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  • Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program (United States government program)

    Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR), plan developed by U.S. Senators Sam Nunn (Democrat, Georgia) and Richard Lugar (Republican, Indiana) to assist Russia and other former Soviet states in dismantling and disposing of their nuclear weapons during the 1990s. In August 1991 a military coup nearly

  • Nunna (king of Sussex)

    Ine: In 710 Nunna, the king of the South Saxons, or Sussex, lent Ine aid against the Cornish Britons, but in 722 and 725 Ine took up arms against the South Saxons, who were harbouring a rival claimant to his throne. He abdicated and retired to Rome in…

  • Nunnepog (Massachusetts, United States)

    Edgartown, town (township), seat of Dukes county, southeastern Massachusetts, U.S. The town comprises Chappaquiddick Island and the eastern tip of the island of Martha’s Vineyard. The oldest settlement on the island, Edgartown dates from 1642 and was incorporated in 1671 and named for Edgar, son of

  • nunnery (religion)

    Convent, local community or residence of a religious order, particularly an order of nuns. See

  • Nunnery Quadrangle (buildings, Uxmal, Mexico)

    Uxmal: …of the Magician is the Nunnery Quadrangle, consisting of four rectangular buildings with 74 individual rooms. It might have been a palace or a residence for students, priests, or soldiers. Each of the four temple-sides of the quadrangle is decorated with Chac figures. The central courtyard there measures 260 by…

  • Nuno of Saint Mary, Saint (Portuguese military leader)

    Saint Nuno álvares Pereira, ; canonized April 26, 2009; feast day November 6), outstanding Portuguese military leader, known also as the Holy Constable, whose victory over Castilian forces in the historic Battle of Aljubarrota (August 14, 1385) ensured his nation’s independence. Pereira

  • Nuns of the Cross and Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ (religious order)

    Passionist: Paul also founded the Passionist Nuns (Nuns of the Cross and Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ), approved by Pope Clement XIV in 1771. Passionist Sisters were established in 1852 in England.

  • Nuns on the Bus (touring event [2012])

    Sister Simone Campbell: …summer of 2012, Campbell led Nuns on the Bus, a two-week tour across the United States organized by Network. During that tour the sisters criticized the Republican federal budget proposal for 2012–13 as unpatriotic and immoral. In September 2012 Campbell addressed the Democratic National Convention. She denounced the Republican budget…

  • nuntius (Roman messenger)

    diplomacy: Rome: Sometimes a messenger, or nuntius, was sent, usually to towns. For larger responsibilities a legatio (embassy) of 10 or 12 legati (ambassadors) was organized under a president. The legati, who were leading citizens chosen for their skill at oratory, were inviolable. Rome also created sophisticated archives, which were staffed…

  • nuoc nam (seasoning)

    Fish sauce, in Southeast Asian cookery, a liquid seasoning prepared by fermenting freshwater or saltwater fish with salt in large vats. After a few months time, the resulting brownish, protein-rich liquid is drawn off and bottled. It is sometimes allowed to mature in the sun in glass or

  • Nuon Chea (Cambodian government official)

    Khmer Rouge: Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea, the movement’s chief diplomat and ideologue respectively, were convicted of crimes against humanity in 2014 and sentenced to life in prison. Both were also found guilty in 2018 on charges of genocide in the tribunal’s final trial against Khmer Rouge leaders.

  • Nuorena nukkunut (work by Sillanp??)

    Frans Eemil Sillanp??: …perfect, work, Nuorena nukkunut (1931; Fallen Asleep While Young, or The Maid Silja), a story of an old peasant family. Realistic and lyric elements are blended in Miehen tie (1932; Way of a Man), which describes a young farmer’s growth to maturity. Ihmiset suviy?ss? (1934; People in the Summer Night)…

  • Nuori Suomi (Finnish literary group)

    Finnish literature: Literature in Finnish: …known as Nuori Suomi (Young Finland), who founded the paper P?iv?lehti (from 1904 Helsingin Sanomat). Among the group’s members were Juhani Aho, a master of the lyrical nature novel, and Arvid J?rnefelt. Rautatie (1884; “The Railroad”), Aho’s first novel, is generally regarded as the most important work of fiction…

  • Nuoro (Italy)

    Nuoro, city, east-central Sardinia, Italy, at the foot of Monte Ortobene. Although the site has been inhabited since prehistoric times, the city was first recorded, as Nugorus, in the 12th century. The centre of a province under Piedmontese rule from 1848 to 1860, it became the provincial capital

  • Nuova Automobili F. Lamborghini (Italian company)

    Chrysler: Chrysler’s bailout: …Chrysler purchased an Italian company, Nuova Automobili F. Lamborghini (founded in 1963 by Ferruccio Lamborghini), maker of expensive, high-performance sports cars, and American Motors Corporation (founded in 1954 through the merger of Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and Hudson Motor Car Company), maker of the Jeep four-wheel-drive vehicles. Iacocca especially saw potential in…

  • Nuova Scena (Italian acting company)

    Dario Fo: …Campagnia Dario Fo–Franca Rame (1958), Nuova Scena (1968), and Collettivo Teatrale La Comune (1970), developing an agitprop theatre of politics, often blasphemous and scatological but rooted in the tradition of commedia dell’arte and blended with what Fo called “unofficial leftism.” With the latter troupe they began to tour factories, parks,…

  • Nuova Stampa, La (Italian newspaper)

    La Stampa, (Italian: “The Press”) morning daily newspaper published in Turin, one of Italy’s most influential newspapers. It was established in 1868 as the Gazzetta Piemontese and became an important voice in Italy’s struggle for liberation and unification. The Gazzetta was purchased in 1895 by two

  • nuove musiche (music)

    Baroque music: …for sacred music, while the stile moderno, or nuove musiche—with its emphasis on solo voice, polarity of the melody and the bass line, and interest in expressive harmony—developed for secular usage. The expanded vocabulary allowed for a clearer distinction between sacred and secular music as well as between vocal and…

  • nuove musiche, Le (work by Caccini)

    aria: … published Le nuove musiche (The New Music), a collection of solo songs with continuo (usually cello and harpsichord) accompaniment. Caccini called his strophic, or stanza-form, songs arie (singular aria). Most serious strophic songs published in Italy after 1602 were called arias, and in 1607 the form made its way…

  • nuovo (Italian literature)

    Dolce stil nuovo, the style of a group of 13th–14th-century Italian poets, mostly Florentines, whose vernacular sonnets, canzones, and ballate celebrate a spiritual and idealized view of love and womanhood in a way that is sincere, delicate, and musical. The Bolognese poet Guido Guinizelli is

  • Nuovo Centrodestra (political party, Italy)

    Silvio Berlusconi: Prosecutions, political ban, and continued influence: …Angelino Alfano to become the New Centre Right (Nuovo Centrodestra; NCD) party.

  • Nuovo cinema paradiso (film by Tornatore [1988])
  • Nuovo dizionario scientifico e curioso, sacroprofano (encyclopaedia by Pivati)

    encyclopaedia: Encyclopaedic dictionaries: …of Sciences at Venice), the Nuovo dizionario scientifico e curioso, sacroprofano (1746–51; “New Scientific and Curious, Sacred-Profane Dictionary”), avoided the subject of history, whereas the German writer Philipp Balthasar Sinold von Schütz’s Reales Staats- und Zeitungs-Lexicon (“Lexicon of Government and News”) concentrated on geography, theology, politics, and contemporary history and…

  • Nuovo saggio sull’origine delle idee (work by Rosmini)

    Antonio Rosmini-Serbati: (1830; The Origin of Ideas), embroiled him in theological controversies throughout his lifetime. His philosophy attempted to reconcile Catholic theology with modern political and social thought. The centre of his philosophical system is the concept of ideal being, which is a reflection of God in humankind;…

  • Nuovo, Castel (castle, Naples, Italy)

    Naples: The Castel Nuovo: The Castel Nuovo, so called to distinguish it from the older Castel dell’Ovo, was founded in 1279 by Charles I of Naples (Charles of Anjou). One of many Neapolitan landmarks to bear interchangeable names, it is known locally as the Maschio Angioino, in…

  • NUP (political party, The Sudan)

    Sudan: The growth of national consciousness: …faction—remodeled in 1951 as the National Unionist Party (NUP)—and the Ummah-Mahdist group quickly rekindled old suspicions and deep-seated hatreds that soured Sudanese politics for years and eventually strangled parliamentary government. These sectarian religious elites virtually controlled Sudan’s political parties until the last decade of the 20th century, stultifying any attempt…

  • NUP (political party, Myanmar)

    Myanmar: Administrative framework: …and the chairman of the Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP), which, under military leadership, was the only official political party from 1964 to 1988. Civil servants, members of the armed forces, workers, and peasants belonged to the BSPP, and senior military officials and civil servants were included in the party’s…

  • Nupe (people)

    Nupe, people living near the confluence of the Niger and Kaduna rivers in west-central Nigeria. They speak a language of the Nupoid group in the Benue-Congo branch of the Niger-Congo language family. The Nupe are organized into a number of closely related territorial groups, of which the Beni, Zam,

  • NUPE (British labour organization)

    UNISON: …of several unions, including the National Union of Public Employees (formed 1905) and the Confederation of Health Service Employees (formed 1910). It maintains a separate political fund, which supports the activities of the Labour Party.

  • Nupe language

    Benue-Congo languages: Nupoid: …approximately 17 Nupoid languages are Nupe (1,000,000), Gbagyi (700,000), and Ebira (1,000,000). They are spoken in the area north and west of the confluence of the Niger and Benue rivers.

  • Nupe Province (state, Nigeria)

    Niger, state, west-central Nigeria, bounded to the south by the Niger River. It is also bounded by the states of Kebbi and Zamfara to the north, Kaduna to the north and northeast, Kogi to the southeast, and Kwara to the south. The Abuja Federal Capital Territory is on Niger state’s eastern border,

  • Nupedia (online encyclopaedia)

    Richard Stallman: …Project, another open-source encyclopaedia project, Nupedia, the predecessor of Wikipedia, appeared and adopted the GNU Free Documentation License, so the work on the GNUpedia Project was merged into Nupedia.

  • NUPF (political party, Morocco)

    Mehdi Ben Barka: …party to found the left-wing National Union of Popular Forces (UNFP). He was widely considered as a likely president for a possible Republic of Morocco. When Morocco and Algeria had a brief war in 1963, Ben Barka sided with Algeria and went into exile. He was subsequently accused of high…

  • Nuphar (plant genus)

    water lily: The genus Nuphar, with about 10 species distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, includes the common yellow water lily, cow lily, or spatterdock (Nuphar advena) of eastern North America. The yellow water lily has submerged leaves that are thin and translucent and leathery floating leaves.

  • Nuphar advena (plant)

    water lily: …Northern Hemisphere, includes the common yellow water lily, cow lily, or spatterdock (Nuphar advena) of eastern North America. The yellow water lily has submerged leaves that are thin and translucent and leathery floating leaves.

  • Nupoid languages

    Benue-Congo languages: Nupoid: The largest of the approximately 17 Nupoid languages are Nupe (1,000,000), Gbagyi (700,000), and Ebira (1,000,000). They are spoken in the area north and west of the confluence of the Niger and Benue rivers.

  • Nuprin (drug)

    Ibuprofen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of minor pain, fever, and inflammation. Like aspirin, ibuprofen works by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins, body chemicals that sensitize nerve endings. The drug may irritate the gastrointestinal tract. Marketed under

  • nuptial coat (zoology)

    argali: The ram’s nuptial coat grows in just before the rutting season in November and December and, in most subspecies, features conspicuous neck ruffs and rump patches. Nuptial coats differ between subspecies in the presence or length of the neck hair, the length of the tail, the size…

  • nuptial flight (zoology)

    evolution: Kin selection and reciprocal altruism: …is to engage in the nuptial flight during which one of them fertilizes a new queen. Other eggs laid by queen bees are fertilized and develop into females, the large majority of which are workers. Some social insects, such as the stingless Meliponinae bees, with hundreds of species across the…

  • Nuptial Lebes (pelike by Marsyas Painter)

    Marsyas Painter: …Thetis,” and for a “Nuptial Lebes” (the bringing of gifts to the newly wed bride), now in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg. Both vases date from 340–330 bc, and both are in the so-called Kerch style, of which the Marsyas Painter is a key representative. (Kerch refers to the…

  • nuptial plumage (zoology)

    anseriform: Life history: …“basic”) plumage, acquiring the first nuptial (or “alternate”) plumage in the second autumn. Other species molt directly from juvenal to nuptial and are practically indistinguishable from adults in plumage and size at the age of six months. Swans and geese do not reach full size until the end of their…

  • Nuptse I (mountain, Asia)

    Mount Everest: Geology and relief: Khumbutse (21,867 feet [6,665 metres]), Nuptse (25,791 feet [7,861 metres]), and Lhotse (27,940 feet [8,516 metres]) surround Everest’s base to the west and south.

  • Nuqrāshī Pasha, Ma?mūd Fahmī al- (prime minister of Egypt)

    Ma?mūd Fahmī al-Nuqrāshī, Egyptian politician who was prime minister of Egypt (1945–46, 1946–48). Al-Nuqrāshī was educated at University College (now University of Nottingham) in Nottingham, England. He taught school in Egypt before joining the government in 1920 as a subdirector in the ministry of

  • Nūr al-Dīn (Muslim ruler)

    Nūr al-Dīn, Muslim ruler who reorganized the armies of Syria and laid the foundations for the success of Saladin. Nūr al-Dīn succeeded his father as the atabeg (ruler) of Halab in 1146, owing nominal allegiance to the ?Abbāsid caliph of Baghdad. Before his rule, a major reason for the success of

  • Nūr al-Dīn Abū al-Qāsim Ma?mūd ibn ?Imād al-Dīn Zangī (Muslim ruler)

    Nūr al-Dīn, Muslim ruler who reorganized the armies of Syria and laid the foundations for the success of Saladin. Nūr al-Dīn succeeded his father as the atabeg (ruler) of Halab in 1146, owing nominal allegiance to the ?Abbāsid caliph of Baghdad. Before his rule, a major reason for the success of

  • Nūr al-Dīn ibn Zangī (Muslim ruler)

    Nūr al-Dīn, Muslim ruler who reorganized the armies of Syria and laid the foundations for the success of Saladin. Nūr al-Dīn succeeded his father as the atabeg (ruler) of Halab in 1146, owing nominal allegiance to the ?Abbāsid caliph of Baghdad. Before his rule, a major reason for the success of

  • Nūr al-Hilmī, Burhanuddin bin Muhammad (Malaysian leader)

    Burhanuddin bin Muhammad Nūr al-Hilmī, Malay nationalist leader who led the principal opposition party in Malaya in the decades after World War II. Nūr al-Hilmī attended Islamic schools at home and in Sumatra before going to India in 1928. On his return home, he taught at a madrasah (Muslim school)

  • Nūr al-?usayn (queen of Jordan)

    Queen Noor, American-born architect who was the consort (1978–99) of King ?ussein of Jordan. Born into a prominent Arab American family, Halaby was raised in an atmosphere of affluence. She attended the elite National Cathedral School in Washington, D.C., transferring to the exclusive Chapin School

  • Nūr Jahān (Mughal queen)

    Mumtaz Mahal: Life, family, and marriage: …was secured when her aunt Mehr al-Nesā? married Shah Jahān’s father, Jahāngīr, in 1611 (and thereafter she was known as Nūr Jahān). Arjumand’s grandfather Mirzā Ghiyās Beg (known also as I?timād al-Dawlah, “Pillar of the State”), who had entered the royal court during the reign of Akbar (reigned 1556–1605), was…

  • Nūr ol-?Eyn (diamond)

    Daryā-e Nūr: …pink, 60-carat brilliant called the Nūr ol-?Eyn (meaning “light of the eye”).

  • Nūr-ud-dīn Muhammad Salīm (emperor of India)

    Jahāngīr, Mughal emperor of India from 1605 to 1627. Prince Salīm was the eldest son of the emperor Akbar, who early marked Salīm to succeed him. Impatient for power, however, Salīm revolted in 1599 while Akbar was engaged in the Deccan. Akbar on his deathbed confirmed Salīm as his successor. The

  • nuraghe (tower)

    Sardinia: Prehistoric and Phoenician settlement: Most nuraghi are quite small, but a few are obviously fortresses. There is also a nuraghic village near Dorgali with traces of about 80 buildings identified. Expert opinion now dates the nuraghi to about 1500 to 400 bce.

  • nuraghi (tower)

    Sardinia: Prehistoric and Phoenician settlement: Most nuraghi are quite small, but a few are obviously fortresses. There is also a nuraghic village near Dorgali with traces of about 80 buildings identified. Expert opinion now dates the nuraghi to about 1500 to 400 bce.

  • Nuraghic culture

    Sardinia: Prehistoric and Phoenician settlement: …said to exist) is the nuraghi: truncated conic structures of huge blocks of basalt taken from extinct volcanoes, built in prehistoric times without any bonding. Most nuraghi are quite small, but a few are obviously fortresses. There is also a nuraghic village near Dorgali with traces of about 80 buildings…

  • Nūrbakhshīyah (Islamic religious order)

    as-Suhrawardī: The Nūrbakhshīyah order of dervishes (itinerant holy men) also traces its origins to him.

  • Nureddin (Muslim ruler)

    Nūr al-Dīn, Muslim ruler who reorganized the armies of Syria and laid the foundations for the success of Saladin. Nūr al-Dīn succeeded his father as the atabeg (ruler) of Halab in 1146, owing nominal allegiance to the ?Abbāsid caliph of Baghdad. Before his rule, a major reason for the success of

  • Nurek Dam (dam, Tajikistan)

    Nurek Dam, one of the world’s highest dams, located on the Vakhsh River in Tajikistan near the border with Afghanistan. An earth-fill dam, it was completed in 1980 and rises 984 feet (300 m) and includes an impervious core of concrete reaching 52 feet (16 m) under the river to bedrock. The dam is

  • Nuremberg (Germany)

    Nürnberg, city, Bavaria Land (state), southern Germany. Bavaria’s second largest city (after Munich), Nürnberg is located on the Pegnitz River where it emerges from the uplands of Franconia (Franken), south of Erlangen. The city was first mentioned in 1050 in official records as Noremberg, but it

  • Nuremberg Laws (German history)

    Nürnberg Laws, two race-based measures depriving Jews of rights, designed by Adolf Hitler and approved by the Nazi Party at a convention in Nürnberg on September 15, 1935. One, the Reichsbürgergesetz (German: “Law of the Reich Citizen”), deprived Jews of German citizenship, designating them

  • Nuremberg trials (World War II trials)

    Nürnberg trials, series of trials held in Nürnberg, Germany, in 1945–46, in which former Nazi leaders were indicted and tried as war criminals by the International Military Tribunal. The indictment lodged against them contained four counts: (1) crimes against peace (i.e., the planning, initiating,

  • Nūrestān (historical region, Afghanistan)

    Nūrestān, historic region in eastern Afghanistan, about 5,000 square miles (13,000 square km) in area and comprising the upper valleys of the Alīngār, Pīch, and Landay Sind rivers and the intervening mountain ranges. Its northern boundary is the main range of the Hindu Kush, its eastern the

  • Nureyev, Rudolf (Soviet-born dancer)

    Rudolf Nureyev, Soviet-born ballet dancer whose suspended leaps and fast turns were often compared to Vaslav Nijinsky’s legendary feats. He was a flamboyant performer and a charismatic celebrity who revived the prominence of male ballet roles and significantly widened the audience for ballet.

  • Nureyev, Rudolf Hametovich (Soviet-born dancer)

    Rudolf Nureyev, Soviet-born ballet dancer whose suspended leaps and fast turns were often compared to Vaslav Nijinsky’s legendary feats. He was a flamboyant performer and a charismatic celebrity who revived the prominence of male ballet roles and significantly widened the audience for ballet.

  • Nurhachi (Manchurian chieftain)

    Nurhachi, chieftain of the Jianzhou Juchen, a Manchurian tribe, and one of the founders of the Manchu, or Qing, dynasty. His first attack on China (1618) presaged his son Dorgon’s conquest of the Chinese empire. The Juchen (Chinese: Nüzhen, or Ruzhen) were a Tungus people who belonged to those

  • Nurhachu (Manchurian chieftain)

    Nurhachi, chieftain of the Jianzhou Juchen, a Manchurian tribe, and one of the founders of the Manchu, or Qing, dynasty. His first attack on China (1618) presaged his son Dorgon’s conquest of the Chinese empire. The Juchen (Chinese: Nüzhen, or Ruzhen) were a Tungus people who belonged to those

  • Nūri (people)

    Nūristāni, people of the Hindu Kush mountain area of Afghanistan and the Chitral area of Pakistan. Their territory, formerly called Kāfiristān, “Land of the Infidels,” was renamed Nūristān, “Land of Light” or “Enlightenment,” when the populace was forcibly converted to Islam from the local

  • Nuri al-Said (Iraqi statesman)

    Nuri as-Said, Iraqi army officer, statesman, and political leader who maintained close ties with Great Britain and worked for Arab unity. Nuri was commissioned in the Turkish Army in 1909, when Iraq was a province of the Ottoman Empire. During World War I (1914–18) he participated in Ottoman

  • Nūrī al-Sa?īd (Iraqi statesman)

    Nuri as-Said, Iraqi army officer, statesman, and political leader who maintained close ties with Great Britain and worked for Arab unity. Nuri was commissioned in the Turkish Army in 1909, when Iraq was a province of the Ottoman Empire. During World War I (1914–18) he participated in Ottoman

  • Nuri as-Said (Iraqi statesman)

    Nuri as-Said, Iraqi army officer, statesman, and political leader who maintained close ties with Great Britain and worked for Arab unity. Nuri was commissioned in the Turkish Army in 1909, when Iraq was a province of the Ottoman Empire. During World War I (1914–18) he participated in Ottoman

  • Nūrī as-Sa?īd (Iraqi statesman)

    Nuri as-Said, Iraqi army officer, statesman, and political leader who maintained close ties with Great Britain and worked for Arab unity. Nuri was commissioned in the Turkish Army in 1909, when Iraq was a province of the Ottoman Empire. During World War I (1914–18) he participated in Ottoman

  • Nūristān (historical region, Afghanistan)

    Nūrestān, historic region in eastern Afghanistan, about 5,000 square miles (13,000 square km) in area and comprising the upper valleys of the Alīngār, Pīch, and Landay Sind rivers and the intervening mountain ranges. Its northern boundary is the main range of the Hindu Kush, its eastern the

  • Nūristāni (people)

    Nūristāni, people of the Hindu Kush mountain area of Afghanistan and the Chitral area of Pakistan. Their territory, formerly called Kāfiristān, “Land of the Infidels,” was renamed Nūristān, “Land of Light” or “Enlightenment,” when the populace was forcibly converted to Islam from the local

  • Nuristani languages

    Nuristani languages, group of six languages and several dialects that form a subset of the Indo-Aryan subdivision of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages. Nuristani languages are spoken by more than 100,000 people, predominantly in Afghanistan. These languages were formerly labeled

  • nuritate-mono (Japanese lacquerwork)

    rō-iro: Hana-nuri (or nuritate-mono) uses black lacquer that contains oil in order to impart a glossy finish to the article.

  • Nurmi, Paavo (Finnish athlete)

    Paavo Nurmi, Finnish track athlete who dominated long-distance running in the 1920s, capturing nine gold medals in three Olympic Games (1920, 1924, 1928), as well as three silvers. For eight years (1923–31) he held the world record for the mile run: 4 min 10.4 sec. During his career he established

  • Nurmi, Paavo Johannes (Finnish athlete)

    Paavo Nurmi, Finnish track athlete who dominated long-distance running in the 1920s, capturing nine gold medals in three Olympic Games (1920, 1924, 1928), as well as three silvers. For eight years (1923–31) he held the world record for the mile run: 4 min 10.4 sec. During his career he established

  • Nürnberg (Germany)

    Nürnberg, city, Bavaria Land (state), southern Germany. Bavaria’s second largest city (after Munich), Nürnberg is located on the Pegnitz River where it emerges from the uplands of Franconia (Franken), south of Erlangen. The city was first mentioned in 1050 in official records as Noremberg, but it

  • Nürnberg faience

    Nürnberg faience, German tin-glazed earthenware made at Nürnberg between 1712 and 1840. It is among the earliest German faience produced, since Nürnberg was a centre of pottery manufacture as early as the 16th century. The few extant specimens from that early period are in the manner of

  • Nürnberg Kleinmeister (engravers)

    Kleinmeister, group of engravers, working mostly in Nürnberg in the second quarter of the 16th century, whose forms and subjects were influenced by the works of Albrecht Dürer. Their engravings were small and thus easily portable. Usually flawless in technique, they stressed topical, didactic, i

  • Nürnberg Laws (German history)

    Nürnberg Laws, two race-based measures depriving Jews of rights, designed by Adolf Hitler and approved by the Nazi Party at a convention in Nürnberg on September 15, 1935. One, the Reichsbürgergesetz (German: “Law of the Reich Citizen”), deprived Jews of German citizenship, designating them

  • Nürnberg Party Meetings (Nazi Party rallies)

    Nürnberg Rally, any of the massive Nazi Party rallies held in 1923, 1927, and 1929 and annually from 1933 through 1938 in Nürnberg (Nuremberg) in Bavaria. The rallies were primarily propaganda events, carefully staged to reinforce party enthusiasm and to showcase the power of National Socialism to

  • Nürnberg Rally (Nazi Party rallies)

    Nürnberg Rally, any of the massive Nazi Party rallies held in 1923, 1927, and 1929 and annually from 1933 through 1938 in Nürnberg (Nuremberg) in Bavaria. The rallies were primarily propaganda events, carefully staged to reinforce party enthusiasm and to showcase the power of National Socialism to

  • Nürnberg Terrestrial Globe (globe by Behaim)

    Martin Behaim: …[Portugal]), navigator and geographer whose Nürnberg Terrestrial Globe is the earliest globe extant.

  • Nürnberg trials (World War II trials)

    Nürnberg trials, series of trials held in Nürnberg, Germany, in 1945–46, in which former Nazi leaders were indicted and tried as war criminals by the International Military Tribunal. The indictment lodged against them contained four counts: (1) crimes against peace (i.e., the planning, initiating,

  • Nürnberger Parteitage (Nazi Party rallies)

    Nürnberg Rally, any of the massive Nazi Party rallies held in 1923, 1927, and 1929 and annually from 1933 through 1938 in Nürnberg (Nuremberg) in Bavaria. The rallies were primarily propaganda events, carefully staged to reinforce party enthusiasm and to showcase the power of National Socialism to

  • nurse (medical profession)

    Nursing, profession that assumes responsibility for the continuous care of the sick, the injured, the disabled, and the dying. Nursing is also responsible for encouraging the health of individuals, families, and communities in medical and community settings. Nurses are actively involved in health

  • Nurse Betty (film by LaBute [2000])

    Chris Rock: …a series of films, including Nurse Betty (2000) and Down to Earth (2001). In 2001 he provided the voice of the title character in the animated movie Osmosis Jones. He later starred opposite Anthony Hopkins in the thriller Bad Company (2002). In 2003 Rock made his directorial debut with Head…

  • nurse cell (physiology)

    insect: Reproductive system: …undifferentiated cells that form oocytes, nurse cells, and follicular cells. The nurse cells provide nourishment for the oocytes during the early stages of their growth; follicular cells, which invest the enlarging oocyte as a continuous epithelium, provide the materials for yolk formation and, in the final stages, lay down the…

  • Nurse Jackie (American television program)

    Edie Falco: …the titular lead in Showtime’s Nurse Jackie (2009–15), a black comedy set in a New York City hospital. Falco’s character balances her medical responsibilities with an array of personal problems, including prescription-drug addiction. In 2010 Falco won her fourth lead actress Emmy Award, becoming the first female performer to win…

  • nurse practitioner (medical profession)

    Nurse practitioner (NP), nonphysician clinician who is a nurse with a graduate degree in advanced-practice nursing. The primary function of nurse practitioners is to promote wellness through patient health education. Their role includes taking patients’ comprehensive health histories, performing

  • Nurse Ratched (fictional character)

    One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest: Nurse Ratched (played by Louise Fletcher) enters for work, and the patients line up to receive their medications. A new inmate, R.P. McMurphy (Nicholson), arrives as a transfer from a prison work farm. As soon as he arrives on the ward, McMurphy begins interfering with…

  • nurse shark (fish family)

    Nurse shark, (family Ginglymostomatidae), common name for any shark in the family Ginglymostomatidae, which is made up of the genera Ginglymostoma, Nebrius, and Pseudoginglymostoma. In addition to the common Atlantic nurse shark (G. cirratum), the family includes the tawny nurse shark (N.

  • Nurse, Paul (British scientist)

    Paul Nurse, British scientist who, with Leland H. Hartwell and R. Timothy Hunt, won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2001 for discovering key regulators of the cell cycle. Nurse earned a Ph.D. from the University of East Anglia in 1973 and was a professor at the University of Oxford

  • Nurse, Rebecca (American colonist)

    Salem witch trials: Three witches: …of the community, beginning with Rebecca Nurse, a mature woman of some prominence. As the weeks passed, many of the accused proved to be enemies of the Putnams, and Putnam family members and in-laws would end up being the accusers in dozens of cases.

  • Nurse, Sir Paul Maxime (British scientist)

    Paul Nurse, British scientist who, with Leland H. Hartwell and R. Timothy Hunt, won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2001 for discovering key regulators of the cell cycle. Nurse earned a Ph.D. from the University of East Anglia in 1973 and was a professor at the University of Oxford

  • nursery (animal behaviour)

    megalodon: Reproduction and territoriality: …species appears to have used nurseries for its young. A 2010 study identified a megalodon nursery along the Panamanian coast, which was characterized by the presence of juvenile teeth from various stages of life. Scientists posit that this shallow warm-water nursery provided young megalodons with access to a diverse array…

  • nursery (horticulture)

    Nursery, place where plants are grown for transplanting, for use as stock for budding and grafting, or for sale. Commercial nurseries produce and distribute woody and herbaceous plants, including ornamental trees, shrubs, and bulb crops. While most nursery-grown plants are ornamental, the nursery

  • nursery education

    Preschool education, education during the earliest phases of childhood, beginning in infancy and ending upon entry into primary school at about five, six, or seven years of age (the age varying from country to country). The institutional arrangements for preschool education vary widely around the

  • nursery rhyme (literature)

    Nursery rhyme, verse customarily told or sung to small children. The oral tradition of nursery rhymes is ancient, but new verses have steadily entered the stream. A French poem numbering the days of the month, similar to “Thirty days hath September,” was recorded in the 13th century; but such

  • nursery school (school)

    Day-care centre, institution that provides supervision and care of infants and young children during the daytime, particularly so that their parents can hold jobs. Such institutions appeared in France about 1840, and the Société des Crèches was recognized by the French government in 1869. Day-care

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