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  • Nuuts Tovchoo (Mongol chronicle)

    Genghis Khan: Historical background: …the exception of the saga-like Secret History of the Mongols (1240?), only non-Mongol sources provide near-contemporary information about the life of Genghis Khan. Almost all writers, even those who were in the Mongol service, have dwelt on the enormous destruction wrought by the Mongol invasions. One Arab historian openly expressed…

  • Nuvolari, Tazio (Italian race–car driver)

    Tazio Nuvolari, Italian automobile racing driver. He began racing motorcycles in 1920 and won the Italian championship in 1924 and 1926 before turning to automobile competition. His first major victory in an auto race was in the 1930 Mille Miglia. Nuvolari raced as an independent driver in cars

  • Nuvolari, Tazio Giorgio (Italian race–car driver)

    Tazio Nuvolari, Italian automobile racing driver. He began racing motorcycles in 1920 and won the Italian championship in 1924 and 1926 before turning to automobile competition. His first major victory in an auto race was in the 1930 Mille Miglia. Nuvolari raced as an independent driver in cars

  • Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt (geological site, Quebec, Canada)

    Archean Eon: amphibolite volcanic deposits of the Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt in Quebec, Canada. The second oldest rocks are the 4-billion-year-old Acasta granitic gneisses in northwestern Canada, and a single relict zircon grain dated to 4.2 billion years ago was found within these gneisses. Other ancient sediments and lavas occur in the 3.85-billion-year-old…

  • Nuwara Eliya (Sri Lanka)

    Nuwara Eliya, town, south-central Sri Lanka. It lies at an elevation of 6,199 feet (1,889 metres) above sea level, immediately south of the island’s highest summit, Mount Pidurutalagala (8,281 feet [2,524 metres]), and 25 miles (40 km) southeast of Kandy. From 1830 Nuwara Eliya was a hill station

  • Nuwayrī, al- (Egyptian historian and civil servant)

    encyclopaedia: The Arab world: …Egyptian historian and civil servant al-Nuwayrī (1272–1332) compiled one of the best-known encyclopaedias of the Mamlūk period, the Nihāyat al-arab fī funūn al-adab (“The Aim of the Intelligent in the Art of Letters”), a work of almost 9,000 pages. It comprised: (1) geography, astronomy, meteorology, chronology, geology; (2) man (anatomy,…

  • Nuwe (ancient city, Egypt)

    Thebes, one of the famed cities of antiquity, the capital of the ancient Egyptian empire at its heyday. Thebes lay on either side of the Nile River at approximately 26° N latitude. The modern town of Luxor, or Al-Uq?ur, which occupies part of the site, is 419 miles (675 km) south of Cairo. Ancient

  • Nuwe Nasionale Party (political party, South Africa)

    National Party (NP), South African political party, founded in 1914, which ruled the country from 1948 to 1994. Its following included most of the Dutch-descended Afrikaners and many English-speaking whites. The National Party was long dedicated to policies of apartheid and white supremacy, but by

  • Nuwe Republikeinse Party (political party, South Africa)

    New Republic Party, former South African political party founded in 1977 as the direct successor to the United Party. The majority faction of the United Party, seeing its party disintegrating by defections to other new parties and to the ruling National Party, decided formally to disband the party

  • NUWSS (British organization)

    John Stuart Mill: The later years: … society, which developed into the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies, and in 1869 he published The Subjection of Women (written 1861), the classical theoretical statement of the case for woman suffrage. His last public activity was concerned with the starting of the Land Tenure Reform Association, for which he…

  • nux vomica tree (plant)

    strychnine: The nux vomica tree of India is the chief commercial source. Strychnine has a molecular formula of C21H22N2O2. It is practically insoluble in water and is soluble only with difficulty in alcohol and other common organic solvents. It has an exceptionally bitter taste.

  • Nuxalk (people)

    Bella Coola, North American Indians whose villages were located in what is now the central British Columbia coast, along the upper Dean and Burke channels and the lower parts of the Bella Coola River valley. They spoke a Salishan language related to that of the Coast Salish (q.v.) to the south.

  • Nuxhall, Joe (American baseball player and broadcaster)

    Joe Nuxhall, (Joseph Henry Nuxhall), American baseball player and broadcaster (born July 30, 1928, Hamilton, Ohio—died Nov. 15, 2007, Fairfield, Ohio), made his Major League Baseball (MLB) debut (on June 10, 1944) as a pitcher with the Cincinnati Reds at the age of 15 years 10 months 11 days,

  • Nuxhall, Joseph Henry (American baseball player and broadcaster)

    Joe Nuxhall, (Joseph Henry Nuxhall), American baseball player and broadcaster (born July 30, 1928, Hamilton, Ohio—died Nov. 15, 2007, Fairfield, Ohio), made his Major League Baseball (MLB) debut (on June 10, 1944) as a pitcher with the Cincinnati Reds at the age of 15 years 10 months 11 days,

  • nuxvomica tree (plant)

    strychnine: The nux vomica tree of India is the chief commercial source. Strychnine has a molecular formula of C21H22N2O2. It is practically insoluble in water and is soluble only with difficulty in alcohol and other common organic solvents. It has an exceptionally bitter taste.

  • Nuyts, Pieter (Dutch explorer)

    Australia: The Dutch: Pieter Nuyts explored almost 1,000 miles (1,600 km) of the southern coast in 1626–27, and other Dutchmen added to knowledge of the north and west.

  • Nuytsia floribunda (plant)

    Australian Christmas tree, (Nuytsia floribunda), parasitic tree of the mistletoe family (Loranthaceae), native to western Australia. The tree may grow to 10 metres (33 feet) or more and produces many yellow-orange flowers during the Christmas season. Its dry fruits have three broad leathery wings.

  • Nüzchen dynasty (China-Mongolia [1115-1234])

    Jin dynasty, (1115–1234), dynasty that ruled an empire formed by the Tungus Juchen (or Jurchen) tribes of Manchuria. The empire covered much of Inner Asia and all of present-day North China. Originally subjects of the Liao, an Inner Asian dynasty created in the 10th century by the Khitan tribes,

  • Nuzhat al-qulūb (work by ?amdollāh Mostowfī)

    Islamic arts: Belles lettres: …?amdollāh Mostowfī (died after 1340), Nuzhat al-qulūb (“Pleasure of the Hearts”), like many earlier works of this genre, underlined the mysterious aspects of the marvels of creation and was the most famous of several instructive collections of mixed folkloristic and scientific material. Early miniaturists, too, loved to illustrate the most…

  • Nüzhen (people)

    Huizong: …formed an alliance with the Juchen (Chinese: Nüzhen, or Ruzhen) tribes of Manchuria (now the Northeast region of China). The resulting victory over the Liao was wholly illusory, since it was the Juchen who turned out to be the real menace. In mounting crisis, Huizong abdicated in 1125/26 in favour…

  • Nuzu (ancient city, Iraq)

    Nuzu, ancient Mesopotamian city, located southwest of Kirkūk, Iraq. Excavations undertaken there by American archaeologists in 1925–31 revealed material extending from the prehistoric period to Roman, Parthian, and Sāsānian periods. In Akkadian times (2334–2154 bc) the site was called Gasur; but

  • Nuzu ware (pottery)

    Nuzu: …outstanding type of pottery, called Nuzu ware (or Mitanni ware) because of its original discovery there, was characterized by one primary shape—a tall, slender, small-footed goblet—and an intricate black and white painted decoration. In addition to these extraordinary ceramic artifacts, more than 4,000 cuneiform tablets were discovered at the site.…

  • Nu?mān (Arab general)

    Battle of Nahāvand: …troops, under the command of Nu?mān, attacked a Sāsānian army alleged to number 150,000 men. The Sāsānian troops, commanded by Fīrūzan, were entrenched in a strong fortified position. After an indecisive skirmish, Nu?mān pretended to be defeated and withdrew from the battlefield. Fīrūzan then abandoned his position and pursued his…

  • Nu?mān ibn al-Mundhir (king of the Lakhmids)

    Lakhmid Dynasty: …death, in 602, of an-Nu?mān III, who was a Nestorian Christian.

  • Nu?mān III, an- (king of the Lakhmids)

    Lakhmid Dynasty: …death, in 602, of an-Nu?mān III, who was a Nestorian Christian.

  • NV Koninklijke Nederlandsche Petroleum Maatschappij (Dutch company)

    Royal Dutch Shell PLC: …Koninklijke Nederlandse Petroleum Maatschappij (Royal Dutch Petroleum Company Ltd.) of The Hague and Shell Transport and Trading Company, PLC, of London. Below those two parent companies were subsidiary companies that operated around the world. The company’s principal American subsidiary was Shell Oil Company (SOC), founded in 1922. SOC is…

  • NV Philips Gloeilampenfabrieken (Dutch manufacturer)

    Philips Electronics NV, major Dutch manufacturer of consumer electronics, electronic components, medical imaging equipment, household appliances, lighting equipment, and computer and telecommunications equipment. Philips & Company was founded in 1891 by Frederik Philips and his son Gerard, who had

  • NV-A (political party, Belgium)

    Belgium: Federalized Belgium: …south remained, however, and the New Flemish Alliance polled strongly in local elections in Flanders in October 2012, with party leader Bart De Wever becoming mayor of Antwerp. In July 2013 Albert II, who had represented a significant unifying force throughout his reign, abdicated in favour of his son Philippe.

  • nvCJD (pathology)

    bovine spongiform encephalopathy: …form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (nvCJD) took the lives of dozens of people in Europe. In experiments with mice, researchers found that prions from human cases of nvCJD caused a disease pattern similar to that caused by prions from cows with BSE. The result suggested that the human infection is…

  • NVDP (dam building project, India)

    Medha Patkar: …with people displaced by the Narmada Valley Development Project (NVDP), a large-scale plan to dam the Narmada River and its tributaries in the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, and Maharashtra. An advocate of human rights, Patkar founded her campaigns on two basic tenets in the Indian constitution: the rights…

  • NVIDIA Corporation (global corporation)

    NVIDIA Corporation, global corporation that manufactures graphics processors, mobile technologies, and desktop computers. The company was founded in 1993 by three American computer scientists, Jen-Hsun Huang, Curtis Priem, and Christopher Malachowsky. NVIDIA is known for developing integrated

  • NVRA (United States [1993])

    United States: Voting and elections: …in 1993 Congress passed the National Voter Registration Act (the so-called “motor-voter law”), which required states to allow citizens to register to vote when they received their driver’s licenses, and in 1998 voters in Oregon approved a referendum that established a mail-in voting system. In addition, some states now allow…

  • NW (novel by Smith)

    Zadie Smith: NW (2012) centres on two women whose friendship—tempered by their straitened upbringings in a gritty London council estate—is tested by their divergent paths in adulthood. Though lauded for its evocative sense of place and sharply observed characters, the novel was deemed plotless and confusing by…

  • NWA Incorporated (American company)

    Northwest Airlines, Inc.: Northwest’s parent holding company, NWA Incorporated, was created in a corporate reorganization in 1984. Headquarters are at Minneapolis–St. Paul International Airport.

  • Nwapa, Flora (Nigerian author)

    Flora Nwapa, Nigerian novelist best known for re-creating Igbo (Ibo) life and customs from a woman’s viewpoint. Nwapa was educated in Ogula, Port Harcourt, and Lagos before attending University College in Ibadan, Nigeria (1953–57), and the University of Edinburgh. She worked as a teacher and

  • NWC (Canadian company)

    North West Company, Canadian fur-trading company, once the chief rival of the powerful Hudson’s Bay Company. The company was founded in 1783 and enjoyed a rapid growth. It originally confined its operations to the Lake Superior region and the valleys of the Red, Assiniboine, and Saskatchewan

  • NWC (school, United States)

    National Defense University: The National War College (NWC), formed in 1946, and the Army Industrial College, which was renamed the Industrial College of the Armed Forces (ICAF) in 1946 (becoming the Dwight D. Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy in 2012), addressed that need.

  • NWF (American organization)

    Jay Norwood Darling: …first president (1936) of the National Wildlife Federation.

  • NWF (material science)

    industrial glass: Sodium silicate glass: …known as a network-forming (NWF) cation—that is, a positively charged ion such as, in this case, silicon (Si4+). The four positive charges of the silicon ion lead it to form bonds with four oxygen atoms, forming SiO4 tetrahedra, or four-sided pyramidal shapes, connected to each other at the corners.…

  • NWFP (province, Pakistan)

    Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northernmost province of Pakistan. It is bounded by Afghanistan to the west and north, Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas (the Pakistani-administered areas of the Kashmir region) to the east and northeast, Punjab province to the southeast, and Balochistān province to the

  • NWHP (American organization)

    National Women’s History Project (NWHP), not-for-profit American organization founded in 1980 to “promote multicultural women’s history awareness.” The NWHP originated with the Educational Task Force in Sonoma county, California, the association that instigated the first Women’s History Week, in

  • NWM (glass)

    industrial glass: Properties of glass: …and nature of network-modifying (NWM) ions, (3) the openness of the structure, determined, again, by the concentration of NWM ions, and (4) the mobility of the NWM ions. Thus, tetrahedrally connected networks, such as those formed by silicates and illustrated in Figure 2, are more viscous than triangularly connected…

  • NWP (American political party)

    National Woman’s Party (NWP), American political party that in the early part of the 20th century employed militant methods to fight for an Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Formed in 1913 as the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage, the organization was headed by Alice Paul and

  • NWP (mathematical model)

    weather forecasting: Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models: Thinkers frequently advance ideas long before the technology exists to implement them. Few better examples exist than that of numerical weather forecasting. Instead of mental estimates or rules of thumb about the movement of storms, numerical forecasts are objective calculations of changes to…

  • NWPC (American political organization)

    National Women’s Political Caucus (NWPC), nonpartisan American political organization formed in 1971 to identify, recruit, train, endorse, and support women seeking public office. The organization endeavours to improve the status of women by amplifying the voice of women in government. To help

  • NWSA (American political organization)

    National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA), American organization, founded in 1869 and based in New York City, that was created by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton when the women’s rights movement split into two groups over the issue of suffrage for African American men. Considered the

  • NWU (Nigerian organization)

    Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti: …school, she helped organize the Abeokuta Ladies Club (ALC), initially a civic and charitable group of mostly Western-educated Christian women. The organization gradually became more political and feminist in its orientation, and in 1944 it formally admitted market women (women vendors in Abeokuta’s open-air markets), who were generally impoverished, illiterate,…

  • Nxele (prophet of South African Xhosas)

    prophecy: Prophetic movements and figures in the religions of nonliterate cultures: Nxele, a 19th-century prophet of the South African Xhosas, preached the return of the dead on a certain day, and his successor, Mlandsheni, claimed to be the reincarnation of Nxele. He and others like him were healers and miracle workers.

  • ny system, Det (work by Bjornson)

    Norwegian literature: Toward the modern breakthrough: …dramas Det ny system (The New System), En handske (A Gauntlet), and Over ?vne (Beyond Human Power I) and his novel Det flager i byen og p? havnen (The Heritage of the Kurts); Lie’s novels Gaa paa! (“Go Ahead!”), Livsslaven (“The Life Convict”; Eng. trans. One of Life’s Slaves

  • NYA (United States history)

    United States: The second New Deal and the Supreme Court: The National Youth Administration created part-time jobs for millions of college students, high-school students, and other youngsters. Of long-range significance was the Social Security Act of 1935, which provided federal aid for the aged, retirement annuities, unemployment insurance, aid for persons who were blind or crippled,…

  • nya riket, Det (work by Strindberg)

    August Strindberg: Early years: …the year after he published Det nya riket (“The New Kingdom”), a withering satire on contemporary Sweden, Strindberg left Stockholm with his family and for six years moved restlessly about the Continent. Although he was then approaching a state of complete mental breakdown, he produced a great number of plays,…

  • Nya Skapelsen, eller inbillningensv?rld, Den (work by Kellgren)

    Johan Henrik Kellgren: …is considered his greatest poem, Den Nya Skapelsen, eller inbillningensv?rld (1790; “The New Creation, or the World of the Imagination”), in which he exalts the cosmic power of the imagination while describing a rich experience of romantic love.

  • Nya, Muhammadu (emir of Muri)

    Muri: Although Emir Muhammadu Nya signed a treaty in 1885 permitting the British Royal Niger Company (1886) to build a trading post at Ibi (104 miles [167 km] southwest of Muri town), troubles with the company and the non-Muslim Jibu people led him to place the emirate under…

  • NYAC (American sports club)

    athletics: Modern development: …in 1839, but it was the New York Athletic Club, formed in the 1860s, that placed the sport on a solid footing in the United States. The club held the world’s first indoor meet and helped promote the formation in 1879 of the National Association of Amateur Athletes of America…

  • Nyack (New York, United States)

    Nyack, village in the towns (townships) of Clarkstown and Orangetown, Rockland county, southeastern New York, U.S. It lies on the west bank of the Hudson River (there known as the Tappan Zee) about 25 miles (40 km) north of New York City. Settled in 1684, it was named for an Algonquian-speaking

  • Nyad, Diana (American swimmer and journalist)

    Diana Nyad, American distance swimmer and journalist who, in 2013, became the first person to complete a swim from Cuba to Florida without the protection of a shark cage. Born Diana Winslow Sneed, she was later adopted by her mother’s second husband and took his surname, Nyad. She grew up mainly in

  • Nyainqêntanglha Mountains (mountains, China)

    Nyainqêntanglha Mountains, mountain range forming the eastern section of a mountain system in the southern part of the Tibet Autonomous Region, southwestern China. In the west the system comprises a northern range, the Nganglong (A-ling) Mountains, and a southern range, the Kailas Range, which is

  • Nyakyusa (people)

    Nyakyusa, Bantu-speaking people living in Mbeya region, Tanzania, immediately north of Lake Nyasa, and in Mala?i. Their country comprises alluvial flats near the lake and the mountainous country beyond for about 40 miles (65 km). Those living in Mala?i are called Ngonde (or Nkonde). Plantains are

  • nyala (mammal)

    Nyala, (Tragelaphus angasii), slender antelope of southeastern Africa, a member of the spiral-horned antelope tribe Tragelaphini (family Bovidae), which also includes the kudu and eland. The nyala is notable for its extreme gender differences (sexual dimorphism) and specialized habitat preferences

  • Nyala (Sudan)

    Nyala, city, southwestern Sudan, located at an elevation of 2,208 feet (673 metres) in the Darfur historical region. The city’s industries produce textiles, processed food, and leather goods. Nyala is a road and railway terminus and serves as a trading centre for gum arabic. It also has a domestic

  • Nyama (religion)

    nature worship: Nature as a sacred totality: …the saints, and the power Nyama in western Sudan that works as a force within large wild animals, certain bush spirits, and physically handicapped people—appearing especially as a contagious power of revenge—may be added with a certain justification to that force of nature that is designated by mana. A striking…

  • Nyame (Asante god)

    African religions: Worldview and divinity: …libations and offer prayers to Nyame, the Creator, giving thanks and seeking blessing. The most significant aspect of Asante ritual life, however, is the veneration of matrilineal ancestors, who are considered the guardians of the moral order. According to the mythology of the Dogon of Mali, the Creator, Amma, brought…

  • Nyamekye (play by Sutherland)

    Efua Sutherland: …one of her later plays, Nyamekye, a version of Alice in Wonderland, shows the influence of the folk opera tradition. Sutherland’s book of fairy tales and folklore of Ghana, The Voice in the Forest, was published in 1983.

  • Nyamulagira, Mount (mountain, Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    Mount Nyamulagira, volcano in the Virunga Mountains of east-central Africa, 15 miles (24 km) northeast of Sake, in the volcano region of Virunga National Park, Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is about 10,023 feet (3,055 metres) high. The most active volcano in Africa, Nyamulagira often emits

  • Nyamwezi (people)

    Nyamwezi, Bantu-speaking inhabitants of a wide area of the western region of Tanzania. Their language and culture are closely related to those of the Sukuma (q.v.). The Nyamwezi subsist primarily by cereal agriculture, their major crops being sorghum, millet, and corn (maize). Rice is a s

  • Nyandoro, George Bodzo (Zimbabwean nationalist)

    George Bodzo Nyandoro, Zimbabwean nationalist (born July 8, 1926, Marandellas district, Southern Rhodesia—died June 24, 1994, Harare, Zimbabwe), was a founding member of the Southern Rhodesian African National Congress (ANC) and one of the earliest leaders in the fight for independence and black m

  • Nyang’i languages

    Nilo-Saharan languages: The diffusion of Nilo-Saharan languages: , the Kuliak language Nyang’i (Uganda), the Surmic language Kwegu (Ethiopia), and the Nilotic language Okiek (Kenya). Gule (or Anej), a Komuz language of Sudan, is now extinct, and the people speak Arabic.

  • Nyang-Chu River (river, Tibet, China)

    Dbus-Gtsang: Chief among these is the Nyang Chu River valley, which runs from the northwest to the southeast for some 150 miles (240 km) before it enters the Brahmaputra. The Nyang Chu flows past the fortress town of Gyangzê and past Xigazê, the former administrative headquarters of Gtsang.

  • Nyanga (people)

    African dance: Masquerade dancers: …initiation rites of the young Nyanga men in eastern Congo (Kinshasa). Initially he dances as a masquerade to send the boys out of the village to their ritual seclusion, where he taunts the initiates before and after the rites of circumcision. As an authority figure, he inspires awe in women…

  • Nyanja (language)

    Chewa: Their language, Chewa, is also called Chichewa, Nyanja, or Chinyanja and is important in Malawi.

  • Nyanja (people)

    Zambia: Ethnic and linguistic composition: The Nyanja (also known as Chewa) and Tonga language groups are also important, together accounting for more than one-fifth of the population. Nyanja languages are spoken in the Eastern and Central provinces, while Tonga languages are spoken mainly in the Southern and Western provinces.

  • Nyankole (people)

    Nkole, a people of the Interlacustrine Bantu-speaking group who occupy the area of southwestern Uganda between Lakes Edward and George and the Tanzania border. Numbering about 1,500,000 in the late 20th century, the Nkole were traditionally divided into two quite distinct social groups: the

  • Nyankore (people)

    Nkole, a people of the Interlacustrine Bantu-speaking group who occupy the area of southwestern Uganda between Lakes Edward and George and the Tanzania border. Numbering about 1,500,000 in the late 20th century, the Nkole were traditionally divided into two quite distinct social groups: the

  • Nyanyi Sunyi Seorang Bisu (work by Pramoedya Ananta Toer)

    September 30th Movement: …Nyanyi Sunyi Seorang Bisu (1995; The Mute’s Soliloquy) specifically addresses his years on Buru. The events surrounding the September 30th Movement also provided the setting for the award-winning films The Year of Living Dangerously (1982) and Gie (2005).

  • Nyasa, Lake (lake, Africa)

    Lake Nyasa, lake, southernmost and third largest of the Eastern Rift Valley lakes of East Africa, which lies in a deep trough mainly within Malawi. The existence of the lake was reported by a Portuguese explorer, Caspar Boccaro, in 1616. David Livingstone, the British explorer-missionary, reached

  • Nyasaland

    Malawi, landlocked country in southeastern Africa. Endowed with spectacular highlands and extensive lakes, it occupies a narrow, curving strip of land along the East African Rift Valley. Lake Nyasa, known in Malawi as Lake Malawi, accounts for more than one-fifth of the country’s total area. Most

  • Nyasaland Districts Protectorate (British-African history)

    Southern Africa: Expropriation of African land: …sphere; it was declared the British Central African Protectorate in 1891, with Johnston as commissioner. Even before Johnston’s arrival the British had been embroiled in open warfare with Arab slave traders, and during the early years of the protectorate Johnston engaged in a spate of wars against the Swahili and…

  • Nyasaye (African deity)

    Luo: …supreme creator, whom they called Nyasi (Nyasaye), and had a strong ancestor cult. At the turn of the 21st century, most Luo were Christians.

  • Nyasi (African deity)

    Luo: …supreme creator, whom they called Nyasi (Nyasaye), and had a strong ancestor cult. At the turn of the 21st century, most Luo were Christians.

  • Nyatsimba (African king)

    Mwene Matapa: His great-great-grandson Nyatsimba, who ruled in the late 15th century, was the actual creator of the empire and the first to bear the title Mwene Matapa. During his reign the centre of the state was shifted from Zimbabwe north to Mount Fura on the Zambezi River.

  • Nyawarongo River (river, Africa)

    Kagera River: …confluence of its two headstreams—the Nyawarongo (Niavarongo) and the Ruvubu (Ruvuvu)—which in turn are fed by streams rising in the highlands east of Lake Kivu and Lake Tanganyika, between Congo (Kinshasa) and Rwanda. The Kagera flows about 250 miles (400 km) north and east. In its middle course northward it…

  • Nyaya (Indian philosophy)

    Nyaya, (Sanskrit: “Rule” or “Method”) one of the six systems (darshans) of Indian philosophy, important for its analysis of logic and epistemology. The major contribution of the Nyaya system is its working out in profound detail the means of knowledge known as inference (see anumana). Like the

  • Nyaya-sutra (Indian philosophical work)

    Indian philosophy: The Nyaya-sutras: The Nyaya-sutras probably were composed by Gautama or Akshapada about the 2nd century bce, though there is ample evidence that many sutras were subsequently interpolated.

  • Nyaya-Vaisheshika (Indian philosopher)

    Vaisheshika: …school was referred to as Nyaya-Vaisheshika.

  • Nyayabindu (work by Dharmakīrti)

    Indian philosophy: Contributions of Dignaga and Dharmakirti: …“unerring” and distinguished, in his Nyayabindu, between four kinds of perception: that by the five senses, that by the mind, self-consciousness, and perception of the yogins. He also introduced a threefold distinction of valid middle terms: the middle must be related to the major either by identity (“This is a…

  • Nyayanusarino Vijnanavadinah (Buddhist school)

    Yogachara: …the Scriptural Tradition”) and the Nyayanusarino Vijnanavadinah (“Vijnanavada School of the Logical Tradition”), the latter subschool postulating the views of the logician Dignaga (c. 480–540 ce) and his successor, Dharmakirti (c. 600–660 ce).

  • Nyblom, Helena (Swedish author)

    children's literature: National and modern literature: …century two followers of Andersen—Helena Nyblom and Anna Wahlenberg—enriched the tradition of the fairy tale. The former’s Sagokrans (1903; Eng. trans., The Witch of the Woods, 1968), preserves a rare charm.

  • Nyborg (Denmark)

    Nyborg, city and port, eastern Funen island, Denmark, on the Great Belt and Nyborg Fjord. Named for the castle (borg) built in 1170 to protect the Great Belt and chartered in 1292, it was the favourite meeting place of the Danehof (assembly of nobles and clergy) from 1282 to 1413. The Great

  • Nyby, Christian (American director)

    The Thing from Another World: …the movie is credited to Christian Nyby, but some have claimed that producer Hawks actually directed many of the scenes, though he allowed Nyby to take screen credit. The film was loosely based on the short story “Who Goes There?” by the influential science-fiction author and editor John W. Campbell,…

  • NYC Ghosts and Flowers (album by Sonic Youth)

    Sonic Youth: After helping to produce NYC Ghosts and Flowers (2000), a paean to avant-garde composers like John Cage, O’Rourke became a full-time member of Sonic Youth, appearing on tour and handling production duties for Murray Street (2002) and Sonic Nurse (2004). Although O’Rourke departed in 2005, the 2006 album Rather…

  • NYCB (American ballet company)

    New York City Ballet, resident ballet company of the New York State Theatre at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. The company, first named Ballet Society, was founded in 1946 by the choreographer George Balanchine (artistic director) and Lincoln Kirstein (general director) as a private

  • nychthemeral rhythm (biology)

    Circadian rhythm, the cyclical 24-hour period of human biological activity. Within the circadian (24-hour) cycle, a person usually sleeps approximately 8 hours and is awake 16. During the wakeful hours, mental and physical functions are most active and tissue cell growth increases. During sleep,

  • nyckelharpa (musical instrument)

    stringed instrument: Lutes: …Norwegian Hardanger fiddle, the Swedish nyckelharpa, and the viola d’amore.

  • Nyctaginaceae (plant family)

    Nyctaginaceae, the four-o’clock family of flowering plants, in the pink, or carnation, order (Caryophyllales), containing about 30 genera with close to 400 species of herbs, shrubs, and trees, which are native to tropical and warm temperate areas of the world. Members of the family have

  • nyctalopia (physiology)

    Night blindness, failure of the eye to adapt promptly from light to darkness that is characterized by a reduced ability to see in dim light or at night. It occurs as a symptom of numerous congenital and inherited retinal diseases or as a result of vitamin A deficiency. Congenital night blindness

  • Nyctalus (mammal)

    Noctule, (genus Nyctalus), any of about six species of vesper bats (family Vespertilionidae) found in Europe and Asia. Noctules are golden to yellowish or dark brown, with a paler underside. They are 5–10 cm (2–4 inches) long without the 3.5–6.5-cm (1.4–2.6-inch) tail. They are swift, erratic

  • Nyctanassa violacea (bird)

    heron: …and the Philippines; and the yellow-crowned night heron (Nyctanassa violacea) from the eastern and central United States to southern Brazil. Another night heron is the boat-billed heron, or boatbill (Cochlearius cochlearius), of Central and South America, placed by some authorities in its own family (Cochleariidae).

  • Nyctea scandiaca (bird)

    Snowy owl, (Nyctea scandiaca), white or barred, brown-and-white bird of prey of the family Strigidae (order Strigiformes). It inhabits the Arctic tundra and sometimes wanders southward in Europe, Asia, and North America. Snowy owls are about 60 cm (about 2 feet) long and have broad wings and a

  • Nyctereutes procyonoides (canine)

    Raccoon dog, (Nyctereutes procyonoides), member of the dog family (Canidae) native to eastern Asia and introduced into Europe. Some authorities place it in the raccoon family, Procyonidae. It resembles the raccoon in having dark facial markings that contrast with its yellowish brown coat, but it

  • Nycteridae (mammal)

    Slit-faced bat, (family Nycteridae), any of 16 species of tropical bats, all belonging to the genus Nycteris, which constitutes the family Nycteridae, found in Africa and in the Malaysian and Indonesian regions. Slit-faced bats have a longitudinal hollow on their faces and a nose leaf (fleshy

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