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  • Liang Shih-ch’iu (Chinese author)

    Liang Shiqiu, writer, translator, and literary critic known for his devastating critique of modern romantic Chinese literature and for his insistence on the aesthetic, rather than the propagandistic, purpose of literary expression. After completing his preparatory education in China, Liang Shiqiu

  • Liang Shiqiu (Chinese author)

    Liang Shiqiu, writer, translator, and literary critic known for his devastating critique of modern romantic Chinese literature and for his insistence on the aesthetic, rather than the propagandistic, purpose of literary expression. After completing his preparatory education in China, Liang Shiqiu

  • Liang Shu-ming (Chinese philosopher)

    Liang Shuming, neo-Confucian philosopher and writer who attempted to demonstrate the relevance of Confucianism to China’s problems in the 20th century. A believer in the unity of thought and action, Liang became a leader in attempts at peasant organization. He also was active in the ill-fated

  • Liang Shuming (Chinese philosopher)

    Liang Shuming, neo-Confucian philosopher and writer who attempted to demonstrate the relevance of Confucianism to China’s problems in the 20th century. A believer in the unity of thought and action, Liang became a leader in attempts at peasant organization. He also was active in the ill-fated

  • Liang Sicheng (Chinese architect)

    Chinese architecture: The elements of traditional Chinese architecture: …1920s, with the research of Liang Sicheng (1901–72), Liang’s wife, Lin Huiyin (1904–55), and Liu Dunzhen (1896–1968), no one even knew which buildings were truly old and which were new.

  • Liang Ssu-ch’eng (Chinese architect)

    Chinese architecture: The elements of traditional Chinese architecture: …1920s, with the research of Liang Sicheng (1901–72), Liang’s wife, Lin Huiyin (1904–55), and Liu Dunzhen (1896–1968), no one even knew which buildings were truly old and which were new.

  • Liang Zhihua (Chinese author)

    Liang Shiqiu, writer, translator, and literary critic known for his devastating critique of modern romantic Chinese literature and for his insistence on the aesthetic, rather than the propagandistic, purpose of literary expression. After completing his preparatory education in China, Liang Shiqiu

  • Liang-chieh (Chinese monk)

    Sōtō: …in the 9th century by Liang-chieh and Pen-chi, where it was known as Ts’ao-tung (after its monastic centres on the mountains Ts’ao and Tung). It was transmitted to Japan by Dōgen, who founded the Eihei Temple in 1244 in what is now Fukui prefecture, and further popularized in the 13th–14th…

  • Liang-chu culture (anthropology)

    China: 4th and 3rd millennia bce: Sites of the Liangzhu culture (from the last half of the 4th to the last half of the 3rd millennium) have generally been found in the same area. The pots were mainly wheel-made, clay-tempered gray ware with a black skin and were produced by reduction firing; oxidized redware…

  • Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture (autonomous area, China)

    Sichuan: Constitutional framework: …capital at Kangding; and the Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, with its capital at Xichang. As a rule, the autonomous prefectures represent little more than a symbolic cultural indulgence of local minorities. The actual control of the units is exercised by the central government at Chengdu. The ethnic groups, however, enjoy…

  • Liangwang Mountains (mountains, China)

    Lake Dian: …province and south of the Liangwang Mountains, which reach an elevation of some 8,740 feet (2,664 metres). The lake is about 25 miles (40 km) from north to south, 8 miles (13 km) wide, and 25 feet (8 metres) deep. The mountains rise steeply from the eastern and western shores,…

  • liangzhi (Chinese philosophy)

    Confucianism: Confucian learning in Jin, Yuan, and Ming: This he later identified as liangzhi (“good conscience”), by which he meant innate knowledge or a primordial existential awareness possessed by every human being. He further suggested that good conscience as the heavenly principle is inherent in all beings from the highest spiritual forms to grass, wood, bricks, and stone.…

  • Liangzhou (China)

    Hanzhong, city, southwestern Shaanxi sheng (province), central China. It is situated in a long, narrow, and fertile basin along the Han River, between the Qin (Tsinling) and Micang mountain ranges. To the north one of the few routes across the Qin Mountains joins it to Baoji in Shaanxi, while

  • Liangzhou jinwenci daxi tulu kaoshi (work by Guo Moruo)

    Guo Moruo: …oracle bones and bronze vessels, Liangzhou jinwenci daxi tulu kaoshi (1935; new ed. 1957; “Corpus of Inscriptions on Bronzes from the Two Zhou Dynasties”). In this work he attempted to demonstrate, according to communist doctrine, the “slave society” nature of ancient China.

  • liangzhu (Chinese architecture)

    Chinese architecture: The elements of traditional Chinese architecture: …of elevated tie beams (tailiang, “terraced beams,” for which this entire system of architecture is named; also known as liangzhu, or “beams-and-columns”); the gable-end beams are sequentially shortened and alternate with vertical struts that bear the roof purlins and the main roof beam. The flexible proportions of the gable-end…

  • Liangzi, Lake (lake, China)

    Yangtze River: The lower course: …Lake and Lakes Hong and Liangzi, also causes considerable fluctuations in water volume. The total area of the lakes, at average water levels, is some 6,600 square miles (17,100 square km). The lakes are of national economic significance, mainly as fisheries.

  • Lianlian fengchen (film by Hou Hsiao-hsien [1986])

    Hou Hsiao-hsien: …such as Lianlian fengchen (1986; Dust in the Wind) and Beiqing chengshi (1989; A City of Sadness). The latter film detailed the February 28, 1947, massacre by mainland Chinese of local Taiwanese demonstrating in the city of Taipei. The subject remained taboo in China for decades after the massacre, and…

  • lianliu (plant)

    Shandong: Plant and animal life: Lianliu, a shrub with long willowy branches, is used for basket weaving, while other plants are woven into thatch mattings and sunshades. Poplars, pines, and arborvitae (an aromatic evergreen tree of the cypress family) are planted around settlements, along roads, and on the coasts.

  • Lianyungang (China)

    Lianyungang, city and seaport, northern Jiangsu sheng (province), eastern China. It is situated near the mouth of the Qiangwei River and at the northern end of a network of canals centred on the Yunyan River that is associated with the innumerable salt pans of the coastal districts of northern

  • Liao (people)

    Khitan, any member of a Mongol people that ruled Manchuria and part of North China from the 10th to the early 12th century under the Liao dynasty. See also

  • Liao Ch’en-Yün (Chinese revolutionary)

    Chen Yun (Ch’en Yün; , LIAO Ch’EN-YüN), Chinese revolutionary (born 1905?, Shanghai, China—died April 10, 1995, Beijing, China), was one of the last surviving members of the fledgling Communist Party’s 10,000-km (6,000-mi) Long March (1934-35) from southeastern to northwestern China to escape C

  • Liao dynasty (Chinese history)

    Liao dynasty, (907–1125), in Chinese history, dynasty formed by the nomadic Khitan (Chinese: Qidan) tribes in much of what now constitutes the provinces of the Northeast region (Manchuria) and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. Adopting the Chinese dynastic name of Liao, the Khitan

  • Liao He (river, China)

    Liao River, river in the southern part of the Northeast region (Manchuria) in Liaoning province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. The Liao River system drains the southern part of the Northeast (Manchurian) Plain. Its drainage area is divided from the Sungari (Songhua) River basin to the

  • Liao Ho (river, China)

    Liao River, river in the southern part of the Northeast region (Manchuria) in Liaoning province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. The Liao River system drains the southern part of the Northeast (Manchurian) Plain. Its drainage area is divided from the Sungari (Songhua) River basin to the

  • Liao River (river, China)

    Liao River, river in the southern part of the Northeast region (Manchuria) in Liaoning province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. The Liao River system drains the southern part of the Northeast (Manchurian) Plain. Its drainage area is divided from the Sungari (Songhua) River basin to the

  • Liao River oil field (oil field, China)

    Liaoning: Resources and power: The Liao River oil field, first developed in the late 1960s, has become one of China’s largest onshore producers.

  • Liao Taizu (emperor of Liao dynasty)

    Abaoji, leader of the nomadic Mongol-speaking Khitan tribes who occupied the northern border of China. Elected to a three-year term as great khan of the Khitans, Abaoji refused to resign at the end of his term but made himself king of the Khitan nation. After the collapse in 907 of Tang rule in

  • Liao-ning (province, China)

    Liaoning, sheng (province) in the Northeast region of China (formerly called Manchuria). It is bounded to the northeast by the province of Jilin, to the east by North Korea, to the south by the Yellow Sea, to the southwest by the province of Hebei, and to the northwest by the Inner Mongolia

  • Liao-tung Pan-tao (peninsula, China)

    Liaodong Peninsula, large peninsula jutting out in a southwesterly direction from the southern coastline of Liaoning province, northeastern China. It partly separates the Bo Hai (Gulf of Chihli) to the west from Korea Bay to the east, and, with the Shandong Peninsula to the south, it forms the Bo

  • Liao-yang (China)

    Liaoyang, city, central Liaoning sheng (province), northeastern China. It is situated on the Taizi River some 30 miles (50 km) southwest of Shenyang (Mukden) and 12 miles (19 km) northeast of the great industrial city of Anshan. Liaoyang is located in the most ancient area of Chinese settlement in

  • Liao-yüan (China)

    Liaoyuan, city, southwestern Jilin sheng (province), northeastern China. It is situated on the north bank of the upper Dongliao River, about 60 miles (100 km) south-southwest of Changchun. Standing on the border between the plains and the hills, Liaoyuan was originally a Manchu hunting preserve,

  • Liaodong (historical province, China)

    Liaoning: …Liaoxi, and an eastern province, Liaodong. In 1954, however, a northern zone was detached and it was reestablished as a single province. It achieved its present form in 1956, when the former province of Jehol (Rehe) was partitioned and a portion added to Liaoning. Liaoning, Liaoxi, and Liaodong all take…

  • Liaodong Bandao (peninsula, China)

    Liaodong Peninsula, large peninsula jutting out in a southwesterly direction from the southern coastline of Liaoning province, northeastern China. It partly separates the Bo Hai (Gulf of Chihli) to the west from Korea Bay to the east, and, with the Shandong Peninsula to the south, it forms the Bo

  • Liaodong Peninsula (peninsula, China)

    Liaodong Peninsula, large peninsula jutting out in a southwesterly direction from the southern coastline of Liaoning province, northeastern China. It partly separates the Bo Hai (Gulf of Chihli) to the west from Korea Bay to the east, and, with the Shandong Peninsula to the south, it forms the Bo

  • Liaoning (province, China)

    Liaoning, sheng (province) in the Northeast region of China (formerly called Manchuria). It is bounded to the northeast by the province of Jilin, to the east by North Korea, to the south by the Yellow Sea, to the southwest by the province of Hebei, and to the northwest by the Inner Mongolia

  • Liaoxi (historical province, China)

    Liaoning: …divided into a western province, Liaoxi, and an eastern province, Liaodong. In 1954, however, a northern zone was detached and it was reestablished as a single province. It achieved its present form in 1956, when the former province of Jehol (Rehe) was partitioned and a portion added to Liaoning. Liaoning,…

  • Liaoyang (China)

    Liaoyang, city, central Liaoning sheng (province), northeastern China. It is situated on the Taizi River some 30 miles (50 km) southwest of Shenyang (Mukden) and 12 miles (19 km) northeast of the great industrial city of Anshan. Liaoyang is located in the most ancient area of Chinese settlement in

  • Liaoyuan (China)

    Liaoyuan, city, southwestern Jilin sheng (province), northeastern China. It is situated on the north bank of the upper Dongliao River, about 60 miles (100 km) south-southwest of Changchun. Standing on the border between the plains and the hills, Liaoyuan was originally a Manchu hunting preserve,

  • Liaozhai zhiyi (work by Pu Songling)

    Chinese literature: Prose fiction: Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio). This collection, completed in 1679, was reminiscent of the early literary tale tradition, for it contained several Tang stories retold with embellishments and minor changes to delineate the characters more realistically and to make the plots more probable. Such…

  • Liapchev, Andrei (prime minister of Bulgaria)

    Andrei Liapchev, statesman who was prime minister of Bulgaria through several years of continuing national tension (1926–31). Liapchev received his secondary education at Monastir (now Bitola), Salonika (now Thessaloníki), and Plovdiv and his university education at Zürich, Berlin, and Paris. As a

  • Liapis, Ioannis (Greek archbishop)

    Ieronymos II, archbishop of Athens and all Greece (from 2008) and head of the Orthodox Church of Greece. Liapis first pursued an academic career. He earned degrees in theology and philosophy from the University of Athens and did postgraduate work in Austria and Germany. He was an assistant to the

  • Liaquat Ali Khan (prime minister of Pakistan)

    Liaquat Ali Khan, first prime minister of Pakistan (1947–51). Born the son of a landowner, Liaquat was educated at Aligarh, Allahabad, and Exeter College, Oxford. A barrister by profession, like his leader, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, he entered politics in 1923, being elected first to the provincial

  • Liar Dice (dice game)

    poker dice: A variant of poker dice, liar dice, as the name suggests, permits bluffing. Each player shields his throws and announces his hand, either truthfully or not. The second player, named the caller, or doubter, may either attempt a better hand or call the bluff. If the caller is correct in…

  • Liar Liar (film by Shadyac [1997])

    Jim Carrey: …office—Carrey scored a hit with Liar Liar (1997). In that film he played a fast-talking lawyer forced—by a magic spell invoked by his young son’s birthday wish—to tell the truth for one day. Carrey received Golden Globes for his work in The Truman Show (1998), a tale of a man…

  • liar paradox

    Liar paradox, paradox derived from the statement attributed to the Cretan prophet Epimenides (6th century bce) that all Cretans are liars. If Epimenides’ statement is taken to imply that all statements made by Cretans are false, then, since Epimenides was a Cretan, his statement is false (i.e., not

  • Liar, The (work by Goldoni)

    Carlo Goldoni: …Venetian dialect; Il bugiardo (The Liar, 1922), written in commedia dell’arte style; and Il vero amico (“The True Friend”), an Italian comedy of manners.

  • Liar, The (work by Corneille)

    Pierre Corneille: Contribution to comedy.: …successfully turned to comedy with Le Menteur (The Liar), following it with the less successful La Suite du Menteur (performed 1645; Sequel to the Liar). Both were lively comedies of intrigue, adapted from Spanish models; and Le Menteur is the one outstanding French comedy before the plays of Molière, Corneille’s…

  • Liard River (river, Canada)

    Liard River, river in northwestern Canada. It rises in the Saint Cyr Range of the Pelly Mountains, Yukon, and flows southeast into British Columbia, then northeast to join the Mackenzie River at Fort Simpson in the Northwest Territories, after a course of 693 miles (1,115 km). Its upper course is

  • Liatris (plant genus)

    Liatris, genus of perennial herbs of the family Asteraceae, containing approximately 40 species, native to North America. They have tall spikelike clusters of purple or pinkish purple flower heads that are surrounded by many scaly bracts (leaflike structures). Their long thin leaves alternate along

  • Liatris squarrosa (plant, Liatris squarrosa)

    Liatris: …button snakeroot, gay feather, and blazing star.

  • Liatroim (county, Ireland)

    Leitrim, county in the province of Connaught (Connacht), northwestern Ireland. It is bounded by Northern Ireland (east) and by Counties Donegal (north), Cavan (east), Longford (south), and Roscommon and Sligo (west). The western boundary follows the River Shannon, on which boats can ascend to

  • Lībān, Tāddasa (Ethiopian author)

    African literature: Ethiopian: Taddasa Liban wrote short stories that examine the relationship between the old and the new in Ethiopian society. Asras Asfa Wasan wrote poetry and historical novels about political events, including the military coup attempted against Emperor Haile Selassie I in December 1960. Writers such as…

  • Libanesia (ancient province, Middle East)

    Lebanon: Greek and Roman periods: … (Maritima), basically ancient Phoenicia; and Phoenice Secunda (Libanesia), an area extending to Mount Lebanon on the west and deep into the Syrian Desert on the east. Phoenice Secunda included the cities of Emesa (its capital), Heliopolis, Damascus, and Palmyra.

  • Libanius (Greek rhetorician)

    Libanius, Greek Sophist and rhetorician whose orations and letters are a major source of information on the political, social, and economic life of Antioch and of the eastern part of the Roman Empire in the 4th century. After beginning his teaching career in Constantinople and Nicomedia, Libanius

  • libation (religion)

    Libation, act of pouring a liquid (frequently wine, but sometimes milk or other fluids) as a sacrifice to a

  • Libation Bearers (play by Aeschylus)

    Libation Bearers, play by Aeschylus, second in the trilogy known as the

  • Libau (Latvia)

    Liepāja, city and port, Latvia, on the west (Baltic Sea) coast at the northern end of Lake Liepāja. First recorded in 1253, when it was a small Kurish settlement, Liepāja was the site of a fortress built by the knights of the Teutonic Order in 1263. It was created a town in 1625, and in 1697–1703 a

  • Libau, Andreas (German chemist and physician)

    Andreas Libavius, German chemist, physician, and alchemist who made important chemical discoveries but is most noted as the author of the first modern chemistry textbook. Libavius was professor of history and poetry at the University of Jena from 1586 to 1591 and then became town physician and

  • Libava (Latvia)

    Liepāja, city and port, Latvia, on the west (Baltic Sea) coast at the northern end of Lake Liepāja. First recorded in 1253, when it was a small Kurish settlement, Liepāja was the site of a fortress built by the knights of the Teutonic Order in 1263. It was created a town in 1625, and in 1697–1703 a

  • Libavius, Andreas (German chemist and physician)

    Andreas Libavius, German chemist, physician, and alchemist who made important chemical discoveries but is most noted as the author of the first modern chemistry textbook. Libavius was professor of history and poetry at the University of Jena from 1586 to 1591 and then became town physician and

  • Libb wallad tarik (work by Afawark Gabra Iyasus)

    Ethiopian literature: …of which the first was Libb wallad tarik (1908; “Imaginative Story”) by Afeworq Gabre-Eyesus. During the regency of Ras Tafari (1916–20; afterward Emperor Haile Selassie I), Hiruy Walde Selassie (d. 1938) became the leading Amharic writer, especially notable for allegorical compositions such as Wadaje lebbe (“My Heart as My Friend”).

  • Libb-waled tarik (work by Afawark Gabra Iyasus)

    Ethiopian literature: …of which the first was Libb wallad tarik (1908; “Imaginative Story”) by Afeworq Gabre-Eyesus. During the regency of Ras Tafari (1916–20; afterward Emperor Haile Selassie I), Hiruy Walde Selassie (d. 1938) became the leading Amharic writer, especially notable for allegorical compositions such as Wadaje lebbe (“My Heart as My Friend”).

  • Libbey Inc. (American glass company)

    Libbey Inc., American glass company that is one of the world’s largest manufacturers of glass tableware. Its headquarters are in Toledo, Ohio. Libbey was originally founded in 1818 as the New England Glass Company, in East Cambridge, Massachusetts. The company made a large variety of wares ranging

  • Libbey-Owens-Ford Company (American glass company)

    Libbey Inc., American glass company that is one of the world’s largest manufacturers of glass tableware. Its headquarters are in Toledo, Ohio. Libbey was originally founded in 1818 as the New England Glass Company, in East Cambridge, Massachusetts. The company made a large variety of wares ranging

  • Libby, I. Lewis (United States chief of staff)

    George W. Bush: The Plame affair: …2007 Cheney’s chief of staff, I. Lewis (“Scooter”) Libby, was convicted on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice in connection with an investigation into the leak of the identity of a covert CIA agent in 2003. The agent, Valerie Plame, was the wife of Joseph C. Wilson, a retired…

  • Libby, Scooter (United States chief of staff)

    George W. Bush: The Plame affair: …2007 Cheney’s chief of staff, I. Lewis (“Scooter”) Libby, was convicted on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice in connection with an investigation into the leak of the identity of a covert CIA agent in 2003. The agent, Valerie Plame, was the wife of Joseph C. Wilson, a retired…

  • Libby, Willard Frank (American chemist)

    Willard Frank Libby, American chemist whose technique of carbon-14 (or radiocarbon) dating provided an extremely valuable tool for archaeologists, anthropologists, and earth scientists. For this development he was honoured with the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1960. Libby, the son of farmer Ora

  • libel (law)

    defamation: Libel and slander are the legal subcategories of defamation. Generally speaking, libel is defamation in written words, pictures, or any other visual symbols in a print or electronic (online or Internet-based) medium. Slander is spoken defamation. The advent of early broadcast communications (radio and television)…

  • Libel Act (British history)

    history of publishing: Decline of censorship: …in 1792, Charles James Fox’s Libel Act finally gave the jury the right to decide the issue, which had previously depended mainly on the judge. Subsequent efforts to suppress printed matter have centred on questions of libel, obscenity, or national security.

  • Libel of English Policy (Middle English poem)

    English literature: Political verse: Of particular interest is the Libel of English Policy (c. 1436) on another typically English theme of a related kind: “Cherish merchandise, keep the admiralty, / That we be masters of the narrow sea.”

  • Libeled Lady (film by Conway [1936])

    Jack Conway: Heyday of the 1930s: Libeled Lady (1936) was one of the best comedies of the decade, a cleverly plotted romp with Harlow, Spencer Tracy, William Powell, and Myrna Loy all in peak form. It received an Oscar nomination for best picture, and Conway was praised for his agile direction.

  • libelli (legal document)

    Italy: Socioeconomic developments in the countryside: …their surviving written contracts (libelli). Money rents were more flexible and could better survive the fragmentation of property between coheirs or its alienation in bits to others, both practices being very common in Italy. It should be stressed that tenants’ ability to pay in coin demonstrates that by this…

  • Libelli sophistarum (English compilation)

    history of logic: Late medieval logic: …been gathered under the title Libelli sophistarum (“Little Books for Arguers”)—one collection for Oxford and a second for Cambridge; both were printed in early editions. Among the notable logicians of this period are Henry Hopton (flourished 1357), John Wycliffe (c. 1330–84), Richard Lavenham (died after 1399), Ralph Strode (flourished c.…

  • libello (legal document)

    Italy: Socioeconomic developments in the countryside: …their surviving written contracts (libelli). Money rents were more flexible and could better survive the fragmentation of property between coheirs or its alienation in bits to others, both practices being very common in Italy. It should be stressed that tenants’ ability to pay in coin demonstrates that by this…

  • Libellus de Antichristi (treatise by Adso of Montier-en-Der)

    Christianity: The Middle Ages: …in his popular and influential Epistola ad Gerbergam reginam de ortu et tempore Antichristi (“Letter to Queen Gerberga on the Place and Time of Antichrist”), a mirror image in the negative of the lives of Jesus and the saints. Adso’s treatise became the standard account of the life of the…

  • Libellus Islandorum (work by Ari)

    Ari Thorgilsson the Learned: …historian whose íslendingabók (Libellus Islandorum; The Book of the Icelanders) is the first history of Iceland written in the vernacular. Composed before 1133 and covering the period from the settlement of Iceland up to 1120, it includes information on the founding of the Althing (parliament) and on the settlement of…

  • Libellus…de optimo reipublicae statu, deque nova insula Utopia (work by More)

    Thomas More: The Utopia: In May 1515 More was appointed to a delegation to revise an Anglo-Flemish commercial treaty. The conference was held at Brugge, with long intervals that More used to visit other Belgian cities. He began in the Low Countries and completed after his return to…

  • Liber Abacci (work by Fibonacci)

    Fibonacci: Life: When Fibonacci’s Liber abaci first appeared, Hindu-Arabic numerals were known to only a few European intellectuals through translations of the writings of the 9th-century Arab mathematician al-Khwārizmī. The first seven chapters dealt with the notation, explaining the principle of place value, by which the position of a…

  • Liber abaci (work by Fibonacci)

    Fibonacci: Life: When Fibonacci’s Liber abaci first appeared, Hindu-Arabic numerals were known to only a few European intellectuals through translations of the writings of the 9th-century Arab mathematician al-Khwārizmī. The first seven chapters dealt with the notation, explaining the principle of place value, by which the position of a…

  • Liber absque litteris de aetatibus mundi et hominis (work by Fulgentius)

    Fabius Planciades Fulgentius: …that never existed; and a Liber absque litteris de aetatibus mundi et hominis, a bizarre work in which human history is divided into 23 periods. His youthful poems and a work entitled Physiologus are lost.

  • Liber and Libera (Roman deities)

    Liber and Libera, in Roman religion, a pair of fertility and cultivation deities of uncertain origin. Liber, though an old and native Italian deity, came to be identified with Dionysus. The triad Ceres, Liber, and Libera (his female counterpart) represented in Rome, from early times and always

  • Liber annalis (work by Atticus)

    Titus Pomponius Atticus: Atticus himself wrote Liber annalis (“Yearly Accounts”), published in 47 bc, which presented a list of important dates in world history, concentrating on events and magistrates from the origins of Rome to his own time. Atticus had other historical interests, writing works on the Roman calendar and on…

  • Liber apologeticus contra Gaunilonem (work by Anselm of Canterbury)

    Saint Anselm of Canterbury: Early life and career: Anselm wrote in reply his Liber apologeticus contra Gaunilonem (“Book [of] Defense Against Gaunilo”), which was a repetition of the ontological argument of the Proslogion. The ontological argument was accepted in different forms by René Descartes and Benedict de Spinoza, though it was rejected by Immanuel Kant.

  • Liber Augustalis (Italy [1231])

    Frederick II: Years as a Crusader: In August 1231, at Melfi, the emperor issued his new constitutions for the Kingdom of Sicily. Not since the reign of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I in the 6th century had the administrative law of a European state been codified. Frederick’s codes contained many ideas that anticipated enlightened absolutism…

  • Liber benedictionum (collection of Ekkehard IV)

    Ekkehard IV: …important literary works is the Liber benedictionum (“Book of Benedictions”), a collection of inscriptions, blessings, and poems (some of them his own and others attributed to Notker Labeo). Ekkehard was also known to have been a skillful church musician.

  • Liber canonum (canon law)

    canon law: Development of canon law in the West: …important is that of the Liber canonum (“Book of Canons”) of the 6th-century Roman theologian Dionysius Exiguus, about 500. The first two versions contain 50 Canones Apostolorum, Greek canons, and the African canons of the 17th Council of Carthage. Dionysius Exiguus also composed a Liber decretorum (“Book of Decretals”) from…

  • Liber Censuum (work by Savelli)

    history of Europe: Ecclesiastical organization: Honorius III; 1216–27), produced the Liber Censuum (“The Book of the Census”) in 1192, the first comprehensive account of the sources of papal funding. In this respect, as in the formal communications of the papal chancery, the pope created an influential model, imitated by all other European principalities and kingdoms.…

  • Liber concordie Novi ac Veteris Testamenti (work by Joachim of Fiore)

    Joachim Of Fiore: This probably refers to the Liber concordie Novi ac Veteris Testamenti (“Book of Harmony of the New and Old Testaments”), in which Joachim worked out his philosophy of history, primarily in a pattern of “twos”—the concords between the two great dispensations (or Testaments) of history, the Old and the New.…

  • Liber constitutionum Sanctae Matris Ecclesiae (work by Albornoz)

    Gil álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz: …return to Avignon, where his Liber constitutionum Sanctae Matris Ecclesiae (“Book of the Constitution of Holy Mother Church”), also known as the Constitutiones aegidianae, was published. This legal code, or constitution, remained in force in the Papal States until the early 19th century.

  • Liber de arte honeste amandi et reprobatione inhonesti amoris (work by André le Chapelain)

    André Le Chapelain: …known for his three-volume treatise Liber de arte honeste amandi et reprobatione inhonesti amoris (c. 1185; “Book of the Art of Loving Nobly and the Reprobation of Dishonourable Love”). He is thought to have been a chaplain at the court of Marie, Countess of Champagne, daughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine.…

  • Liber de causis (philosophy)

    Western philosophy: Arabic thought: The anonymous Liber de causis (“Book of Causes”) was also translated into Latin from Arabic. This work, excerpted from Proclus’s Stiocheiōsis theologikē (Elements of Theology), was often ascribed to Aristotle, and it gave a Neoplatonic cast to his philosophy until its true origin was discovered by St.…

  • Liber de cultura hortorum (work by Walafrid Strabo)

    Walafrid Strabo: …wrote his most important poem, Liber de cultura hortorum (“Book on the Art of Gardening”), a lyrical piece describing 23 flowers and herbs, their mythological and Christian significances, and their healing properties. His other works include an important panegyric poem, De imagine Tetrici (“On the Statue of Theodoric”), and a…

  • Liber de fine (work by Llull)

    Crusades: The later Crusades: …Llull, for example, in his Liber de fine (“Book of the End”), suggested a campaign of informed preaching as well as military force. At the beginning of the 14th century, Pierre Dubois submitted a detailed scheme for a Crusade to be directed by Philip IV of France, and in 1321…

  • Liber de liberatione civitatum orientis (work by Caffaro)

    Caffaro Di Caschifellone: …in addition to the annals: Liber de liberatione civitatum orientis (“Book About the Liberation of the Cities of the East”), describing Genoese participation in the First Crusade, written from memory more than half a century later; and Historia captionis Almariae et Tortuose (“History of the Capture of Almería and Tortosa”),…

  • Liber de ludo aleae (work by Cardano)

    Girolamo Cardano: …Liber de ludo aleae (The Book on Games of Chance) presents the first systematic computations of probabilities, a century before Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat. Cardano’s popular fame was based largely on books dealing with scientific and philosophical questions, especially De subtilitate rerum (“The Subtlety of Things”), a…

  • Liber de misericordia et justitia (work by Alger of Liège)

    Alger Of Liège: …important of those remaining are Liber de misericordia et justitia (“On Mercy and Justice”), a collection of biblical and patristic extracts with a commentary—an important work for the history of church law and discipline; De sacramentis corporis et sanguinis Dominici (“Concerning the Sacraments of the Body and the Blood of…

  • Liber Decretalium (decretals)

    canon law: The Corpus Juris Canonici (c. 1140–c. 1500): …not in Gratian’s Decretum), or Liber decretalium Gregorii IX (“Book of Decretals of Gregory IX”), composed by St. Raymond of Pe?afort, a Spanish canonist, and promulgated on September 5, 1234, as the exclusive codex for all of canon law after Gratian. On March 3, 1298, Pope Boniface VIII promulgated Liber…

  • Liber decretalium Gregorii IX (decretals)

    canon law: The Corpus Juris Canonici (c. 1140–c. 1500): …not in Gratian’s Decretum), or Liber decretalium Gregorii IX (“Book of Decretals of Gregory IX”), composed by St. Raymond of Pe?afort, a Spanish canonist, and promulgated on September 5, 1234, as the exclusive codex for all of canon law after Gratian. On March 3, 1298, Pope Boniface VIII promulgated Liber…

  • Liber decretorum (canon law)

    canon law: Development of canon law in the West: Dionysius Exiguus also composed a Liber decretorum (“Book of Decretals”) from Pope Siricius to Pope Anastasius II. Together, the books form the Corpus (“Body”) or Codex canonum (“Code of Canons”).

  • Liber Embadorum (work by Abraham bar Hiyya)

    Abraham bar Hiyya: …which, in its Latin translation, Liber Embadorum (1145), became a principal textbook in western European schools. Other notable works by Abraham include the philosophical treatise Hegyon ha-Nefesh ha-A?uva (Meditation of the Sad Soul), which dealt with the nature of good and evil, ethical conduct, and repentance; and Megillat ha-Megalleh (“Scroll…

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