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  • nā?aka (Indian drama)

    South Asian arts: The theatre: …of play are distinguished: the nā?aka, which is based on epic material, and the prakara?a, which is of the author’s invention, though often borrowed from narrative literature.

  • Natal (Brazil)

    Natal, city and port, capital of Rio Grande do Norte estado (state), northeastern Brazil. It is situated near the mouth of the Potengi River on the Atlantic coast. Founded by the Portuguese in 1597 near the site of a fort (Três Reis Magos [“The Three Magi”]), Natal was given town status in 1611;

  • Natal (historical province, South Africa)

    Natal, former province of South Africa. It was the smallest of the four traditional provinces and occupied the southeastern part of the country. The Portuguese navigator Vasco de Gama sighted the coast along what is now Durban on Christmas Day in 1497 and named the country Terra Natalis, after the

  • Natal Drakensberg (mountains, Africa)

    Great Escarpment, plateau edge of southern Africa that separates the region’s highland interior plateau from the fairly narrow coastal strip. It lies predominantly within the Republic of South Africa and Lesotho but extends northeastward into eastern Zimbabwe (where it separates much of that

  • Natal grass (plant)

    Natal grass, (Melinis repens), tufted grass of the family Poaceae, native to southern Africa. Natal grass is cultivated as a forage and ornamental grass and is considered an invasive species in some areas outside its native range, particularly in Australia and parts of the Americas. Natal grass

  • Natal Indian Congress (South African history)

    Mahatma Gandhi: Emergence as a political and social activist: In 1894 he founded the Natal Indian Congress, of which he himself became the indefatigable secretary. Through that common political organization, he infused a spirit of solidarity in the heterogeneous Indian community. He flooded the government, the legislature, and the press with closely reasoned statements of Indian grievances. Finally, he…

  • Natal indigo (plant)

    indigo: …true indigo (Indigofera tinctoria) and Natal indigo (I. arrecta), were once an important source of indigo dye. The cultivation of indigo plants and the extraction of the dyestuff were an important industry in India up to the beginning of the 20th century. Synthetic indigo, developed about that time, gradually replaced…

  • Natal lily (plant)

    Amaryllidaceae: Natal lily, or Kaffir lily (Clivia miniata), a South African perennial, is cultivated as a houseplant for its orange flowers lined with yellow.

  • Natal orange (plant)

    Gentianales: Loganiaceae: Strychnos spinosa (Natal orange) of southern Africa produces a yellow berry with edible pulp. Some species of Spigelia are known to be highly poisonous.

  • Natal red top (plant)

    Natal grass, (Melinis repens), tufted grass of the family Poaceae, native to southern Africa. Natal grass is cultivated as a forage and ornamental grass and is considered an invasive species in some areas outside its native range, particularly in Australia and parts of the Americas. Natal grass

  • Natal redtop (plant)

    Natal grass, (Melinis repens), tufted grass of the family Poaceae, native to southern Africa. Natal grass is cultivated as a forage and ornamental grass and is considered an invasive species in some areas outside its native range, particularly in Australia and parts of the Americas. Natal grass

  • natal river (biology)

    marine ecosystem: Migrations of marine organisms: …which they were born (natal river), using a variety of environmental cues, including the Earth’s magnetic field, the Sun, and water chemistry. It is believed that the thyroid gland has a role in imprinting the water chemistry of the natal river on the fish. Freshwater eels such as the…

  • Natal, University of (university, South Africa)

    South Africa: Higher education: …but the English-language institutions—including the University of Natal (Pietermaritzburg and Durban) and Rhodes University—admitted a few black students until 1959, when their ability to do so was restricted by apartheid legislation that they fiercely opposed. The government then established several new institutions (the Universities of the North, Zululand, Western Cape,…

  • Natalia, Republic of (historical republic, South Africa)

    Southern Africa: The Republic of Natalia and the British colony of Natal: The establishment of trekker republics in Natal and on the Highveld greatly expanded the frontiers of white settlement. The Voortrekkers, however, did not display any sense of national unity, and the parties soon fell out and…

  • Natalidae (mammal)

    bat: Annotated classification: Family Natalidae (funnel-eared bats) 8 species of small, slenderly built bats in 3 genera (Natalus) of Central America, northern South America, and the West Indies. Thick gray, buff, yellow, or reddish fur. Well-developed tail and interfemoral membrane. Ears large; snout plain. Walk clumsily and do not enter…

  • Natalis, Alexander (French theologian and historian)

    Alexander Natalis, controversial theologian and ecclesiastical historian who clashed with Rome for expressing Gallicanism, a French position advocating restriction of papal power, and for defending Jansenism, a religious movement of nonorthodox tendencies in France. Natalis joined the Dominicans at

  • natality (statistics)

    Birth rate, frequency of live births in a given population, conventionally calculated as the annual number of live births per 1,000 inhabitants. See vital

  • Natalizumab (drug)

    multiple sclerosis: Treatment of multiple sclerosis: Natalizumab (Tysabri), a monoclonal antibody (an antibody clone derived from a single immune cell), is also effective for controlling the severity and frequency of relapses. Natalizumab attaches to molecules on the cell membrane of lymphocytes, preventing them from entering the central nervous system and attacking…

  • natamycin (preservative)

    food additive: Antimicrobials: Nisin and natamycin are preservatives produced by microorganisms. Nisin inhibits the growth of some bacteria, while natamycin is active against molds and yeasts.

  • Natantia (crustacean)

    Shrimp, any of the approximately 2,000 species of the suborder Natantia (order Decapoda of the class Crustacea). Close relatives include crabs, crayfish, and lobsters. Shrimp are characterized by a semitransparent body flattened from side to side and a flexible abdomen terminating in a fanlike

  • Natanya (Israel)

    Netanya, city, west-central Israel. It lies on the Mediterranean coast, 19 miles (30 km) north of Tel Aviv–Yafo. Because of its proximity to the West Bank, the city was a frequent target of bombings by Palestinian terrorists at the beginning of the 21st century. Netanya was founded in 1928 and

  • Nataraja (Hindu mythology)

    Nataraja, (Sanskrit: “Lord of the Dance”) the Hindu god Shiva in his form as the cosmic dancer, represented in metal or stone in many Shaivite temples, particularly in South India. In the most common type of image, Shiva is shown with four arms and flying locks dancing on the figure of a dwarf, who

  • NATAS (American organization)

    Emmy Award: …Awards are made by the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. Only members of the academy may vote for the awards, and members vote only within their own discipline—actors voting for actors, writers for writers, and so on. Categories in which awards are granted include dramatic series, comedy series,…

  • Natasha, Pierre & The Great Comet of 1812 (musical play)

    Josh Groban: …Broadway in 2016, starring in Natasha, Pierre &amp; the Great Comet of 1812, a pop opera inspired by Leo Tolstoy’s War and Peace. For his performance as a melancholy aristocrat, Groban received a Tony Award nomination. In 2018 he cohosted (with Sara Bareilles) the Tony Award ceremony. Groban subsequently portrayed…

  • Natator depressa (turtle)

    sea turtle: Physical features and feeding habits: The flatback sea turtle (Natator depressa) occurs in the seas between Australia and New Guinea; it also feeds on a variety of invertebrates. The shells of adults of both species range from 90 to 100 cm (35 to 39 inches).

  • Natchez (Mississippi, United States)

    Natchez, city, seat (1817) of Adams county, southwestern Mississippi, U.S., on the Mississippi River (there bridged to Vidalia, Louisiana), about 70 miles (110 km) southwest of Vicksburg. Established in 1716 as Fort Rosalie by Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, it survived a massacre (1729) by

  • Natchez (American steamboat)

    Mississippi River: Development of the river’s commerce: …June 30, 1870, between the Natchez and the Robert E. Lee . The latter won by dint of stripping out all unnecessary superstructure and taking on extra fuel supplies from tenders while steaming upriver at full speed. Yet even as the river was at its most flamboyant, the same westward…

  • Natchez (people)

    Natchez, North American Indian tribe of the Macro-Algonquian linguistic phylum that inhabited the east side of the lower Mississippi River. When French colonizers first interacted with the Natchez in the early 18th century, the tribal population comprised about 6,000 individuals living in nine

  • Natchez (racehorse)

    Assault: 1946: Triple Crown: …116 of a mile, when Natchez veered in toward the rail. Mehrtens pushed his horse for a run earlier than he had done at the Derby, which resulted in a four-lengths lead at the 18 pole that was just enough to hold off a late charge from Lord Boswell to…

  • Natchez Pilgrimage (American festival)

    Mississippi: Sports and recreation: The Natchez Pilgrimage is the best known of several festivals featuring antebellum homes and gardens.

  • Natchez Trace Parkway (highway, United States)

    Natchez Trace Parkway, scenic and historic roadway, extending 444 miles (715 km) through Mississippi, Alabama, and Tennessee, U.S. It begins in Natchez, Mississippi, and, generally following a Native American trail in a northeasterly direction, ends near Nashville, Tennessee. It passes through the

  • Natchitoches (Louisiana, United States)

    Natchitoches, city, seat (1807) of Natchitoches parish, west-central Louisiana, U.S., on Cane River Lake, 68 miles (109 km) southeast of Shreveport. The oldest permanent settlement in the Louisiana Purchase territory, it was founded about 1714 as Fort St. Jean Baptiste by the French-Canadian

  • Nate Dogg (American singer and rap musician)

    Nate Dogg, (Nathaniel Dwayne Hale), American singer and rap musician (born Aug. 19, 1969, Long Beach, Calif.—died March 15, 2011, Long Beach), was an integral part of the West Coast rap sound, contributing soulful vocal hooks as a guest artist on numerous G-funk and gangsta rap songs beginning in

  • Nate the Great (American basketball player)

    Nate Thurmond, American basketball player who was one of the greatest centres in National Basketball Association (NBA) history. In the 1960s the NBA was ruled by big men. More specifically, it was two centres—the ultimate team player Bill Russell and the superhuman Wilt Chamberlain—whose rivalry

  • nateglinide (chemical compound)

    antidiabetic drug: Oral antidiabetic drugs: Repaglinide and nateglinide, which belong to a class of chemicals known as meglitinides, are other orally active compounds that stimulate insulin release from the pancreas. These agents work by closing potassium channels on the surface of beta cells, which causes an influx of calcium ions into the…

  • Natewa Bay (bay, Vanua Levu Island, Fiji)

    Vanua Levu Island: Natewa Bay, on the east coast, cuts deeply into the island to make a peninsula of its southeastern corner, while the south coast is indented by the broad Savusavu and Wainunu bays.

  • Natha (Indian religious sect)

    Natha, religious movement of India whose members strive for immortality by transforming the human body into an imperishable divine body. It combines esoteric traditions drawn from Buddhism, Shaivism, and Hatha Yoga. The term is derived from the names of the nine traditional masters, all of which

  • Nathamuni (Hindu teacher)

    Indian philosophy: Ramanuja: …of real modification of brahman), Nathamuni (c. 1000), and his own teachers’ teacher Yamunacharya (c. 1050).

  • Nathan (biblical figure)

    censorship: Ancient Israel and early Christianity: Thus, the prophet Nathan dared to challenge King David himself for what he had done to secure Bathsheba as his wife (II Samuel 12:1–24). On an earlier, perhaps even more striking, occasion, the patriarch Abraham dared to question God about the terms on which Sodom and Gomorrah might…

  • Nathan ben Yehiel (Italian scholar)

    Hebrew literature: The Palestinian tradition in Europe, 800–1300: Nathan ben Yehiel completed in 1101 at Rome a dictionary of Talmudic Aramaic and Hebrew, the ?Arukh, which is still used.

  • Nathan der Weise (play by Lessing)

    Deism: Deists in other countries: Lessing’s Nathan der Weise (1779; “Nathan the Sage”) was noteworthy for the introduction of the Deist spirit of religion into the drama; in the famous parable of the three rings, the major monotheistic religions were presented as equally true in the eyes of God.

  • Nathan of Gaza (Jewish Kabbalist)

    Shabbetai Tzevi: …a 20-year-old student known as Nathan of Gaza assumed the role of a modern Elijah, in his traditional role of forerunner of the messiah. Nathan ecstatically prophesied the imminent restoration of Israel and world salvation through the bloodless victory of Shabbetai, riding on a lion with a seven-headed dragon in…

  • Nathan the Wise (play by Lessing)

    Deism: Deists in other countries: Lessing’s Nathan der Weise (1779; “Nathan the Sage”) was noteworthy for the introduction of the Deist spirit of religion into the drama; in the famous parable of the three rings, the major monotheistic religions were presented as equally true in the eyes of God.

  • Nathan, Annie Florance (American writer, educator, and antisuffragist)

    Annie Florance Nathan Meyer, American writer, educator, and antisuffragist, remembered as the moving force behind the founding of Barnard College, New York City. Annie Nathan grew up in an unsettled home and early found her greatest pleasure in books. In 1885 she enrolled in an extension reading

  • Nathan, Daniel (American author)

    Ellery Queen, American cousins who were coauthors of a series of more than 35 detective novels featuring a character named Ellery Queen. Dannay and Lee first collaborated on an impulsive entry for a detective-story contest; the success of the result, The Roman Hat Mystery (1929), started Ellery

  • Nathan, George Jean (American writer)

    George Jean Nathan, American author, editor, and drama critic, who is credited with raising the standards of play producers and playgoers alike. Nathan graduated from Cornell University in 1904 and joined the staff of the New York Herald. Beginning in 1906, he was at various times drama critic for

  • Nathan, Maud (American social leader)

    Maud Nathan, American social welfare leader who helped to found the National Consumers League. Nathan was an elder sister of writer and antisuffragist Annie Nathan (Meyer). In April 1880 she married her cousin Frederick Nathan. Early in her married life she involved herself in such community

  • Nathan, Syd (American record producer)

    King Records in the Queen City: Record store owner Syd Nathan established King Records in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1943. Situated just across the Ohio River from more rural, Southern-oriented Kentucky, Nathan recorded country acts who came to town to play on WLW’s Midwestern Hayride and the touring black singers and bands who included Cincinnati…

  • Nathanael (biblical figure)

    Saint Bartholomew: …9th-century tradition identified him with Nathanael, who, according to John 1:43–51, was called with Philip by Jesus. Upon seeing Nathanael, Jesus said, “Behold, an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile!” This identification sought to explain how the otherwise unknown Bartholomew could be mentioned in the Apostle lists, while Nathanael,…

  • Nathaniel Branden Institute (American organization)

    Ayn Rand: The Collective and the Nathaniel Branden Institute: In 1950 Rand agreed to meet a young admirer, Nathan Blumenthal, on the basis of his several articulate fan letters. The two established an immediate rapport, and Blumenthal and his girlfriend, Barbara Weidman, became Rand’s friends as well as her intellectual followers.…

  • Nathans, Daniel (American microbiologist)

    Daniel Nathans, American microbiologist who was corecipient, with Hamilton Othanel Smith of the United States and Werner Arber of Switzerland, of the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. The three scientists were cited for their discovery and application of restriction enzymes that break

  • Nathapanthi (Hindu ascetic)

    Kanphata Yogi, member of an order of religious ascetics in India that venerates the Hindu deity Shiva. Kanphata Yogis are distinguished by the large earrings they wear in the hollows of their ears (kanphata, “ear split”). They are sometimes referred to as Tantric (esoteric) sannyasis (ascetics),

  • Nathdwara (India)

    Nathdwara, town, southern Rajasthan state, northwestern India. It is situated in an upland region just east of the Banas River, about 25 miles (40 km) north of Udaipur. Nathdwara, an agricultural market, is connected by road with Udaipur and lies close to a major rail junction to the southeast. The

  • Natica (snail)

    feeding behaviour: Types of food procurement: Another snail, Natica, supports the scraping action of a filelike structure called a radula with chemical dissolution by sulfuric acid, which is secreted by a gland on the proboscis, and drills a neat hole in a clam. Another snail, Fulgur, cracks a clam shell against its own…

  • Naticacea (gastropod superfamily)

    gastropod: Classification: Superfamily Naticacea Moon shells (Naticidae) medium-sized, globular predators on burrowing bivalves: bore a hole in the clamshell using acid secretions, then insert the radula to feed; common in most oceans. Superfamily Ptenoglossa (Scalacea) Wentletraps (Epitoniidae) live in shallow to deep ocean

  • naticid (gastropod)

    gastropod: Classification: Naticacea Moon shells (Naticidae) medium-sized, globular predators on burrowing bivalves: bore a hole in the clamshell using acid secretions, then insert the radula to feed; common in most oceans. Superfamily Ptenoglossa (Scalacea) Wentletraps (Epitoniidae) live in shallow to deep ocean waters; purple snails (Janthinidae)

  • Naticidae (gastropod)

    gastropod: Classification: Naticacea Moon shells (Naticidae) medium-sized, globular predators on burrowing bivalves: bore a hole in the clamshell using acid secretions, then insert the radula to feed; common in most oceans. Superfamily Ptenoglossa (Scalacea) Wentletraps (Epitoniidae) live in shallow to deep ocean waters; purple snails (Janthinidae)

  • Natick (Massachusetts, United States)

    Natick, town (township), Middlesex county, eastern Massachusetts, U.S., 18 miles (29 km) southwest of Boston. The first recorded settlement there was made in 1650, when the missionary John Eliot was granted the land for use as a plantation for his “praying Indians.” In 1663 Eliot published an

  • nation (medieval university group)

    Nation, in medieval education, the basic organizational form of early European universities. A nation was formed when groups of students from a particular region or country banded together for mutual protection and welfare in a strange land. In some universities nations were responsible for

  • Nation Party (political party, Turkey)

    Turkey: The ascendancy of the right, 1961–71: …to the formation of the Nation Party by dissidents who withdrew from the Republican Peasants’ Nation Party, the CHP formed a coalition with the two smaller parties. This accelerated the tendency for former Democrat voters to turn to the JP.

  • Nation Party (political party, The Sudan)

    Sudan: The growth of national consciousness: …militants, the moderates formed the Ummah (Nation) Party under the patronage of Sayyid ?Abd al-Ra?mān al-Mahdī, the posthumous son of the Mahdī, with the intention of cooperating with the British toward independence.

  • Nation, Carry (American temperance leader)

    Carry Nation, American temperance advocate famous for using a hatchet to demolish barrooms. Carry Moore as a child experienced poverty, her mother’s mental instability, and frequent bouts of ill health. Although she held a teaching certificate from a state normal school, her education was

  • Nation, Carry A. (American temperance leader)

    Carry Nation, American temperance advocate famous for using a hatchet to demolish barrooms. Carry Moore as a child experienced poverty, her mother’s mental instability, and frequent bouts of ill health. Although she held a teaching certificate from a state normal school, her education was

  • Nation, Palace of the (building, Brussels, Belgium)

    Brussels: City layout: …and, to the north, the Palace of the Nation. The Royal Palace is flanked to the west by the late 18th-century Place Royale, a symmetrical Neoclassical square conceived by French architects Nicolas Barré and Barnabé Guimard to evoke the royal squares of France. The Palace of the Nation was erected…

  • Nation, The (Irish newspaper)

    Thomas D'Arcy McGee: …patriot, McGee was associated with The Nation (1846–48), the literary organ of the Young Ireland political movement (which called for the study of Irish history and the revival of the Irish language). He was implicated in the abortive Irish rebellion of 1848 and fled to the United States, where he…

  • Nation, The (American journal)

    The Nation, American weekly journal of opinion, the oldest such continuously published periodical still extant. It is generally considered the leading liberal magazine of its kind. It was founded in 1865 by Edwin L. Godkin at the urging of Frederick Law Olmsted. The Nation under Godkin was an

  • nation-state (politics)

    Nation-state, a territorially bounded sovereign polity—i.e., a state—that is ruled in the name of a community of citizens who identify themselves as a nation. The legitimacy of a nation-state’s rule over a territory and over the population inhabiting it stems from the right of a core national group

  • National Aboriginal Conference (Australian political organization)

    Australia: Strains of modern radicalism: …1973, from 1977 renamed the National Aboriginal Conference). These organizations contributed to a growing strength and pride in Aboriginality. Early in the period, Aboriginal persons became known for their contributions to sport (boxer Lionel Rose, tennis player Evonne Goolagong Cawley). Later, Aboriginal persons became celebrated in the fields of public…

  • National Aboriginal Consultative Committee (Australian political organization)

    Australia: Strains of modern radicalism: …1973, from 1977 renamed the National Aboriginal Conference). These organizations contributed to a growing strength and pride in Aboriginality. Early in the period, Aboriginal persons became known for their contributions to sport (boxer Lionel Rose, tennis player Evonne Goolagong Cawley). Later, Aboriginal persons became celebrated in the fields of public…

  • National Abortion Rights Action League (American organization)

    NARAL Pro-Choice America, American organization, founded in 1969 to centralize state abortion-rights efforts and continuing its mission thereafter to protect and promote reproductive freedom. The organization consists of three related entities: NARAL Pro-Choice America, Inc., a nonprofit

  • National Academy (scholarly institution, China)

    Hanlin Academy, elite scholarly institution founded in the 8th century ad in China to perform secretarial, archival, and literary tasks for the court and to establish the official interpretation of the Confucian Classics, which were the basis of the civil-service examinations necessary for entrance

  • National Academy Foundation (American organization)

    Sanford I. Weill: …longtime philanthropic endeavours, including the National Academy Foundation, a network of career academies for high school students, which he had founded in 1982. Weill also raised money to renovate Carnegie Hall in New York City, and he had endowed the medical school at his alma mater, Cornell University. In 2009…

  • National Academy of Design (American organization)

    Henry Inman: …of the founders of the National Academy of Design in 1825–26. In 1831 Inman became partners with Cephas G. Childs, an engraver and lithographer who helped Inman make prints of his portraits. Inman left this partnership in 1832 so that he could devote himself entirely to painting. He worked in…

  • National Academy of Engineering (American organization)

    Draper Prize: National Academy of Engineering (NAE) for specific engineering achievements that have significantly affected modern society “by improving the quality of life, providing the ability to live freely and comfortably, and/or permitting access to information.” The prize is given in honour of the 20th-century American aeronautical…

  • National Academy of Lincei (Italian organization)

    Italy: Cultural institutes: …famous learned society is the National Academy of Lincei, of which Galileo was once a member. The most-distinguished literary society is the Academy of Crusca, founded in Florence in 1582. There are also many historical and scientific societies, including the Cimento Academy, which opened in Florence in 1657. Foreign schools…

  • National Academy of Music (French opera company)

    Paris Opéra, opera company in Paris that for more than two centuries was the chief performer of serious operas and musical dramas in the French language. It is one of the most venerable operatic institutions in the world. The Paris Opéra was established as the Royal Academy of Music (Académie

  • National Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences (American organization)

    Grammy Award: …the United States by the National Academy of Recording Arts &amp; Sciences (NARAS; commonly called the Recording Academy) or the Latin Academy of Recording Arts &amp; Sciences (LARAS; commonly called the Latin Recording Academy) to recognize achievement in the music industry. Winners are selected from more than 25 fields, which…

  • National Academy of Sciences (American organization)

    National Academy of Sciences, nongovernmental American organization of scientists and engineers, established March 3, 1863, by act of Congress to serve as an official adviser to the government in all matters of science and technology. It is a self-perpetuating body of limited membership; new

  • National Academy of Sciences (Belarusian organization)

    Belarus: Education: The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (1929) is the chief scientific organization in the country and is headquartered in Minsk.

  • National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences (American organization)

    Emmy Award: …Awards are made by the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. Only members of the academy may vote for the awards, and members vote only within their own discipline—actors voting for actors, writers for writers, and so on. Categories in which awards are granted include dramatic series, comedy series,…

  • National Accelerator Laboratory, Fermi (laboratory, Batavia, Illinois, United States)

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, U.S. national particle-accelerator laboratory and centre for particle-physics research, located in Batavia, Illinois, about 43 km (27 miles) west of Chicago. The facility is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by the Universities Research Association, a

  • National Accord, Government of (Libyan government)

    Libya: Attempt at unity: Government of National Accord: …UN-brokered power-sharing agreement establishing a Government of National Accord (GNA), headed by a prime minister and a nine-member presidency council drawn from constituencies and factions throughout the country. Although the GNA received recognition from the UN Security Council as the legitimate government of Libya, it struggled to consolidate its authority…

  • National Action Bloc (political party, Morocco)

    National Action Bloc, first Moroccan political party, founded in 1934 to counteract mounting French domination of Morocco and to secure recognition of the equality of Moroccans and Frenchmen under the French protectorate. The National Action Bloc attracted young educated Moroccans of many different

  • National Action Charter (2001, Bahrain)

    Bahrain: Domestic and foreign relations since independence: …supported by Bahrainis—that ratified the National Action Charter. The charter was followed in 2002 with the promulgation of a new constitution that established a constitutional monarchy in Bahrain, called for equality between Sunnis and Shī?ites, and guaranteed civil and property rights to all citizens.

  • National Action Network (American organization)

    Al Sharpton: In 1991 Sharpton formed the National Action Network, a civil rights organization that promoted progressive policies, including affirmative action and reparations for African Americans for the enslavement of their ancestors.

  • National Action Party (political party, Turkey)

    Turkey: The ascendancy of the right, 1961–71: …the most prominent was the National Action Party (NAP), created in 1963 from the former Republican Peasants’ Nation Party and led by an ex-officer, Alparslan Türke?. The NAP’s agenda combined Islam and Turkish nationalism and stressed education. As part of its organization, the NAP developed a paramilitary section, known as…

  • National Action Party (political party, Mexico)

    National Action Party (PAN), conservative Mexican political party with close ties to the Roman Catholic Church. It generally supports minimal government intervention in the economy. The National Action Party (PAN) was founded in 1939 to represent the interests of business and of the Roman Catholic

  • National Advancement Party (political party, Guatemala)

    álvaro Arzú: …an official political party, the National Advancement Party (Partido de Avanzada Nacional; PAN), under whose sponsorship Arzú made an unsuccessful run for the presidency in 1990. In 1991 he was appointed minister of foreign affairs. He resigned the post that same year to become secretary-general of PAN. Advocating various social…

  • National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (United States government commission)

    American civil rights movement: From black power to the assassination of Martin Luther King: In 1968 the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (also known as the Kerner Commission) concluded that the country, despite civil rights reforms, was moving “toward two societies one black, one white—separate and unequal.” By the time of the commission’s report, claims that black gains had resulted in…

  • National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (United States agency)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration: It was organized around the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), which had been created by Congress in 1915. NASA’s organization was well under way by the early years of Pres. John F. Kennedy’s administration when he proposed that the United States put a man on the Moon by the…

  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (United States space agency)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), independent U.S. governmental agency established in 1958 for the research and development of vehicles and activities for the exploration of space within and outside Earth’s atmosphere. The organization is composed of four mission directorates:

  • National African Company (British company)

    Royal Niger Company, 19th-century British mercantile company that operated in the lower valley of the Niger River in West Africa. It extended British influence in what later became Nigeria. In 1885 Sir George Goldie’s National African Company, an amalgamation of British companies, signed treaties

  • National Agency of Jews in Germany

    Leo Baeck: Role as Jewish leader: …der Juden in Deutschland (National Agency of Jews in Germany) under Leo Baeck and Otto Hirsch (1885–1941), the jurist and community leader who was killed in the Mauthausen concentration camp. Under constant attack, this group took charge of Jewish life in Germany. Millions of dollars were spent annually in…

  • National Agricultural Labourers’ Union (political union, United Kingdom)

    Joseph Arch: Arch founded the National Agricultural Labourers’ Union in 1872 and served as its president until it was dissolved in 1896.

  • National Air and Space Museum (museum, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    National Air and Space Museum, American museum of aviation and space exploration, part of the Smithsonian Institution, housed in two facilities: a building on the Mall in Washington, D.C., and the Udvar-Hazy Center at Washington Dulles International Airport, Virginia. Together they house 60,000

  • National Air Museum (museum, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    National Air and Space Museum, American museum of aviation and space exploration, part of the Smithsonian Institution, housed in two facilities: a building on the Mall in Washington, D.C., and the Udvar-Hazy Center at Washington Dulles International Airport, Virginia. Together they house 60,000

  • National Airlines, Inc. (American corporation)

    Pan American World Airways, Inc.: …the purchase, in 1980, of National Airlines, thereby securing an extensive network of routes along the eastern U.S. seaboard and points west. National had been formed in 1929, when founder George Theodore Baker (1900–63) began the National Airlines Air Taxi System in Chicago. He moved the company to Florida in…

  • National Allegory (mural by Orozco)

    José Clemente Orozco: Mature work and later years: …City (1941), as well as National Allegory (1947–48) at the Normal School in Mexico City—he emphasized nationalist themes to the exclusion of the universal. Canvases such as Metaphysical Landscape (1948), however, hint at a growing mysticism, and its abstract style suggests that Orozco may have been on the brink of…

  • National Alliance (Bulgarian political organization)

    Bulgaria: Stamboliyski’s foreign policy: …the National Alliance (later called Democratic Alliance) and planned to march on Sofia to wrest control of the country. On the left, the communists viewed the Agrarian government as their principal opponent. But the most dangerous enemies were the Military League and Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO).

  • National Alliance (political party, Italy)

    National Alliance, former nationalist anticommunist political party of Italy. Historically, some of its members held neofascist views. The MSI was formed in 1946 by supporters of former Italian leader Benito Mussolini from elements of the defunct Uomo Qualunque (Average Man) Party that had appeared

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