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  • naphtha (chemical compound)

    Naphtha, any of various volatile, highly flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures used chiefly as solvents and diluents and as raw materials for conversion to gasoline. Naphtha was the name originally applied to the more volatile kinds of petroleum issuing from the ground in the Baku district of

  • naphtha reforming

    petroleum refining: Naphtha reforming: The most widespread process for rearranging hydrocarbon molecules is naphtha reforming. The initial process, thermal reforming, was developed in the late 1920s. Thermal reforming employed temperatures of 510–565 °C (950–1,050 °F) at moderate pressures—about 40 bars (4 MPa), or 600 psi—to obtain gasolines…

  • naphthalene (chemical compound)

    Naphthalene, the simplest of the fused or condensed ring hydrocarbon compounds composed of two benzene rings sharing two adjacent carbon atoms; chemical formula, C10H8. It is an important hydrocarbon raw material that gives rise to a host of substitution products used in the manufacture of

  • naphthene (petroleum)

    crude oil: …most prevalent in them: paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics. Paraffins are the most common hydrocarbons in crude oil; certain liquid paraffins are the major constituents of gasoline (petrol) and are therefore highly valued. Naphthenes are an important part of all liquid refinery products, but they also form some of the heavy…

  • naphthene series (petroleum)

    crude oil: …most prevalent in them: paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics. Paraffins are the most common hydrocarbons in crude oil; certain liquid paraffins are the major constituents of gasoline (petrol) and are therefore highly valued. Naphthenes are an important part of all liquid refinery products, but they also form some of the heavy…

  • naphthol (chemical compound)

    Naphthol, either of two colourless, crystalline organic compounds derived from naphthalene and belonging to the phenol family; each has the molecular formula C10H7OH. Both compounds have long been identified with the manufacture of dyes and dye intermediates; they also have important uses in other

  • naphthoquinone (chemical compound)

    coloration: Naphthoquinones: Naphthoquinones are encountered in some bacteria and in the leaves, seeds, and woody parts of higher plants. They can be recovered as yellow, orange, red, or purple crystals. They are soluble in organic solvents and have been used extensively as dyes for fabrics. Among…

  • naphthyl (radical)

    organometallic compound: Alkylidene ligands: For example, naphthyl compounds (i.e., those derived from the fused ring system C10H8) can be synthesized by the reaction of methoxy phenyl Fischer carbenes with an alkyne.

  • naphthylamine (chemical compound)

    chemical industry: Nitric acid: …to naphthalene (C10H8) results in naphthylamine. Both aniline and naphthylamine are the parents of a large number of dyes, but today synthetic dyes are usually petrochemical in origin (see the article dye). Aniline, naphthylamine, and the other dye intermediates lead also to pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, and chemicals used in rubber…

  • Naphtol AS (chemical compound)

    dye: Azo dyes: …was found that 2-hydroxy-3-naphthanilide (Naphtol AS, from the German Naphtol Anilid S?ure) forms a water-soluble anion with affinity for cotton, a major step in the development of the ingrain dyes. Its reaction with unsulfonated azoic diazo components on the fabric gives insoluble dyes with good wetfastness; with Diazo Component…

  • Napier (New Zealand)

    Napier, city and port, eastern North Island, New Zealand, on the southwestern shore of Hawke Bay. Laid out in 1856, the town was named for Sir Charles Napier, a 19th-century British military commander in India. It was made a borough in 1874 and a city in 1950. Napier, on a small headland known as

  • Napier Complex (geological region, Antarctica)

    Precambrian: Structure and occurrence of granulite-gneiss belts: …belts in Zimbabwe, and the Napier Complex in Enderby Land in Antarctica. Granulite-gneiss belts are commonly surrounded by younger, mostly Proterozoic belts that contain remobilized relicts of the Archean rocks, and the granulites and gneisses must underlie many Archean greenstone-granite belts and blankets of Phanerozoic sediment.

  • napier grass

    Africa: Lowland rainforest: Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) can grow abundantly in areas where the vegetation has been disturbed, providing good fodder for grazing animals when young but quickly becoming rank, coarse, and a refuge for insects. Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) is a troublesome grass on depleted and fire-seared…

  • Napier of Magdala, Robert Cornelis Napier, 1st Baron (British field marshal)

    Robert Napier, 1st Baron Napier, British field marshal who had a distinguished military and civil engineering career in India and commanded military expeditions to Ethiopia and China. The son of Major Charles Frederick Napier, a British artillery officer stationed in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), he

  • Napier’s bones (mathematics)

    John Napier: Contribution to mathematics: …of small rods known as Napier’s bones, a device that was the forerunner of the slide rule. He also made important contributions to spherical trigonometry, particularly by reducing the number of equations used to express trigonometrical relationships from 10 to 2 general statements. He is also credited with certain trigonometrical…

  • Napier, John (Scottish mathematician)

    John Napier, Scottish mathematician and theological writer who originated the concept of logarithms as a mathematical device to aid in calculations. At the age of 13, Napier entered the University of St. Andrews, but his stay appears to have been short, and he left without taking a degree. Little

  • Napier, John Russell (British anthropologist)

    Homo habilis: Leakey, Phillip Tobias, and John Napier. As justification for designating their new creature Homo rather than Australopithecus, they described the increased cranial capacity and comparatively smaller molar and premolar teeth of the fossils, a humanlike foot, and hand bones that suggested an ability to manipulate objects with precision—hence the…

  • Napier, MacVey (Scottish lawyer and editor)

    MacVey Napier, Scottish lawyer, first professor of conveyancing at the University of Edinburgh, who was an innovative editor of the Supplement to the 4th, 5th, and 6th editions of Encyclop?dia Britannica and editor of the 7th edition. Napier studied at Glasgow and Edinburgh universities.

  • Napier, Robert Napier, 1st Baron (British field marshal)

    Robert Napier, 1st Baron Napier, British field marshal who had a distinguished military and civil engineering career in India and commanded military expeditions to Ethiopia and China. The son of Major Charles Frederick Napier, a British artillery officer stationed in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), he

  • Napier, Sir Charles James (British general and colonial governor)

    Sir Charles James Napier, British general, who conquered (1843) Sind (now in Pakistan) and served as its governor (1843–47). Napier, a relative of the statesman Charles James Fox, was a veteran of the (Iberian) Peninsular War against Napoleonic France and of the War of 1812 against the United

  • Napier, Sir Charles, Conde Napier de S?o Vicente (British admiral)

    Sir Charles Napier, Count Napier de S?o Vicente, admiral in the Portuguese and British navies, the controversial commander of the British Baltic Fleet during the Crimean War of 1853–56. Created Conde Napier de S?o Vicente in the Portuguese peerage, he was less elegantly known in Great Britain as

  • Napier, Sir William Francis Patrick (British general and historian)

    Sir William Francis Patrick Napier, British general and historian who fought in the Napoleonic Wars, particularly in the Peninsular War in Spain and Portugal; he wrote the popular History of the War in the Peninsula…, 6 vol. (1828–40), based partly on his own combat experiences and partly on

  • Napier, William John (British official)

    China: Western challenge, 1839–60: …India Company’s monopoly in 1834, William John Napier was appointed chief superintendent of British trade in China and arrived at Guangzhou. He tried to negotiate with the Guangzhou authorities on equal footing, but the latter took his behaviour as contrary to the established Sino-foreign intercourse. His mission failed, and he…

  • Napisany, kako priydosha v Sibir (Russian literary work)

    Siberian Chronicles: …derive from a now-lost work, Napisany, kako priydosha v Sibir (“Description of How to Reach Siberia”), written in 1621 by survivors of the 16th-century expeditions into Siberia led by the Cossack hero Yermak Timofeyevich (q.v.). This work was purportedly copied and interpreted in later works, which in turn became the…

  • napkin rash

    childhood disease and disorder: Skin disorders: Diaper, or napkin, rashes, which affect the areas of skin in contact with a wet diaper, are very common and can become severe when additional infection occurs.

  • Naplanum (king of Larsa)

    Larsa: …inaugurated by a king named Naplanum (c. 2025–c. 2005 bc); he was a contemporary of Ishbi-Erra, who founded a dynasty at the rival city of Isin. Naplanum was succeeded by a line of 13 kings, many of whom exercised great authority in Babylonia and represented the new hegemony of Semitic…

  • Naples (Italy)

    Naples, city, capital of Naples provincia, Campania regione, southern Italy. It lies on the west coast of the Italian peninsula, 120 miles (190 km) southeast of Rome. On its celebrated bay—flanked to the west by the smaller Gulf of Pozzuoli and to the southeast by the more extended indentation of

  • Naples (Florida, United States)

    Naples, resort city, seat (1966) of Collier county, southwestern Florida, U.S. It lies on the Gulf of Mexico at the edge of Big Cypress Swamp, about 35 miles (55 km) south of Fort Myers. The region was originally inhabited by Calusa Indians and later by the Seminoles. Named for the Italian city,

  • Naples, Bay of (bay, Italy)

    Bay of Naples, semicircular inlet of the Tyrrhenian Sea (an arm of the Mediterranean Sea), southwest of the city of Naples, southern Italy. It is 10 miles (16 km) wide and extends southeastward for 20 miles (32 km) from Cape Miseno to Campanella Point. The bay is noted for its scenic beauty, which

  • Naples, Kingdom of (historical state, Italy)

    Kingdom of Naples, state covering the southern portion of the Italian peninsula from the Middle Ages to 1860. It was often united politically with Sicily. By the early 12th century the Normans had carved out a state in southern Italy and Sicily in areas formerly held by the Byzantines, Lombards,

  • Naples, University of (university, Naples, Italy)

    University of Naples, coeducational state university at Naples founded in 1224 as a studium generale by the Holy Roman emperor Frederick II to offset the dominant influence of the university at Bologna. Although universities were generally chartered after students had chosen to study in a

  • NAPM (Indian organization)

    Medha Patkar: In 1996 Patkar founded the National Alliance of People’s Movements (NAPM), an agglomeration of progressive social bodies opposed to globalization policies. She was a representative to the World Commission on Dams, the first independent global advisory body on dam-related issues of water, power, and alternatives; the commission was set up…

  • Napo River (river, South America)

    Napo River, river in northeastern Ecuador and northeastern Peru. It flows from the eastern slopes of the Andes in Ecuador and descends generally eastward to the Peruvian border. There it turns southeastward and continues through dense tropical rain forests, joining the Amazon River approximately 50

  • Napoca (ancient settlement, Romania)

    Cluj-Napoca: …of an ancient Dacian settlement, Napoca, which the Romans made a municipium.

  • Napoleon (card game)

    Nap, gambling card game played throughout northern Europe under various names and guises. It reached England in the 1880s. Its title may commemorate the deposed Napoleon III. Three or more players—ideally five—use a standard 52-card deck from which an agreed number of lower numerals may be stripped

  • Napoléon (film by Gance [1927])

    Napoléon, French epic silent film, released in 1927, that recounted the life of the French general Napoléon Bonaparte, tracing his early years through his invasion of Italy in 1796. It was intended to be the first of several films about the French emperor, but no subsequent movies came to fruition.

  • Napoleon (emperor of France)

    Napoleon I, French general, first consul (1799–1804), and emperor of the French (1804–1814/15), one of the most celebrated personages in the history of the West. He revolutionized military organization and training; sponsored the Napoleonic Code, the prototype of later civil-law codes; reorganized

  • Napoleon (emperor of France)

    Napoleon III, nephew of Napoleon I, president of the Second Republic of France (1850–52), and then emperor of the French (1852–70). He gave his country two decades of prosperity under a stable, authoritarian government but finally led it to defeat in the Franco-German War (1870–71). He was the

  • Napoleon Crowning the Empress Josephine (painting by David)

    Jacques-Louis David: Later years: 1794–1825: …Napoleonic work is the huge Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon and the Coronation of Empress Joséphine on December 2, 1804 (1805–07), sometimes called Coronation of Napoleon in Notre-Dame; in it Neoclassicism gives way to a style that combines the official portraiture of the old French monarchy with overtones—and occasional straight…

  • Napoleon I (emperor of France)

    Napoleon I, French general, first consul (1799–1804), and emperor of the French (1804–1814/15), one of the most celebrated personages in the history of the West. He revolutionized military organization and training; sponsored the Napoleonic Code, the prototype of later civil-law codes; reorganized

  • Napoleon II (Austrian-Italian noble)

    Napoléon-Fran?ois-Charles-Joseph Bonaparte, duke von Reichstadt, only son of Emperor Napoleon I and Empress Marie-Louise; at birth he was styled king of Rome. Three years after his birth, the French empire to which he was heir collapsed, and he was taken by the empress to Blois (April 1814). Upon

  • Napoleon III (emperor of France)

    Napoleon III, nephew of Napoleon I, president of the Second Republic of France (1850–52), and then emperor of the French (1852–70). He gave his country two decades of prosperity under a stable, authoritarian government but finally led it to defeat in the Franco-German War (1870–71). He was the

  • Napoléon III (French steamship)

    ship: The Atlantic Ferry: …States) in 1865 launched the Napoléon III, which was the last paddle steamer built for the Atlantic Ferry. Early in the history of steam navigation the Swedish engineer John Ericsson had attempted unsuccessfully to interest the British Admiralty in the screw propeller he had invented. The U.S. Navy did adopt…

  • Napoleon III style (architecture)

    Second Empire style, architectural style that was dominant internationally during the second half of the 19th century. Developing from a tendency of architects of the second quarter of the 19th century to use architectural schemes drawn from the periods of the Italian Renaissance, Louis XIV, and

  • Napoléon inconnu (work by Masson)

    Frédéric Masson: In Napoléon inconnu (1895; “The Unknown Napoleon”), Masson, with Guido Biagi, brought out the unpublished writings (1786–93) of Napoleon before he became emperor: notes; extracts from historical, philosophical, and literary books; and personal reflections. His other works include several books on Josephine; Napoléon et sa famille,…

  • Napoleon IV (French prince)

    Louis Bonaparte, French prince imperial, the only son of Napoleon III by Empress Eugénie. He was a delicate boy, but when the Franco-German War of 1870 broke out his mother sent him to the army. After the first defeats he had to flee from France with the Empress and settled in England at

  • Napoleon of the Prize Ring (English boxer)

    Tom Sayers, boxer who participated in the first international heavyweight championship match and was one of England’s best-known 19th-century pugilists. Standing 5 feet 8 12 inches and weighing 155 pounds, Sayers was known as the Little Wonder and the Napoleon of the Prize Ring. He often fought

  • Napoleon on his Imperial Throne (painting by Ingres)

    J.-A.-D. Ingres: Early life and works: …was, however, the monumental portrait Napoleon I on His Imperial Throne (1806) that proved the most controversial. The stiffness and flat frontality of this imposing effigy were derived from medieval and Byzantine prototypes, while its meticulous detailing and unrelenting surface realism recalled 15th-century Flemish masters. Critics were unanimous in their…

  • Napoleon on the Battlefield at Eylau, February 1807 (painting by Gros)

    Antoine-Jean Gros: …Pesthouse at Jaffa (1804) and Napoleon on the Battlefield at Eylau, February 1807 (1808) influenced Théodore Géricault and Eugène Delacroix.

  • Napoleon on the Bridge at Arcole (painting by Gros)

    Antoine-Jean Gros: …in his first major work, Napoleon on the Bridge at Arcole (1796). Napoleon bestowed on him the rank of inspecteur aux revues. He accompanied Napoleon on his campaigns and also helped select works of art from Italy for the Louvre.

  • Napoleon Visiting the Pesthouse at Jaffa (painting by Gros)

    Antoine-Jean Gros: …of such historical paintings as Napoleon Visiting the Pesthouse at Jaffa (1804) and Napoleon on the Battlefield at Eylau, February 1807 (1808) influenced Théodore Géricault and Eugène Delacroix.

  • Napoléon vu par Abel Gance (film by Gance [1927])

    Napoléon, French epic silent film, released in 1927, that recounted the life of the French general Napoléon Bonaparte, tracing his early years through his invasion of Italy in 1796. It was intended to be the first of several films about the French emperor, but no subsequent movies came to fruition.

  • Napoléon-Jerome, Prince (French prince)

    Napoléon-Joseph-Charles-Paul Bonaparte, youngest son of Jér?me Bonaparte, Napoleon I’s youngest brother, and his second wife, Catherine of Württemberg. In 1852 he was named heir presumptive to the throne of the Second Empire. After the French Revolution of 1848, he was elected to the National

  • Napoleon; oder, die hundert Tage (work by Grabbe)

    Christian Dietrich Grabbe: Grabbe’s most important poetic work, Napoleon; oder, die hundert Tage (1831; “Napoleon; or, The Hundred Days”), exemplifies the boldly experimental form of his plays, in which he avoided continuous action by the use of a series of vividly depicted and contrasting scenes. His tragedy Don Juan und Faust (1829) is…

  • Napoleonic Code (France [1804])

    Napoleonic Code, French civil code enacted on March 21, 1804, and still extant, with revisions. It was the main influence on the 19th-century civil codes of most countries of continental Europe and Latin America. The demand for codification and, indeed, codification itself preceded the Napoleonic

  • Napoleonic Ode, The (work by Manzoni)

    Alessandro Manzoni: …“Il cinque maggio” (1822; “The Napoleonic Ode”), was considered by Goethe, one of the first to translate it into German, as the greatest of many written to commemorate the event.

  • Napoleonic Wars (European history)

    Napoleonic Wars, series of wars between Napoleonic France and shifting alliances of other European powers that produced a brief French hegemony over most of Europe. Along with the French Revolutionary wars, the Napoleonic Wars constitute a 23-year period of recurrent conflict that concluded only

  • Napoli (Italy)

    Naples, city, capital of Naples provincia, Campania regione, southern Italy. It lies on the west coast of the Italian peninsula, 120 miles (190 km) southeast of Rome. On its celebrated bay—flanked to the west by the smaller Gulf of Pozzuoli and to the southeast by the more extended indentation of

  • Napoli di Romania (Greece)

    Nauplia, town and dímos (municipality), Peloponnese (Modern Greek: Pelopónnisos) periféreia (region), southwestern Greece, at the head of the Gulf of Argolís (Argolikós Kólpos). The port, southeast of árgos, sits on the north slope of twin crags; Itche (or Its) Kale (279 feet [85 metres]), the

  • Napoli, Golfo di (bay, Italy)

    Bay of Naples, semicircular inlet of the Tyrrhenian Sea (an arm of the Mediterranean Sea), southwest of the city of Naples, southern Italy. It is 10 miles (16 km) wide and extends southeastward for 20 miles (32 km) from Cape Miseno to Campanella Point. The bay is noted for its scenic beauty, which

  • Napoli, Università degli Studi di (university, Naples, Italy)

    University of Naples, coeducational state university at Naples founded in 1224 as a studium generale by the Holy Roman emperor Frederick II to offset the dominant influence of the university at Bologna. Although universities were generally chartered after students had chosen to study in a

  • Napolitan, Joseph (American political consultant)

    Joseph Napolitan, American political consultant noted for being a pioneer in his field. He is largely credited with coining the term political consultant. After graduating from high school, Napolitan enlisted in the U.S. Army and served in Guam during World War II. He later returned to his hometown

  • Napolitano, Giorgio (president of Italy)

    Mario Monti: Giorgio Napolitano asked Monti to form a government.

  • Napope (Native American chief)

    Black Hawk War: Black Hawk’s intentions in 1832: Black Hawk, White Cloud, and Napope (the most important of the younger but relatively inexperienced rebellious chiefs) led a group of the dissident Sauk and Fox, Kickapoo, and Ho-Chunk that formed what was effectively a separate tribe.

  • Nappanee (Indiana, United States)

    Nappanee, city, Elkhart county, northern Indiana, U.S., 26 miles (42 km) southeast of South Bend. Founded in 1874, it adopted an Algonquian Indian name (probably meaning “flour”) and developed along the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. There is a large concentration of Amish farmers in the vicinity,

  • nappe (geology)

    Nappe, in geology, large body or sheet of rock that has been moved a distance of about 2 km (1.2 miles) or more from its original position by faulting or folding. A nappe may be the hanging wall of a low-angle thrust fault (a fracture in the rocks of the Earth’s crust caused by contraction), or it

  • napping

    textile: Napping and shearing: Napping is a process that may be applied to woollens, cottons, spun silks, and spun rayons, including both woven and knitted types, to raise a velvety, soft surface. The process involves passing the fabric over revolving cylinders covered with fine wires that lift the short,…

  • Nappy Edges (poetry by Shange)

    Ntozake Shange: Shange’s poetry collections included Nappy Edges (1978) and Ridin’ the Moon in Texas (1987). She also published the novels Sassafrass, Cypress &amp; Indigo (1982), about the diverging lives of three sisters and their mother; the semiautobiographical Betsey Brown (1985); and Liliane: Resurrection of the Daughter (1994), a coming-of-age story…

  • nappy rash

    childhood disease and disorder: Skin disorders: Diaper, or napkin, rashes, which affect the areas of skin in contact with a wet diaper, are very common and can become severe when additional infection occurs.

  • Naps (American baseball team)

    Cleveland Indians, American professional baseball team based in Cleveland that plays in the American League (AL). The Indians have won six AL pennants and two World Series titles, the first in 1920 and the second in 1948. The Indians began as a minor league club based in Grand Rapids, Michigan, and

  • Napster (file-sharing computer service)

    Napster, file-sharing computer service created by American college student Shawn Fanning in 1999. Napster allowed users to share, over the Internet, electronic copies of music stored on their personal computers. The file sharing that resulted set in motion a legal battle over digital rights and the

  • Napszállta (film by Nemes [2018])

    László Nemes: …cowrote and directed Napszállta (2018; Sunset), which is set in 1913 Budapest, then a capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The drama centres on a young woman who was orphaned at age two. As she attempts to learn more about her family, including a long-lost brother, she also discovers an empire…

  • Naqādah (Egypt)

    Naqādah, town in Qinā mu?āfa?ah (governorate), in Upper Egypt. It lies on the west bank of the Nile River, in the great bend of the river, opposite Qū?. One of the oldest regions of Egypt, it is the site of a Neolithic town and burial grounds of the Predynastic period (before c. 2925 bce). It was

  • Naqādah I culture (ancient Egypt)

    Amratian culture, Egyptian Predynastic cultural phase, centred in Upper Egypt, its type-site being Al-?āmirah near modern Abydos. Numerous sites, dating to about 3600 bce, have been excavated and reveal an agricultural way of life similar to that of the preceding Badarian culture but with advanced

  • Naqādah II culture (Egyptian history)

    Gerzean culture, predynastic Egyptian cultural phase given the sequence dates 40–65 by Sir Flinders Petrie and later dated c. 3400–c. 3100 bce. Evidence indicates that the Gerzean culture was a further development of the culture of the Amratian period, which immediately preceded the Gerzean.

  • naqal (Indian drama)

    South Asian arts: Performing arts in the Punjab: In the performance of a naqal (comic sketch), two people constitute a troupe. The leader holds a leather folder and slaps his foolish partner, who leads his master to a hilarious situation through absurd replies. Expert in mime and clowning, these character types are distantly related to the Western court…

  • Naqā?i?, Al- (Arabic lampoon poetry collection)

    Arabic literature: Lampoon: Collected as Al-Naqā?i? (“Flytings”), these contests—involving principally Jarīr and al-Farazdaq but also al-Akh?al and al-?irimmāh—took the level of invective to new heights (or depths):

  • Naqd al-shi?r (work by Qudāmah ibn Ja?far)

    Arabic literature: Emerging poetics: …was Qudāmah ibn Ja?far, whose Naqd al-shi?r (“Evaluation of Poetry”) provides specific criteria for assessing the quality of poetry; he defines it as “discourse with rhyme, metre, and intention.” What is perhaps most remarkable is that this specific definition of poetry based on both rhyme and metre was to remain…

  • Naqia (queen of Assyria)

    history of Mesopotamia: Esarhaddon: …his energetic and designing mother, Zakutu (Naqia), who came from Syria or Judah, used all her influence on his behalf to override the national party of Assyria. The theory that he was a partner in plotting the murder of his father is rather improbable; at any rate, he was able…

  • naqqārah (musical instrument)

    Naker, small kettledrum that reached Europe from the Middle East in the 13th century, during the Crusades. Nakers were made of wood, metal, or clay and were sometimes equipped with snares. They were almost always played in pairs and were struck with hard sticks. They were probably tuned to high

  • Naqqāsh, Mārūn an- (Lebanese dramatist)

    Arabic literature: Literary drama: In 1847 Mārūn al-Naqqāsh, who had recently returned from a stay in Italy, obtained permission from the Ottoman authorities in Syria to produce in his house Al-Bakhīl, a play inspired by Molière’s drama L’Avare. Most of the actors involved either were members of his family or were…

  • Naqsh-e Bahrām (archaeological site, Iran)

    ancient Iran: Art and literature: At Naqsh-e Bahrām, north of Kāzerūn, Bahrām III is depicted enthroned. The same ruler appears at Qa?r-e Abū Nasr, near Shīrāz, and at Gūyom, not far from there. Sāsānian sculptured reliefs are less numerous outside Fārs, but a Sāsānian equestrian that once existed at Rayy (ancient…

  • Naqsh-e Rajab (archaeological site, Iran)

    ancient Iran: Art and literature: …are at Naqsh-e Rostam and Naqsh-e Rajab, both near Persepolis, and at Bishāpūr, an ancient city a few miles north of Kāzerūn in Fārs. At Fīrūzābād—the ancient Gūr, also in Fārs—are two reliefs of Ardashīr I, one depicting the overthrow of Artabanus V, the other depicting an investiture scene. Not…

  • Naqsh-e Rostam (archaeological site, Iran)

    Persepolis: The site: This place is called Naqsh-e Rostam (“Picture of Rostam”), from the Sāsānian carvings below the tombs, which were thought to represent the mythical hero Rostam. That the occupants of these seven tombs were Achaemenian kings might be inferred from the sculptures, and one of those at Naqsh-e Rostam is…

  • Naqshbandīyyah (?ūfī order)

    Shaykh A?mad Sirhindī: …A?mad joined the mystical order Naqshbandīyah, the most important of the Indian Sufi orders, in 1593–94. He spent his life preaching against the inclination of Akbar and his successor, Jahāngīr (ruled 1605–27), toward pantheism and Shī?ite Islam (one of that religion’s two major branches). Of his several written works, the…

  • NAR (political party, Trinidad and Tobago)

    Trinidad and Tobago: Independent Trinidad and Tobago: In December 1986 the National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR), a coalition party led by A.N.R. Robinson, won the majority of seats on a program calling for divestment of most state-owned companies, reorganization of the civil service, and structural readjustment of the economy in the light of shrinking oil revenues.…

  • Nara (Japan)

    Nara, city, Nara ken (prefecture), southern Honshu, Japan. The city of Nara, the prefectural capital, is located in the hilly northeastern edge of the Nara Basin, 25 miles (40 km) east of ōsaka. It was the national capital of Japan from 710 to 784—when it was called Heijō-kyō—and retains the

  • Nāra (desert, Pakistan)

    Bahawalpur: Farther east the Rohi, or Cholistan, is a barren desert tract, bounded on the north and west by the Hakra depression with mound ruins of old settlements along its high banks; it is still inhabited by nomads. The principal inhabitants of the region surrounding Bahawalpur are Jat and Baloch peoples.…

  • Nara (prefecture, Japan)

    Nara, landlocked ken (prefecture), east-central Honshu, Japan. The prefectural capital is Nara city. The prefecture occupies the central part of the Kii Peninsula. Its southern and northeastern portions are mountainous, while the northwest is composed of the lowland of the Nara Basin. The basin is

  • Nāra Canal (canal, Pakistan)

    Nāra Canal, important water channel in Sindh province, Pakistan. From its source above Rohri, it runs southward and discharges into the Puran River, an old channel of the Indus River, which flows to the sea farther south through the Rann of Kutch. Because of the uncertain water supply received

  • Nara City Museum of Photography (museum, Nara, Japan)

    Kurokawa Kishō: In his Nara City Museum of Photography (1989–91), he displayed an awareness of the area’s architecture, particularly that of the Shinyakushiji Temple, whose roof tiles and general form he echoed. Despite the building’s traditional vocabulary, the museum’s use of glass walls makes a modern statement.

  • Nara kokuritsu hakubutsukan (museum, Nara, Japan)

    Nara National Museum, in Nara, Japan, art museum devoted primarily to Buddhist art. Exhibits include dry-lacquer works, wooden statues, and lacquered wood from the earlier and later Heian periods. There are Kamakura sculptures, including Jizō-Bosatsu, and a relief of 1327 from Kōchi of Kobo Daishi

  • Nara National Museum (museum, Nara, Japan)

    Nara National Museum, in Nara, Japan, art museum devoted primarily to Buddhist art. Exhibits include dry-lacquer works, wooden statues, and lacquered wood from the earlier and later Heian periods. There are Kamakura sculptures, including Jizō-Bosatsu, and a relief of 1327 from Kōchi of Kobo Daishi

  • Nara period (Japanese history)

    Nara period, (ad 710–784), in Japanese history, period in which the imperial government was at Nara, and Sinicization and Buddhism were most highly developed. Nara, the country’s first permanent capital, was modeled on the Chinese T’ang dynasty (618–907) capital, Ch’ang-an. Nara artisans produced

  • Nara Singde (Manchu poet)

    Chinese literature: Poetry and prose nonfiction: … writing, the 17th-century Manchu poet Nara Singde (Sinicized name Nalan Xingde) was outstanding, but even he lapsed into conscious imitation of Southern Tang models except when inspired by the vastness of open space and the beauties of nature. In nonfictional prose, Jin Renrui continued the familiar essay form.

  • Narach Lake (lake, Belarus)

    Belarus: Drainage: Among the largest lakes are Narach, Osveyskoye, and Drysvyaty.

  • Naracoorte (South Australia, Australia)

    Naracoorte, town, southeastern South Australia. It lies 190 miles (310 km) southeast of Adelaide, near the Victoria border. Founded as Kincraig in 1845, it took its present name in 1869 from an Aboriginal word meaning “large water hole.” During the 1850s Naracoorte was an important stopping place

  • Naracoorte Caves National Park (national park, Naracoorte, Australia)

    Naracoorte: …and tourism based on nearby Naracoorte Caves National Park (established 2001) is an added source of income. In the park’s Victoria Fossil Cave, a rich deposit of fossil bones was discovered in 1969; the fossil chamber is estimated to contain more than 5,000 tons of bone-laden sediment, including the remains…

  • Nāradī?ik?ā (auxiliary text of Sāmaveda)

    South Asian arts: Chant intonation: …text of the Samaveda, the Naradishiksha, correlates the Vedic tones with the accents described above, suggesting that the Samavedic tones possibly derived from the accents. The Samavedic hymns as chanted by the Tamil Aiyar Brahmans are based on a mode similar to the D mode (D-d on the white notes…

  • Narai (king of Siam)

    Narai, king of Siam (1656–88), who was best known for his efforts in foreign affairs and whose court produced the first “golden age” of Thai literature. Narai was a son of King Prasat Thong by a queen who was a daughter of King Song Tham, and he came to the throne after violent palace upheavals had

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