…

  • Li Dazhao (Chinese communist)

    Li Dazhao, cofounder of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and mentor of Mao Zedong. After studying at Tianjin and at Waseda University in Tokyo, Li became an editor for Xinqingnian (“New Youth”), the principal journal of the new Western-oriented literary and cultural movements. In 1918 he was

  • Li Deyu (Chinese minister)

    China: The struggle for central authority: Wuzong and his minister, Li Deyu, managed to impose some restrictions on the eunuchs’ power, especially in the military.

  • Li Er (Chinese Daoist philosopher)

    Laozi, (Chinese: “Master Lao” or “Old Master”) the first philosopher of Chinese Daoism and the alleged author of the Daodejing, a primary Daoist writing. Modern scholars discount the possibility that the Daodejing was written by only one person but readily acknowledge the influence of Daoism on the

  • Li Feigan (Chinese author)

    Ba Jin, Chinese anarchist writer whose novels and short stories achieved widespread popularity in the 1930s and ’40s. Having been born to a wealthy gentry family, Li Yaotang received a traditional Confucian education as well as training in modern foreign languages and literatures. While in school,

  • Li Gong (Chinese philosopher)

    Yan Yuan: …of his most eminent student, Li Gong (1659–1733), became the major works of a new philosophical movement known as the Yan-Li school. A short-lived society to study and disseminate its doctrines was formed in 1920 in Beijing. Yan’s major works were reprinted in the late 19th century as the Yan-Li…

  • Li Gonglin (Chinese painter)

    Li Gonglin, one of the most lavishly praised Chinese connoisseurs and painters in a circle of scholar-officials during the Northern Song period. Li Gonglin was born into a scholarly home, received the jinshi (“advanced scholar”) degree in 1070, and followed the common career of going to the capital

  • Li He (Chinese poet)

    Li He, brilliant Chinese poet who showed great promise until his untimely death at age 26. Literary legend describes Li He as a man of guicai (“devilish talent”) who composed his haunting verses by jotting down single lines on small slips of paper while on horseback, dropping the slips into an

  • Li Ho (Chinese poet)

    Li He, brilliant Chinese poet who showed great promise until his untimely death at age 26. Literary legend describes Li He as a man of guicai (“devilish talent”) who composed his haunting verses by jotting down single lines on small slips of paper while on horseback, dropping the slips into an

  • Li Hong (Chinese sage)

    Daoism: Revolutionary messianism: …a sage of western China, Li Hong, who had actually lived during the 1st century bce, became the favourite recurrent figure of later would-be messiahs. Such revolutionary religious movements, which included Daoist ideological elements, remained a persistent feature of medieval Chinese history. The last recorded Li Hong was executed in…

  • Li Hongzhang (Chinese statesman)

    Li Hongzhang, leading Chinese statesman of the 19th century, who made strenuous efforts to modernize his country. In 1870 he began a 25-year term as governor-general of the capital province, Zhili (Chihli; now Hebei), during which time he initiated projects in commerce and industry and, for long

  • Li Hongzhi (Chinese-born religious leader)

    Li Hongzhi, Chinese-born founder and leader of Falun Gong, a spiritual movement that won a wide following in China and elsewhere but was eventually condemned as a “heretical cult” by Chinese government officials. In the late 1980s and early ’90s, China saw a resurgence in the popularity of qigong

  • Li Houzhu (Chinese poet and ruler)

    Li Yu, Chinese poet and the last ruler of the Nan (Southern) Tang dynasty (937–975). Li Yu succeeded his poet father, Li Jing, as ruler in 961. His country was invaded in 974 by Taizu, founder of the Song dynasty (960–1279). When Li Yu’s capital, Jinling, fell the next year, he surrendered and was

  • Li Hsien-nien (president of China)

    Li Xiannian, Chinese politician, one of the eight “revolutionary elders” and a leftist hard-liner who opposed economic reform. Li, a member of the Chinese Communist Party by 1927, was a veteran of the Long March (1934–35), having served as army captain and political commissar. He became governor in

  • Li Hsiu-ch’eng (Chinese general)

    Li Xiucheng, Chinese general and leader of the Taiping Rebellion, the giant religious-political uprising that occupied most of South China between 1850 and 1864. After 1859, when the Taipings were beset by internal dissension, poor leadership, and corruption, Li’s military and administrative genius

  • Li Hsüeh (Chinese philosophy)

    Lu Jiuyuan: …the Learning of Principle (lixue), often called the Cheng-Zhu school after its leading philosophers, Cheng Yi and Zhu Xi.

  • Li Hung-chang (Chinese statesman)

    Li Hongzhang, leading Chinese statesman of the 19th century, who made strenuous efforts to modernize his country. In 1870 he began a 25-year term as governor-general of the capital province, Zhili (Chihli; now Hebei), during which time he initiated projects in commerce and industry and, for long

  • Li Ji (Chinese archaeologist)

    Li Chi, archaeologist chiefly responsible for establishing the historical authenticity of the semilegendary Shang dynasty of China. The exact dates of the Shang dynasty are uncertain; traditionally, they have been given as from c. 1766 to c. 1122 bce, but more recent archaeological evidence has

  • Li Jiancheng (Chinese prince)

    China: Early Tang (618–626): …army under the crown prince Jiancheng at the beginning of 623. The prolonged resistance in Hebei and the comparatively harsh Tang conquest of the region were the beginning of resistance and hostility in the northeast that continued to some degree throughout the Tang dynasty.

  • Li Jie (Chinese architect)

    Chinese architecture: The Song (960–1279), Liao (907–1125), and Jin (1115–1234) dynasties: …Hao and the state architect Li Jie were educated men. The latter is known today chiefly as the compiler of Yingzao fashi (“Building Standards”), which he presented to the throne in 1100. This illustrated work deals in encyclopaedic fashion with all branches of architecture: layout, construction, stonework, carpentry, bracketing, decoration,…

  • Li Jinfa (Chinese poet)

    Chinese literature: 1927–37: …daring were Dai Wangshu and Li Jinfa, poets published in Xiandai (“Contemporary Age”), a Shanghai literary magazine. The latter wrote very sophisticated, if frequently baffling, poetry in the manner of the French Symbolists.

  • Li Jingzhai (Chinese mathematician)

    Li Ye, Chinese mathematician and scholar-official who contributed to the solution of polynomial equations in one variable. Li passed the mandarin jinshi examination (the highest scholar-official title in imperial China) in prose literature at the late age of 38. He was appointed to the

  • Li Jinhai (Chinese politician)

    Jiang Qing, third wife of Chinese communist leader Mao Zedong and the most influential woman in the People’s Republic of China for a while until her downfall in 1976, after Mao’s death. As a member of the Gang of Four she was convicted in 1981 of “counter-revolutionary crimes” and imprisoned.

  • Li Jinzhong (Chinese official)

    Wei Zhongxian, eunuch who completely dominated the Chinese government between 1624 and 1627, ruthlessly exploiting the population and terrorizing the official class. He is usually considered by historians to have been the most powerful eunuch in Chinese history. Wei’s career began as a butler in

  • Li Jun Fan (American-born actor)

    Bruce Lee, American-born film actor who was renowned for his martial arts prowess and who helped popularize martial arts movies in the 1970s. Lee was born in San Francisco, but he grew up in Hong Kong. He was introduced to the entertainment industry at an early age, as his father was an opera

  • Li K’o-jan (Chinese artist)

    Li Keran, painter and art educator who was a prominent figure in 20th-century Chinese art. He developed a personal style of landscape painting that was based upon the emulation of both ancient and contemporary masters. Li showed a gift for painting, calligraphy, and music as a child. When he was

  • Li K’o-yung (Turkish-Chinese general)

    Li Keyong, Tang general of Turkish origin who suppressed the great peasant rebellion of Huang Chao (died 884), which threatened the Tang dynasty (618–907) in its last years. Afterward the empire was divided between powerful warlords, and Li became a leading contender for power in North China.

  • Li Ka-shing (Chinese entrepreneur and philanthropist)

    Li Ka-shing, Chinese entrepreneur and philanthropist, widely considered one of the most influential businessmen in Asia. His companies were involved in real estate, ports, and infrastructure, among other ventures. Li was born into a poor family who fled mainland China for Hong Kong in 1940 after

  • Li Kan (Chinese painter)

    Chinese painting: Yuan dynasty (1206–1368): Li Kan carefully studied the varieties of bamboo during his official travels and wrote a systematic treatise on painting them; he remains unsurpassed as a skilled bamboo painter. Gao Kegong followed Mi Fu and Mi Youren in painting cloudy landscapes that symbolized good government. Wang…

  • Li Keqiang (prime minister of China)

    Li Keqiang, Chinese politician and government official who served as prime minister of China (2013– ). Li grew up in Anhui province in east-central China, where his father was a local official. His formal schooling was interrupted in 1974–78 during the latter part of the Cultural Revolution and

  • Li Keran (Chinese artist)

    Li Keran, painter and art educator who was a prominent figure in 20th-century Chinese art. He developed a personal style of landscape painting that was based upon the emulation of both ancient and contemporary masters. Li showed a gift for painting, calligraphy, and music as a child. When he was

  • Li Keyong (Turkish-Chinese general)

    Li Keyong, Tang general of Turkish origin who suppressed the great peasant rebellion of Huang Chao (died 884), which threatened the Tang dynasty (618–907) in its last years. Afterward the empire was divided between powerful warlords, and Li became a leading contender for power in North China.

  • Li Kung-lin (Chinese painter)

    Li Gonglin, one of the most lavishly praised Chinese connoisseurs and painters in a circle of scholar-officials during the Northern Song period. Li Gonglin was born into a scholarly home, received the jinshi (“advanced scholar”) degree in 1070, and followed the common career of going to the capital

  • Li Kuo (emperor of Tang dynasty)

    Dezong, temple name (miaohao) of the 10th emperor (reigned 779–805) of the Tang dynasty and the only emperor in the latter half of the dynasty to reign more than 20 years. In spite of his long reign, he never successfully controlled the militarists who commanded the provinces and ignored imperial

  • Li Kwoh-ting (Taiwanese economist and government official)

    Li Kwoh-ting, Chinese-born Taiwanese economist and government official (born Jan. 28, 1910, Nanjing, China—died May 31, 2001, Taipei, Taiwan), helped spearhead the effort to transform Taiwan’s economy from a relatively poor, agrarian-based system into one of the world’s leading producers of in

  • Li languages

    Li: …groups, most of whom speak languages distantly related to the Tai language family. Until Chinese linguists created a romanized orthography for their language in the 1950s, they had no writing system of their own.

  • Li Li-san (Chinese revolutionary)

    Li Lisan, Chinese revolutionary who was one of the early leaders of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Li went to study in Paris in 1919 and returned to China in 1921. He joined the CCP in the same year and became one of the party’s principal labour organizers. After 1928 he became one of the

  • Li Lianjie (Chinese actor)

    Jet Li, Chinese film actor noted for his superlative martial arts skills and for his portrayals of virtuous, humble heroes. In 1971 Li entered a summer sports program and was randomly assigned to a wushu (martial arts) class. At the age of nine, he received an award at the first wushu competition

  • Li Lieh-chün (Chinese general)

    China: Yuan’s attempts to become emperor: Joined by Li Liejun (Li Lieh-chün) and other revolutionary generals, they established the National Protection Army (Huguojun) and demanded that Yuan cancel his plan. When he would not, the Yunnan army in early January 1916 invaded Sichuan and subsequently Hunan and Guangdong, hoping to bring the southwestern and southern…

  • Li Linfu (Chinese minister)

    An Lushan: Early life and career: …rule of China’s chief minister, Li Linfu, who was unwilling to appoint native Chinese as generals for fear that they would gain prestige that would enable them to rival his own position at court.

  • Li Lisan (Chinese revolutionary)

    Li Lisan, Chinese revolutionary who was one of the early leaders of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Li went to study in Paris in 1919 and returned to China in 1921. He joined the CCP in the same year and became one of the party’s principal labour organizers. After 1928 he became one of the

  • Li Longji (emperor of Tang dynasty)

    Xuanzong, temple name (miaohao) of the seventh emperor of the Tang dynasty (618–907) of China, which during his reign (712–756) achieved its greatest prosperity and power. Li Longji was the third son of the Ruizong emperor, who was himself a son of the empress Wuhou. Li Longji was born during a

  • Li Longzhi (Chinese revolutionary)

    Li Lisan, Chinese revolutionary who was one of the early leaders of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Li went to study in Paris in 1919 and returned to China in 1921. He joined the CCP in the same year and became one of the party’s principal labour organizers. After 1928 he became one of the

  • Li Mi (Chinese rebel)

    China: Foreign affairs under Yangdi: …become the various local rebels: Li Mi in the area around Luoyang, Dou Jiande in the northeast, Xue Ju in the far northwest, and Li Yuan (who remained nominally loyal but had established a local position of great power) in Shanxi. At the beginning of 617, Li Yuan inflicted a…

  • Li Nangxiao (emperor of Xi Xia)

    Li Yuanhao, leader of the Tangut (Chinese: Dangxiang) tribes, a people who inhabited the northwestern region of China in what are now parts of Gansu and Shaanxi provinces and the Ningxia Hui and Inner Mongolia autonomous regions. Li founded the Xia (or Daxia) dynasty (1038–1227), usually referred

  • Li Ning (Chinese gymnast and entrepreneur)

    Li Ning, Chinese gymnast and entrepreneur, who amassed six medals at the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles. Later he founded Li-Ning Sports Goods, an athletic apparel and shoe company. Li took up gymnastics at age eight and joined the national team in 1980. He made his mark on the international

  • Li P’eng (prime minister of China)

    Li Peng, premier of China from 1988 to 1998 and, from 1998 to 2003, chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPC). The son of writer Li Shuoxun, who was executed by the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) in 1930, Li Peng from 1939 was cared for by Deng Yingchao, the wife of

  • Li Pai (Chinese poet)

    Li Bai, Chinese poet who rivaled Du Fu for the title of China’s greatest poet. Li Bai liked to regard himself as belonging to the imperial family, but he actually belonged to a less exalted family of the same surname. At age 24 he left home for a period of wandering, after which he married and

  • Li Peng (prime minister of China)

    Li Peng, premier of China from 1988 to 1998 and, from 1998 to 2003, chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPC). The son of writer Li Shuoxun, who was executed by the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) in 1930, Li Peng from 1939 was cared for by Deng Yingchao, the wife of

  • Li Po (Chinese poet)

    Li Bai, Chinese poet who rivaled Du Fu for the title of China’s greatest poet. Li Bai liked to regard himself as belonging to the imperial family, but he actually belonged to a less exalted family of the same surname. At age 24 he left home for a period of wandering, after which he married and

  • Li Qingzhao (Chinese poet)

    Li Qingzhao, China’s greatest woman poet, whose work, though it survives only in fragments, continues to be as highly regarded as it was in her own day. Li Qingzhao was born into a literary family and produced well-regarded poetry while still a teenager. In 1101 she married Zhao Mingcheng, a noted

  • Li Qiuren (Chinese mathematician)

    Li Shanlan, Chinese mathematician who was instrumental in combining Western mathematical and scientific knowledge and methods with traditional Chinese methods. Li was educated by Chen Huan (1786–1863), a famous philologist, and from an early age demonstrated a remarkable talent for mathematics. In

  • Li Renshu (Chinese mathematician)

    Li Shanlan, Chinese mathematician who was instrumental in combining Western mathematical and scientific knowledge and methods with traditional Chinese methods. Li was educated by Chen Huan (1786–1863), a famous philologist, and from an early age demonstrated a remarkable talent for mathematics. In

  • Li River (river, China)

    Ling Canal: …into Hunan province, with the Li River, one of the headwater tributaries of the Gui River, which is a tributary of the Xi River leading eventually to Guangzhou (Canton). Near the city of Xing’an in northern Guangxi, these two rivers are separated by a low divide broken by a saddle.…

  • Li Rui (Chinese mathematician and astronomer)

    Li Rui, Chinese mathematician and astronomer who made notable contributions to the revival of traditional Chinese mathematics and astronomy and to the development of the theory of equations. Having failed the Chinese civil service examinations several times, Li Rui could obtain no official

  • Li Ruigang (Chinese businessman)

    Li Ruigang, Chinese businessman who rose to prominence as president of the state-owned conglomerate Shanghai Media Group (SMG). Li studied journalism at Shanghai’s Fudan University, where he earned both bachelor’s and master’s degrees. After completing his master’s degree in 1994, he worked as a

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