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  • Lacretelle, Jacques de (French novelist)

    Jacques de Lacretelle, French novelist, the third member of his family to be elected to the French Academy (1936). Lacretelle wrote his first novel, La Vie inquiète de Jean Hermelin (“The Troubled Life of Jean Hermelin”), an autobiographical novel of adolescence, in 1914, and it was published in

  • Lacretelle, Jean-Charles-Dominique de, the Younger (French historian)

    Jean-Charles-Dominique de Lacretelle, the Younger, French historian and journalist, a pioneer in the historical study of the French Revolution. Summoned in 1787 to Paris by his older brother Pierre, a lawyer and political activist, he became a member of the Feuillants, a party advocating a

  • lacrimal duct (anatomy)

    Tear duct and glands, structures that produce and distribute the watery component of the tear film. Tears consist of a complex and usually clear fluid that is diffused between the eye and the eyelid. Further components of the tear film include an inner mucous layer produced by specialized

  • lacrimal gland (anatomy)

    tear duct and glands: …lachrymal, or lacrimal, duct and glands, structures that produce and distribute the watery component of the tear film. Tears consist of a complex and usually clear fluid that is diffused between the eye and the eyelid. Further components of the tear film include an inner mucous layer produced by specialized…

  • lacrimal nerve (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Ophthalmic nerve: …the orbit are (1) the lacrimal nerve, serving the lacrimal gland, part of the upper eyelid, and the conjunctiva, (2) the nasociliary nerve, serving the mucosal lining of part of the nasal cavity, the tentorium cerebelli and some of the dura mater of the anterior cranial fossa, and skin on…

  • lacrimal reflex

    human nervous system: Reflex actions: …cornea of the eye, the lacrimal reflex causes nerve impulses to pass along the fifth cranial nerve (trigeminal) and reach the midbrain. The efferent limb of this reflex arc is autonomic and mainly parasympathetic. These nerve fibres stimulate the lacrimal glands of the orbit, causing the outpouring of tears. Other…

  • lacrimal sac (anatomy)

    dacryocystitis: …inflammation and infection of the lacrimal sac, usually stemming from obstruction of the flow of tears into the nose. Tears leave the eye through small openings called puncta in the inner corner of the eye and flow into the lacrimal, or tear, sac, from which they drain through a duct—the…

  • lacrimator (chemistry)

    Tear gas, any of a group of substances that irritate the mucous membranes of the eyes, causing a stinging sensation and tears. They may also irritate the upper respiratory tract, causing coughing, choking, and general debility. Tear gas was first used in World War I in chemical warfare, but since

  • Lacroix Peak (mountain, Martinique)

    Martinique: Relief and drainage: …the Carbet Mountains, of which Lacroix Peak reaches 3,923 feet (1,195 metres), in the centre; and Mount Vauclin, rising to 1,654 feet (504 metres), in the south.

  • Lacroix, Alfred (French mineralogist)

    Alfred Lacroix, French mineralogist whose Minéraux des roches (1888; “The Minerals of Rocks”), written with the geologist Albert Michel-Lévy, was a pioneer study of the optical properties of rock-forming minerals. From 1893 to 1936 Lacroix was professor of mineralogy at the National Museum of

  • Lacroix, Fran?ois-Antoine-Alfred (French mineralogist)

    Alfred Lacroix, French mineralogist whose Minéraux des roches (1888; “The Minerals of Rocks”), written with the geologist Albert Michel-Lévy, was a pioneer study of the optical properties of rock-forming minerals. From 1893 to 1936 Lacroix was professor of mineralogy at the National Museum of

  • lacrosse (sport)

    Lacrosse, (French: “the crosier”) competitive sport, modern version of the North American Indian game of baggataway, in which two teams of players use long-handled, racketlike implements (crosses) to catch, carry, or throw a ball down the field or into the opponents’ goal. The goal is defined by

  • lactam (chemical compound)

    carboxylic acid: Nomenclature: Cyclic amides are called lactams. Their common names are derived in a manner similar to those of lactones, with the difference that the suffix -olactone is replaced by -olactam. Caprolactam is the starting material for the synthesis of nylon-6.

  • Lactantius (Christian apologist)

    Lactantius, Christian apologist and one of the most reprinted of the Latin Church Fathers, whose Divinae institutiones (“Divine Precepts”), a classically styled philosophical refutation of early-4th-century anti-Christian tracts, was the first systematic Latin account of the Christian attitude

  • Lactariidae (fish)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Family Lactariidae (false trevallies) Miocene to present. Moderately deep-bodied, laterally compressed; mouth large, oblique; eyes large; pectorals pointed; 2 dorsal fins separated; anal fin long-based. 1 species (Lactarius); marine in Indo-Pacific. Family Mullidae (goatfishes) Miocene to present. Resemble minnows (Cyprinidae); have a

  • Lactarius (fungus genus)

    Agaricales: Agaricaceae: The genus Agaricus, with more than 200 species, has several prominent members, including the edible meadow or field mushroom (A. campestris) and the cultivated white button mushroom (A. bisporus).

  • Lactarius deliciosus (fungus species)

    Agaricales: Agaricaceae: Calvatia contains about 35 species, including the giant puffball (C. gigantea), which can be as large as 120 cm (4 feet) across.

  • lactase (enzyme)

    Lactase, enzyme found in the small intestine of mammals that catalyzes the breakdown of lactose (milk sugar) into the simple sugars glucose and galactose. In humans, lactase is particularly abundant during infancy. It is a so-called brush border enzyme, produced by cells known as enterocytes that

  • lactase deficiency (pathology)

    digestive system disease: Diarrhea: …those who are deficient in lactase, the enzyme that splits lactose (milk sugar) into its component parts, glucose and galactose. Shortly after drinking milk, such persons usually have severe intestinal cramping, followed later by watery diarrhea. The lactose in the milk is not broken down, and it stays in the…

  • lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (enzyme)

    Lactase, enzyme found in the small intestine of mammals that catalyzes the breakdown of lactose (milk sugar) into the simple sugars glucose and galactose. In humans, lactase is particularly abundant during infancy. It is a so-called brush border enzyme, produced by cells known as enterocytes that

  • lactate (ester)

    metabolism: The formation of ATP: …oxygen, pyruvate is reduced to lactate via a reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (reaction 11a]); i.e., NADH gives up its hydrogen atoms or electrons to pyruvate, and lactate and NAD+ are formed.

  • lactate dehydrogenase (chemical compound)

    metabolism: The formation of ATP: … via a reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase (reaction 11a]); i.e., NADH gives up its hydrogen atoms or electrons to pyruvate, and lactate and NAD+ are formed.

  • lactation (biology)

    Lactation, secretion and yielding of milk by females after giving birth. The milk is produced by the mammary glands, which are contained within the breasts. The breasts, unlike most of the other organs, continue to increase in size after childbirth. Although mammary growth begins during pregnancy

  • lacteal (anatomy)

    Lacteal, one of the lymphatic vessels that serve the small intestine and, after a meal, become white from the minute fat globules that their lymph contains (see chyle). The lacteals were described as venae albae et lacteae (“white and milky veins”) by their discoverer, Gaspare Aselli, an Italian

  • lacteal capillary (anatomy)

    lacteal: …of the lacteals are the lacteal capillaries, each a minute vessel running down the centre of a villus, or fingerlike projection, in the mucous membrane lining the small intestine. The lacteal capillaries empty into lacteals in the submucosa, the connective tissue directly beneath the mucous membrane. The largest lacteals empty…

  • lacteal tooth (biology)

    human digestive system: The teeth: …as the deciduous, milk, or primary dentition, is acquired gradually between the ages of six months and two years. As the jaws grow and expand, these teeth are replaced one by one by the teeth of the secondary set. There are five deciduous teeth and eight permanent teeth in each…

  • lactic acid (chemical compound)

    Lactic acid, an organic compound belonging to the family of carboxylic acids, present in certain plant juices, in the blood and muscles of animals, and in the soil. It is the commonest acidic constituent of fermented milk products such as sour milk, cheese, and buttermilk. First isolated in 1780 by

  • lactic-acid bacterium (microorganism)

    Lactic-acid bacterium, any member of several genera of gram-positive, rod- or sphere-shaped bacteria that produce lactic acid as the principal or sole end product of carbohydrate fermentation. Lactic-acid bacteria are aerotolerant anaerobes that are chiefly responsible for the pickling conditions

  • lactide (chemical compound)

    carboxylic acid: Hydroxy and keto acids: …molecules of the acid) called lactides, whereas the 3- and 4-hydroxy acids undergo intramolecular esterification to give cyclic esters called lactones. These reactions take place so readily, even without heating, that in most cases the only way to keep these kinds of hydroxy acids from forming cyclic esters is to…

  • lacto-vegetarianism (dietary practice)

    vegetarianism: …milk products are sometimes called lacto-vegetarians, and those who use eggs as well are called lacto-ovo vegetarians. Among some agricultural peoples, flesh eating has been infrequent except among the privileged classes; such people have rather misleadingly been called vegetarians.

  • Lactobacillus (bacteria)

    Lactobacillus, (genus Lactobacillus), any of a group of rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-spore-forming bacteria of the family Lactobacillaceae. Similar to other genera in the family, Lactobacillus are characterized by their ability to produce lactic acid as a by-product of glucose metabolism. The

  • Lactobacillus acidophilus (bacteria)

    Lactobacillus: In several species, including L. acidophilus, L. casei, and L. plantarum, glucose metabolism is described as homofermentative, since lactic acid is the primary byproduct, representing at least 85 percent of end metabolic products. However, in other species, such as L. brevis and L. fermentum, glucose metabolism

  • Lactobacillus brevis (bacteria)

    Lactobacillus: …in other species, such as L. brevis and L. fermentum, glucose metabolism is heterofermentative, with lactic acid making up about 50 percent of metabolic byproducts and ethanol, acetic acid, and carbon dioxide making up most of the other 50 percent. Certain other heterofermentative Lactobacillus organisms are relatively inefficient in their

  • Lactobacillus casei (bacteria)

    bacteria: Bacteria in food: …for example, the mixture of Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Propionibacterium shermanii is responsible for the ripening of Swiss cheese and the production of its characteristic taste and large gas bubbles. In addition, Brevibacterium linens is responsible for the flavour of Limburger

  • Lactobacillus fermentum (bacteria)

    Lactobacillus: brevis and L. fermentum, glucose metabolism is heterofermentative, with lactic acid making up about 50 percent of metabolic byproducts and ethanol, acetic acid, and carbon dioxide making up most of the other 50 percent. Certain other heterofermentative Lactobacillus organisms are relatively inefficient in their metabolism of glucose…

  • Lactobacillus plantarum (bacteria)

    Lactobacillus: casei, and L. plantarum, glucose metabolism is described as homofermentative, since lactic acid is the primary byproduct, representing at least 85 percent of end metabolic products. However, in other species, such as L. brevis and L. fermentum, glucose metabolism is heterofermentative, with lactic acid making up about…

  • lactogenic hormone (physiology)

    Prolactin, a protein hormone produced by the pituitary gland of mammals that acts with other hormones to initiate secretion of milk by the mammary glands. On the evolutionary scale, prolactin is an ancient hormone serving multiple roles in mediating the care of progeny (sometimes called the

  • lactone (chemical compound)

    Lactone, any of a class of cyclic organic esters, usually formed by reaction of a carboxylic acid group with a hydroxyl group or halogen atom present in the same molecule. Commercially important lactones include diketene and β-propanolactone used in the synthesis of acetoacetic acid derivatives and

  • Lactoris fernandeziana (plant)

    Aristolochiaceae: Lactoris is the endangered L. fernandeziana. The plant grows on a single island—Nearer Land Island, of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, 650 km (400 miles) west of Chile. The tiny shrub is sparsely distributed in fog-swept forests, and its principal threats are grazing animals and competition from hardier plants.

  • lactose (chemical compound)

    Lactose, carbohydrate containing one molecule of glucose and one of galactose linked together. Composing about 2 to 8 percent of the milk of all mammals, lactose is sometimes called milk sugar. It is the only common sugar of animal origin. Lactose can be prepared from whey, a by-product of the

  • lactose intolerance (pathology)

    Lactose intolerance, inability to digest lactose, the predominant sugar in dairy products. It affects people by causing gastrointestinal discomfort and can make dietary freedom difficult for those afflicted. Lactose intolerance is caused a by deficiency in the amount of lactase, the enzyme that

  • lactose-reduced milk

    dairy product: Specialty milks: …of the most useful products, lactose-reduced milk, is available in both nonfat and low-fat composition as well as in many flavoured versions. The lactose (milk sugar) is reduced by 70 to 100 percent, making it possible for lactose-intolerant individuals to enjoy the benefits of milk in their diets. Lactose reduction…

  • lactosuria (pathology)

    renal system: Volume and composition: Lactosuria (abnormal amount of lactose in the urine) may occur in nursing mothers. Ketone bodies (acetone, acetoacetic acid) are present in traces in normal urine but in quantity in severe untreated diabetes and in relative or actual carbohydrate starvation—e.g., in a person on a high-fat…

  • lactotroph (anatomy)

    prolactin: …synthesized in and secreted from lactotrophs, which constitute about 20 percent of the anterior pituitary gland and are located largely in the lateral regions of the gland.

  • Lactuca sativa (plant)

    Lettuce, (Lactuca sativa), annual leaf vegetable of the aster family (Asteraceae). Most lettuce varieties are eaten fresh and are commonly served as the base of green salads. Lettuce is generally a rich source of vitamins K and A, though the nutritional quality varies, depending on the variety.

  • Lactuca sativa variety augustana (vegetable)

    lettuce: …are cultivated: (1) celtuce, or asparagus lettuce (variety augustana), with narrow leaves and a thick, succulent, edible stem; (2) head, or cabbage, lettuce (variety capitata), with the leaves folded into a compact head; (3) leaf, or curled, lettuce (variety crispa), with a rosette of leaves that are curled, finely cut,…

  • Lactuca sativa variety capitata (vegetable)

    lettuce: …thick, succulent, edible stem; (2) head, or cabbage, lettuce (variety capitata), with the leaves folded into a compact head; (3) leaf, or curled, lettuce (variety crispa), with a rosette of leaves that are curled, finely cut, smooth-edged, or oak-leaved in shape; and (4) cos, or romaine, lettuce (variety longifolia), with…

  • Lactuca scariola (plant)

    weed: Examples are prickly lettuce (Lactuca scariola) and sow thistle (Sonchus species) that serve as hosts for downy mildew; wild mustards (Brassica species) that host clubroot of cabbage; and saltbrush (Atriplex species) and Russian thistle, in which curly top virus

  • Lactuceae (plant tribe)

    Asteraceae: Flowers: …entirely restricted to one tribe, Lactuceae (Cichorieae), and is found in all members of that tribe. Ligulate heads consist entirely of one kind of flower, the ligulate flower. Ligulate flowers superficially resemble the ray flowers of radiate heads in having a corolla that is tubular at the base and prolonged…

  • lacuna (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: Stems: …toward the leaf is a leaf gap, called a lacuna. The number of lacunae varies among angiosperm groups and remains a characteristic for classifying the various species.

  • Lacuna, The (novel by Kingsolver)

    Barbara Kingsolver: Her next novel, The Lacuna (2009), combines history and fiction as it traces the life of a Mexican American novelist who befriends Frida Kahlo and Leon Trotsky and who is later investigated during the anticommunist McCarthy era. In 2010 The Lacuna won the Orange Prize for Fiction. A…

  • lacunar ceiling (architecture)

    coffer: …caissons, or lacunaria, and a coffered ceiling might be referred to as lacunar.

  • lacunaria (architectural decoration)

    Coffer, in architecture, a square or polygonal ornamental sunken panel used in a series as decoration for a ceiling or vault. The sunken panels were sometimes also called caissons, or lacunaria, and a coffered ceiling might be referred to as lacunar. Coffers were probably originally formed by the

  • lacune, cerebral (anatomy)

    stroke: Types and symptoms: …wither, creating minute holes, called lacunes. A succession of transient ischemic attacks over the years can riddle the brain, causing dementia.

  • Lacus Avernus (lake, Italy)

    Lake of Averno, crater lake in Napoli province, Campania region, southern Italy, in the Campi Flegrei volcanic region, west of Naples. It is 7 ft (2 m) above sea level, 118 ft deep, and nearly 2 mi (more than 3 km) in circumference, with no natural outlet. Its Greek name, Aornos, was interpreted as

  • Lacus Fucinus (former lake bed, Italy)

    Fucino Basin, former lake bed in L’Aquila province, Abruzzi region, central Italy, just east of Avezzano. The lake was once 37 mi (59 km) in circumference and about 100 ft (30 m) deep, although its level was subject to great variations because of the lack of an outlet. As early as ad 52 the

  • Lacusovagus (fossil reptile genus)

    pterosaur: Major groups of pterosaurs: Lacusovagus (family Chaoyangopteridae, a group of toothless pterodactyloids) is known from a single fossilized skull discovered in Cretaceous rocks in Brazil; it possessed a 5-metre wingspan and is the only member of Chaoyangopteridae found outside China.

  • lacustrine ecosystem

    Lacustrine ecosystem, any pond or lake viewed as an ecosystem. A riverine, or lotic, ecosystem, by contrast, has flowing water—e.g., a river or a stream. Ponds are relatively shallow, with considerable light penetration. They support a variety of rooted aquatic plants. Water is mixed well top to

  • lacy period (glassmaking)

    glassware: Historical flasks: …by collectors as the “lacy period.” A milestone within this brief span occurred in 1830 with the development of the cap ring, a device that ensured uniform thickness at the edge of each piece regardless of the amount of glass forced into the mold. Before this date most impressed…

  • Lacy, Franz Moritz, Graf von (Austrian field marshal)

    Franz Moritz, count von Lacy, field marshal who served under the empress Maria Theresa and her successors and who reorganized the Austrian army. Lacy’s Irish father had served as a Russian officer. Lacy was educated in Germany and entered the Austrian service in 1743. During the War of the Austrian

  • Lacy, Henry de, 3rd Earl of Lincoln (Anglo-Norman lord)

    Denbigh: …king Edward I conquered Wales, Henry de Lacy, 3rd earl of Lincoln, founded a borough there in 1283 and built a castle, which withstood attack in 1402 by the rebel Welsh leader Owain Glyn D?r, though the town itself was razed. In the 15th and 16th centuries Denbigh was one…

  • Lacy, Hugh de, 1st lord of Meath (Anglo-Norman justiciar)

    Hugh de Lacy, 1st lord of Meath, one of the Anglo-Norman justiciars of Ireland who went to Ireland with England’s King Henry II in 1171. Hugh de Lacy was granted (c. March 1172) the lordship of Meath for the service of 50 knights and was left as constable of Dublin and justiciar when Henry returned

  • Lacy, Hugh de, earl of Ulster (Anglo-Norman lord)

    Hugh de Lacy, earl of Ulster, one of the most powerful Anglo-Norman lords in Ulster (in Ireland) in the first half of the 13th century. He was the younger son of Hugh de Lacy, 1st lord of Meath. For a time he was coadjutor of John de Courci in Leinster and Munster, but after 1200 the rivalry

  • Lacy, Sam (American journalist)

    Samuel Harold Lacy, (“Sam”), American sportswriter (born Oct. 23, 1903, Mystic, Conn.—died May 8, 2003, Washington, D.C.), was an editor and columnist for the Afro-American Newspapers in Baltimore, Md., from 1943 until shortly before his death and in that position was an influential crusader for r

  • Lacy, Samuel Harold (American journalist)

    Samuel Harold Lacy, (“Sam”), American sportswriter (born Oct. 23, 1903, Mystic, Conn.—died May 8, 2003, Washington, D.C.), was an editor and columnist for the Afro-American Newspapers in Baltimore, Md., from 1943 until shortly before his death and in that position was an influential crusader for r

  • Lacy, Steve (American musician and composer)

    Steve Lacy, (Steven Norman Lackritz), American musician and composer (born July 23, 1934, New York, N.Y.—died June 4, 2004, Boston, Mass.), helped introduce a neglected instrument, the soprano saxophone, into modern jazz in the mid-1950s, creating simple, lyric melodies with an individualistic c

  • Lacy, Walter de (Anglo-Norman noble)

    Hugh de Lacy, earl of Ulster: …he expelled the earl’s brother, Walter de Lacy, from Meath, and compelled the earl himself to flee to Scotland.

  • ??czyńska, Maria (Polish countess)

    Maria Walewska, Polish countess and mistress of Napoleon Bonaparte, whom she met in Poland (1806) and followed to Paris and finally Elba. She sought to influence his eastern European policy and to move him to create the Duchy of Warsaw. On May 4, 1810, she bore him a son, Alexandre-Florian-Joseph

  • Lad and Lass (work by Thorodssen)

    Jón Thoroddsen: Thoroddsen’s Piltur og stúlka (1850; Lad and Lass), finished just before he went back to Iceland to become a district judge, is an unpretentious love story that reveals his gift for concise satirical sketches of people and places. (In it he included one of his best lyrics.) Lad and Lass…

  • ?ad serca (work by Andrzejewski)

    Jerzy Andrzejewski: …was followed by the novel ?ad serca (1938; “Heart’s Harmony”), in which Andrzejewski tried to find in Roman Catholic teachings solutions to the problems of contemporary life. During the German occupation of World War II, he participated in the Polish underground.

  • Lad, a Dog (novel by Terhune)

    Albert Payson Terhune: …of his popular dog stories, Lad, a Dog, written at his farm near Pompton Lakes, where for the rest of his life he wrote, bred prize collies, fished, and hunted. He wrote more than 25 books after 1919, nearly all of them novels in which dogs played conspicuous parts, including…

  • Ladakh (region, Kashmir region, Indian subcontinent, Asia)

    Ladakh, large area of the northern and eastern Kashmir region, northwestern Indian subcontinent. Administratively, Ladakh is divided between Pakistan (northwest), as part of the Northern Areas, and India (southeast), as part of Ladakh union territory (until October 31, 2019, part of Jammu and

  • Ladakh Range (mountains, Asia)

    Ladakh Range, southeastern extension of the Karakoram Range, south-central Asia. The range extends southeastward for some 230 miles (370 km) from the mouth of the Shyok River in the Northern Areas (the sector of the Kashmir region administered by Pakistan), through Jammu and Kashmir state (the

  • Ladākhī (people)

    Himalayas: People: The Champa, Ladakhi, Balti, and Dard peoples live to the north of the Great Himalaya Range in the Kashmir Himalayas. The Dard speak Indo-European languages, while the others are Tibeto-Burman speakers. The Champa traditionally lead a nomadic pastoral life in the upper Indus valley. The Ladakhi have…

  • Ladby-skibet (Danish relics)

    Funen: …Viking relics, including the famous Ladby-skibet (12 miles [19 km] east of Odense), the burial ship of a Viking chieftain (c. 950), and a “ship monument” (grave enclosed by standing stones in the form of a ship) west of Odense. Always a stronghold of the Danish aristocracy, Funen is rich…

  • Ladd, Alan (American actor)

    Alan Ladd, American motion picture actor most noted for roles in which he portrayed detectives, cowboys, and war heroes. As a child, Ladd was nicknamed “Tiny” because of his diminutive, frail appearance. He overcame playground taunts by excelling at athletics, and he was a standout swimmer and

  • Ladd, Alan Walbridge (American actor)

    Alan Ladd, American motion picture actor most noted for roles in which he portrayed detectives, cowboys, and war heroes. As a child, Ladd was nicknamed “Tiny” because of his diminutive, frail appearance. He overcame playground taunts by excelling at athletics, and he was a standout swimmer and

  • Ladd, Alan, Jr. (American movie executive and producer)
  • Ladd, Christine (American scientist)

    Christine Ladd-Franklin, American scientist and logician known for contributions to the theory of colour vision. She earned an A.B. at Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N.Y., in 1869 and then studied mathematics at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. Although she held a fellowship, 1879–82, and

  • Ladd, George Trumbull (American psychologist and philosopher)

    George Trumbull Ladd, philosopher and psychologist whose textbooks were influential in establishing experimental psychology in the United States. He called for a scientific psychology, but he viewed psychology as ancillary to philosophy. Educated for the ministry, Ladd was pastor of a

  • Ladd-Franklin theory (optics)

    Christine Ladd-Franklin: …in 1891–92, she developed the Ladd-Franklin theory, which emphasized the evolutionary development of increased differentiation in colour vision and assumed a photochemical model for the visual system. Her theory, which criticized the views of Hermann von Helmholtz and Ewald Hering, was widely accepted for a number of years.

  • Ladd-Franklin, Christine (American scientist)

    Christine Ladd-Franklin, American scientist and logician known for contributions to the theory of colour vision. She earned an A.B. at Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N.Y., in 1869 and then studied mathematics at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. Although she held a fellowship, 1879–82, and

  • ladder dredge (device)

    dredge: A ladder dredge employs a continuous chain of buckets rotating around a rigid adjustable frame called a ladder. When the ladder is lowered to the bottom at a slant, the empty buckets descend along the underside to the bottom, where they dig into the mud; the…

  • Ladder for Booker T. Washington (sculpture by Puryear)

    Martin Puryear: In the piece Ladder for Booker T. Washington (1996), Puryear transformed a useful tool into sculpture. The ladder quickly narrows as it rises, impeding function while suggesting an infinite climb. Puryear also designed a series of circular benches (1998) whose elegant abstract forms confuse the distinction between furniture…

  • Ladder of Perfection, The (work by Hilton)

    Walter Hilton: His major work was The Scale [or Ladder] of Perfection, written separately in two books. The first teaches the means by which a soul may advance toward perfection by destroying the image of sin and forming the image of Christ through the practice of virtue. The second distinguishes between the…

  • ladder shell (gastropod family)

    Wentletrap, any marine snail of the family Epitoniidae (subclass Prosobranchia of the class Gastropoda), in which the turreted shell—consisting of whorls that form a high, conical spiral—has deeply ribbed sculpturing. Most species are white, less than 5 cm (2 inches) long, and exude a pink or

  • ladder truck

    fire engine: The ladder truck (hook and ladder) mounts a ladder that may be capable of rapid extension to 150 feet, often with a large-capacity nozzle built into the top section. The older type of overlength ladder truck is equipped with steerable rear wheels for negotiating city streets.…

  • ladder vein (geology)

    vein: Ladder veins are short, rather regularly spaced, roughly parallel fractures that traverse dikes (tabular bodies of igneous rocks) from wall to wall. Their width is restricted to the width of the dike, but they may extend great distances along it. Ladder veins are not as…

  • Ladder, The (American magazine)

    Daughters of Bilitis: …published the first issue of The Ladder, edited by Lyon, initially under the pen name Ann Ferguson. The Ladder is usually regarded as the first lesbian serial in America, although a short-lived publication titled Vice Versa had existed in the late 1940s. The Ladder ceased publication in 1972, following the…

  • ladder-back chair (furniture)

    Ladder-back chair, chair with a tall back constructed of horizontal slats or spindles between two uprights. The type is utilitarian and often rustic; the seat is often of cane or rush. Appearing in the Middle Ages, ladder-back chairs had become widespread in England by the 17th century and were in

  • Ladders to Fire (novel by Nin)

    Ana?s Nin: …continuous novel, which consists of Ladders to Fire (1946), Children of the Albatross (1947), The Four-Chambered Heart (1950), A Spy in the House of Love (1954), and Solar Barque (1958).

  • Lade, battle of (495 BC, Greco-Persian Wars)

    Anatolia: The Anatolian Greeks in the Achaemenian period: …the decisive sea battle at Lade in 495 bce. In the following year Miletus, the heart of the insurrection, was taken and destroyed. In the last administrative division of satrapies under Darius I, Karka (Caria) was added; apparently it had been brought under stronger control on account of its support…

  • LADEE (United States spacecraft)

    Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), U.S. spacecraft designed to study the thin lunar atmosphere and the amount of dust in it before it is altered by human activity on the Moon. LADEE, launched on September 6, 2013, was the first spacecraft based on the Modular Common Spacecraft

  • Ladefoged, Peter Nielsen (American linguist)

    Peter Nielsen Ladefoged, British-born American linguist and phonetician (born Sept. 17, 1925, Sutton, Eng.—died Jan. 24, 2006, London, Eng.), traveled to remote villages around the world in an effort to record and analyze some 60 endangered languages. He also played an integral role in advancing t

  • Laden zum Gutenberg, Johann Gensfleisch zur (German printer)

    Johannes Gutenberg, German craftsman and inventor who originated a method of printing from movable type. Unique elements of his invention are thought to have included a metal alloy that could melt readily and cool quickly to form durable reusable type, an oil-based ink that could be made

  • Ladenis, Nico (chef)

    molecular gastronomy: Critics of molecular gastronomy: Nico Ladenis, the British chef who gave back his three Michelin stars when he decided to concentrate on “simpler food,” said in 2004 that Blumenthal “debases himself by cooking [his egg-and-bacon ice cream].” Similarly, Germany’s most-famous restaurant critic, Wolfram Siebeck, called Blumenthal’s mustard ice “a…

  • Lādhiqīyah, Al- (Syria)

    Latakia, city and mu?āfa?ah (governorate), northwestern Syria. The city, capital of the governorate, is situated on the low-lying Ra?s Ziyārah promontory that projects into the Mediterranean Sea. It was known to the Phoenicians as Ramitha and to the Greeks as Leuke Akte. Its present name is a

  • Ladhon (river, Greece)

    Arcadia: One of those, the Ládhon, provides hydroelectric power at a dam and reservoir. A region of erratic rainfall, Arcadia has a few vineyards but no olive trees. There are patches of oak forest, but the eastern reaches are drier and less verdant.

  • Ladhon Dam (dam, Greece)

    Alpheus River: The hydroelectric Ládhon Dam near the village of Trópaia has created a lake 4 square miles (10 square km) in area.

  • Ladies in Retirement (film by Vidor [1941])

    Charles Vidor: Rita Hayworth: Cover Girl and Gilda: Ladies in Retirement (1941) was a gothic melodrama with Ida Lupino as a maid whose devotion to her two unstable sisters (Elsa Lanchester and Edith Barrett) leads her to commit murder. In the romantic comedy New York Town (1941), Fred MacMurray played a photographer in…

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