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  • National Alliance for Reconstruction (political party, Trinidad and Tobago)

    Trinidad and Tobago: Independent Trinidad and Tobago: In December 1986 the National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR), a coalition party led by A.N.R. Robinson, won the majority of seats on a program calling for divestment of most state-owned companies, reorganization of the civil service, and structural readjustment of the economy in the light of shrinking oil revenues.…

  • National Alliance of Kenya (political party, Kenya)

    Raila Odinga: Political maneuvers: …coalition of several parties, the National Alliance of Kenya (NAK), to form the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC) under the leadership of former vice president Mwai Kibaki, himself a Kikuyu. Although terms of agreement between the LDP and NAK were not completely revealed to the public, the two parties reportedly promised…

  • National Alliance of People’s Movements (Indian organization)

    Medha Patkar: In 1996 Patkar founded the National Alliance of People’s Movements (NAPM), an agglomeration of progressive social bodies opposed to globalization policies. She was a representative to the World Commission on Dams, the first independent global advisory body on dam-related issues of water, power, and alternatives; the commission was set up…

  • National Allied Publications (American company)

    DC Comics, American media and entertainment company whose iconic comic-based properties represented some of the most enduring and recognizable characters in 20th- and 21st-century popular culture. Its parent company, DC Entertainment, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Time Warner Inc. Its

  • National Aluminum Corporation (American company)

    National Intergroup, Inc.: …1970 and the creation of National Aluminum Corporation. In 1984 it formed a new computer-data and information-services subsidiary, GENIX. The company also engaged in the distribution of pharmaceuticals, petroleum products, and other goods.

  • National Ambient Air Quality Standards (United States public policy)

    National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), in the United States, allowable levels of harmful pollutants set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in accordance with the Clean Air Act (CAA). The CAA established two types of standards for ambient air quality. Primary standards concern the

  • National American Woman Suffrage Association (American organization)

    National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), American organization created in 1890 by the merger of the two major rival women’s rights organizations—the National Woman Suffrage Association and the American Woman Suffrage Association—after 21 years of independent operation. NAWSA was

  • National Amusements Inc. (American company)

    Sumner Redstone: …Redstone joined his father’s company, National Amusements, Inc., in 1954, and in 1967 he became its president and CEO. His leadership transformed NAI into one of the largest movie theatre chains in the United States. Redstone built new movie theatres near suburban shopping malls and, frustrated by the preferences shown…

  • National and Community Service Act (United States [1990])

    Volunteers in Service to America: Bush signed the National and Community Service Act, which created the Commission on National and Community Service. That was expanded in 1993 when President Bill Clinton signed the National and Community Service Trust Act, which created AmeriCorps.

  • National and Community Service Trust Act (United States [1993])

    AmeriCorps: It was created by the National and Community Service Trust Act of 1993, which also established the Corporation for National and Community Service, an independent federal agency designed to oversee and support domestic-service programs, including AmeriCorps.

  • National Aniline & Chemical Company (American company)

    AlliedSignal: …1899), specializing in industrial acids; National Aniline &amp; Chemical Company (founded 1917), producing dyes; Semet-Solvay Company (founded 1894), manufacturing coke and its by-products; and Solvay Process Company (founded 1881), producing alkalies and nitrogen materials. In the 1940s these companies were transformed into “divisions” of Allied Chemical. There were further reorganizations…

  • national anthem

    National anthem, hymn or song expressing patriotic sentiment and either governmentally authorized as an official national hymn or holding that position in popular feeling. The oldest national anthem is Great Britain’s “God Save the Queen,” which was described as a national anthem in 1825, although

  • National Antiquities, Museum of (museum, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France)

    museum: Museums of antiquities: In France the Museum of National Antiquities opened at Saint-Germain-en-Laye late in the 18th century. It still acts as a national archaeological repository, as does the State Historical Museum in Stockholm, which houses material recovered as early as the 17th century. The national archaeological museum in Greece was…

  • National Aquarium (aquarium, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    National Aquarium, oldest public aquarium in the United States. Originally built at Woods Hole, Mass., in 1873, the aquarium was relocated to a site in Washington, D.C., in 1888. Since 1932 it has been located in the basement of the U.S. Department of Commerce building in Washington. The facility

  • National Aquarium in Baltimore (aquarium, Baltimore, Maryland, United States)

    National Aquarium in Baltimore, one of the largest public aquariums in the United States. The aquarium, which opened in 1981 in the Inner Harbor area of Baltimore, Md., was financed largely by the city but was designated a “national” aquarium by the U.S. Congress. Of the more than 10,000 marine

  • National Aquatics Centre (building, Beijing, China)

    Chinese architecture: Into the 21st century: …himself from the project); the National Aquatics Centre, called the “Water Cube,” was designed by an Australian-Chinese consortium. At the same time, the face of central Beijing’s architecture was further altered by two massive and controversial constructions: the National Centre for the Performing Arts, called “The Egg” and contrasting with…

  • National Arboretum (Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    Washington, D.C.: Parks and open spaces: The National Arboretum, which encompasses 446 acres (180 hectares) of rolling hills in Northeast D.C., was established by Congress in 1927 for environmental research. It has one of the largest collections of azaleas in the country, as well as a collection of bonsai plants ranging in…

  • National Archaeological Museum (museum, Naples, Italy)

    Italy: Museums and galleries: … in Rome and in the National Archaeological Museum in Naples are considered among the best in the world. The same may be said of the Etruscan collection in the National Archaeological Museum of Umbria in Perugia, the Classical sculptures in the Capitoline Museums in Rome, and the Egyptian collection in…

  • National Archaeological Museum (museum, Athens, Greece)

    National Archaeological Museum, in Athens, museum of ancient Greek art, containing probably the finest collection of Greek antiquities in the world. The museum was erected in 1866–89 and extended in 1925–39, when an additional wing was built. The holdings include sculpture, bronzes, pottery,

  • National Archery Association (American organization)

    archery: History: …eight of them formed the National Archery Association of the United States. In 1939 the National Field Archery Association of the United States was established to promote hunting, roving, and field archery. The number of archers around the world increased phenomenally after 1930, led by remarkable growth in the United…

  • National Archives (museum, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    archives: In the United States the National Archives was established in 1934 to house the retired records of the national government; the Federal Records Act of 1950 authorized the establishment also of “intermediate” records repositories in the several regions into which the country has been divided by the General Services Administration.…

  • National Archives of Mali (museum, Bamako, Mali)

    Mali: Cultural institutions: The National Archives of Mali and the National Library are located in Bamako, as is the Municipal Library; the Ahmed Baba Institute, a centre that houses and preserves a large collection of historical Arabic and African manuscripts, is located in Timbuktu. These institutions suffer from lack…

  • National Army Museum (museum, London, United Kingdom)

    National Army Museum, museum of the British army. Established in 1960 at the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, it has occupied purpose-built premises since 1971 on Royal Hospital Road, Chelsea, London. The collections of the National Army Museum relate to all aspects of the British army from the

  • National Army of Indonesia (Indonesian military)

    Indonesia: Security: …of their pre-Sukarno names, the National Army of Indonesia (Tentara Nasional Indonesia; TNI), and the police were split into a separate unit. The army, constituting more than three-fourths of the forces, has remained the largest segment of the TNI. Men must be at least 18 years old to join the…

  • National Art Gallery (museum, Wellington, New Zealand)

    National Art Gallery, in Wellington, N.Z., national collection of paintings by New Zealand and European artists and portraits of prominent New Zealand figures. The gallery grew out of the city’s first public art gallery, opened in 1907 by the New Zealand Academy of Fine Arts. The basis for the

  • National Art, Gallery of (museum, Caracas, Venezuela)

    Museum of Fine Arts: It adjoins the Gallery of National Art (Galería de Arte Nacional), one of the few museums in South America founded to show the national cultural identity of the country; opened in 1976, the gallery contains works by more than 40 Venezuelan painters in the contemporary- and popular-arts sections.…

  • National Assembly (Seychellois government)

    Seychelles: Constitutional framework and local government: Members of the National Assembly serve five-year terms. A majority of the available National Assembly seats are filled by direct election; a smaller portion are distributed on a proportional basis to those parties that win a minimum of one-tenth of the vote. The president appoints a Council of…

  • National Assembly (Guyanan government)

    Guyana: Constitutional framework: …branch consists of a unicameral National Assembly, with 65 elected members (elected by universal adult suffrage for a term of five years) and three nonelected members plus the speaker. Forty members of the Assembly are elected from national party lists under a system of proportional representation; the remaining 25 members…

  • National Assembly (Hungarian government)

    Hungary: Political process: …106 members of the 199-seat National Assembly are elected in single-member electoral districts, and 93 members are elected as part of national party lists. Voters express their preference for both a specific candidate running in their electoral district and a national party list. In the former case, candidates must gain…

  • National Assembly (Bulgarian government)

    Bulgaria: Constitutional framework: In July 1991 the National Assembly adopted a new constitution establishing a parliamentary government and guaranteeing direct presidential elections, separation of powers, and freedom of speech, press, conscience, and religion. New laws allowed for the return of the properties that had been confiscated by the previous communist governments. Other…

  • National Assembly (Burundian government)

    Burundi: Constitutional framework: …with power exercised by the National Assembly, which is mandated to comprise 60 percent Hutu and 40 percent Tutsi, and by the Senate, which includes one Hutu and one Tutsi representative from each province, with three seats reserved for former presidents. In addition, three seats in each house are reserved…

  • National Assembly (Chinese history)

    China: The Chinese Revolution (1911–12): …be formally decided by a National Assembly that would be formed. However, this was renounced by Yuan, probably because he hoped to be appointed by the retiring Manchu monarch to organize a new government rather than nominated as chief of state by the National Assembly. (This is a formula of…

  • National Assembly (Panamanian government)

    Panama: Constitutional framework: A unicameral National Assembly consists of 71 members, who are elected for five-year terms and are eligible for reelection. The assembly initiates legislation, rules on international treaties, approves the budget, and establishes political divisions. After the 2014 election nearly one-fifth of the seats were held by women.

  • National Assembly (Czech history)

    Czechoslovak history: Stalinism in Czechoslovakia: …May 30, and the new National Assembly elected Gottwald president. Antonín Zápotocky succeeded him as premier, while Rudolf Slánsky retained the powerful post of secretary general of the Czechoslovak Communist Party.

  • National Assembly (historical French parliament)

    National Assembly, any of various historical French parliaments or houses of parliament. From June 17 to July 9, 1789, it was the name of the revolutionary assembly formed by representatives of the Third Estate; thereafter (until replaced by the Legislative Assembly on Sept. 30, 1791) its formal n

  • National Assembly (Jordanian government)

    Jordan: From the Persian Gulf War to peace with Israel: …(the lower house of the National Assembly) and announced that the election would be conducted on a one-person-one-vote system rather than on the old “slate” system that allowed voters to cast as many votes as there were representatives in their constituency. In the election the number of seats won by…

  • National Assembly (Malawi government)

    Malawi: Constitutional framework: The legislature, the National Assembly, is unicameral; its members also are elected by universal suffrage and serve five-year terms. The 1995 constitution also provided for the creation of an upper legislative chamber, but it was not established by the target completion date in 1999; a proposal to cancel…

  • National Assembly (Netherlands government)

    Netherlands: The Batavian Republic (1795–1806): The representatives elected to the National Assembly (which replaced the historic States General) were not delegates of provincial assemblies by whose decisions they were bound but deputies with full independence of judgment. The ancient system of government, with its medley of assemblies and boards with imperfectly differentiated functions, was replaced…

  • National Assembly (South African government)

    South Africa: The 1996 constitution: The lower house, or National Assembly, comprises 350 to 400 members who are directly elected to a five-year term through proportional representation. The National Council of Provinces, which replaced the Senate as the upper house, is made up of 10-member delegations (each with six permanent and four special members,…

  • National Assembly (South Korean government)

    South Korea: Constitutional framework: …and approved by the elected National Assembly (Kuk Hoe).

  • National Assembly (Surinamese government)

    Suriname: Constitutional framework: …the popularly elected 51-member unicameral National Assembly, which in turn elects a president and vice president. The president, vice president, and members of the National Assembly serve five-year terms. The president is the chairman of a nonelective, military-influenced Council of State, which ensures that the government’s actions conform to the…

  • National Assembly (Tanzanian government)

    Tanzania: Constitutional framework: …most members of the unicameral National Assembly are directly elected. Many seats also are allocated to ex-officio, nominated, and indirectly elected members—including those seats reserved for women, representatives of mass organizations, and the president’s nominees. The National Assembly has a term of five years but can be dissolved by the…

  • National Assembly (United Kingdom government)

    Plaid Cymru: History: …convened in May 1999, the National Assembly for Wales was responsible for administering public services and implementing regional policies on education, health care, and economic development, among other areas. Plaid was very successful in the first election to the assembly, winning 30 percent of the votes and 17 seats out…

  • National Assembly (Zambian government)

    Zambia: Constitutional framework: …of the legislature, called the National Assembly, the president also appoints a Cabinet that consists of ministers, deputy ministers, and provincial deputy ministers. In 1996 the government enacted constitutional amendments that barred foreign nationals and those with foreign parentage from running for president, a change that generated heated debate.

  • National Assembly (Thai government)

    Thailand: Constitutional framework: …documents have provided for a National Assembly with a prime minister as head of government. Power is exercised by the bicameral National Assembly, the Council of Ministers, and the courts in accordance with the provisions of the constitution and laws passed by the National Assembly. The constitution of 2007 (largely…

  • National Assembly (Nicaraguan government)

    Nicaragua: Nicaragua from 1990 to 2006: …from the president to the National Assembly, ended conscription, guaranteed private property rights, and prevented close relatives of the president from serving in the cabinet or succeeding the president. Chamorro’s administration replaced Sandinista-era textbooks with new ones paid for by the U.S. Agency for International Development. It also reduced the…

  • National Assembly (Iraqi government)

    Iraq: Postwar policies: The new National Assembly convened 10 days later, and subsequent elections were held in 1984 and 1989. Regardless, the Assembly was vested with little power. Only those supporting the Ba?ath revolution were allowed to stand for office, and in disputes between the Assembly and the RCC, the…

  • National Assembly (Djiboutian government)

    Djibouti: Constitutional Framework: The National Assembly is the legislative arm of the government and comprises 65 members who are presided over by the prime minister. Assembly members are elected by universal suffrage for a period of five years. A constitutional amendment in 2010 provided for the creation of a…

  • National Assembly (Ivorian government)

    C?te d'Ivoire: Constitutional framework: …bicameral parliament, consisting of the National Assembly and the Senate. The 255 members of the National Assembly are directly elected for five-year terms. The Senate, which was provided for under the 2016 constitution but was not created until 2018, has 99 members, of which 66 are indirectly elected by local…

  • National Assembly (Pakistan government)

    Pakistan: Constitutional framework: The National Assembly has 342 members, each of whom serves a five-year term. Of these, 272 seats are filled by direct popular election; 262 are for Muslim candidates, and 10 are for non-Muslims. Of the remaining seats, 60 are reserved for women, who are chosen by…

  • National Assembly (Slovene government)

    Slovenia: Constitutional framework: …the majority party in the National Assembly (lower house of the parliament), with which most legislative authority rests. Of its 90 members, 88 are elected by proportional representation to four-year terms, with the remaining two seats reserved for one representative each from the Italian- and Hungarian-speaking communities. The nonpartisan National…

  • National Assembly (Gabonese government)

    Gabon: Constitutional framework: …1990, after which a new National Assembly adopted the constitution of March 1991; the constitution has since been amended.

  • National Assembly (Ecuadorian government)

    Ecuador: Ecuador from the late 20th century: …the election of the new National Assembly outlined in the constitution. The new constitution was the 20th since the country gained independence in 1830, and it reflected many of Correa’s leftist ideals, including a ban on foreign military bases, the allowance of same-sex marriage, free education through the college level,…

  • National Assembly (Serbian government)

    Serbia: The nascent Serbian state: In 1805 a Skup?tina (assembly) was summoned, and it submitted a list of proposals to the sultan. The proposals included a number of demands for local autonomy that were unacceptable to the sultan, and a large force was sent to quell the rebellion. The rebels continued to hold…

  • National Assembly (Chadian government)

    Chad: Constitutional framework: …branch is served by the National Assembly, comprising members who are directly elected to four-year terms; under the terms of the 2018 constitution, terms will be changed to five years with the next election. For administrative purposes, Chad is divided into regions.

  • National Assembly (Lesotho government)

    Lesotho: Challenges in the 21st century: …lower house of parliament, the National Assembly: of 120 seats, 80 would be directly elected, and the remaining 40 would be indirectly elected, allocated to qualifying political parties on the basis of proportional representation. Reaching an agreement took longer than expected, though, and the IPA was not able to establish…

  • National Assembly for Wales (Welsh government)

    United Kingdom: London’s local government, House of Lords reform, and devolution for Scotland and Wales: …in Wales and Scotland, the National Assembly for Wales and the Scottish Parliament were established in 1999 and granted powers previously reserved for the central government. Yet, with the exception of political devolution to the component states of the United Kingdom, the Labour Party remained reluctant to reform the constitution,…

  • National Assembly of People’s Power (Cuban government)

    Cuba: Constitutional framework: …legislative authority rests with the National Assembly of People’s Power, whose more than 600 members serve five-year terms. The number of seats in the assembly has grown steadily, corresponding to the population of the provinces and municipalities. The National Assembly in its brief, twice-yearly sessions appoints a 31-member Council of…

  • National Assembly, Palace of the (building, Lisbon, Portugal)

    Lisbon: City layout: …of Bairro Alto is the Palace of the National Assembly, also known as the Palace of S?o Bento. Nearby is the official residence of Portugal’s prime minister. Farther west, toward Belém, Necessidades Palace houses the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  • National Asset Management Agency (Irish government agency)

    Ireland: The debt crisis and beyond: …the necessity to establish a National Asset Management Agency (NAMA) to bail out the insolvent Irish banks, which had persisted in making grotesquely extravagant and imprudent loans to property developers. The burden of rescuing the banks dramatically escalated the national deficit. So strained were Ireland’s resources that in November 2010—even…

  • National Assistance Act (United Kingdom [1946])

    United Kingdom: Labour and the welfare state (1945–51): …old Poor Law, in the National Assistance Act of 1946, and in its most controversial move it established the gigantic framework of the National Health Service, which provided free comprehensive medical care for every citizen, rich or poor. The pugnacious temper of the minister of health, Aneurin Bevan, and the…

  • National Association (British political group)

    United Kingdom: Domestic responses to the American Revolution: …with the idea of a national association, an assembly of reformers from each county in Britain, that would exist parallel to Parliament and be superior to it in constitutional zeal. A third small group, led by Charles James Fox, a Whig MP, and by former Wilkite activists, wanted more extensive…

  • National Association for Mental Health (British organization)

    mental hygiene: National agencies: ) National Association for Mental Health. This voluntary national group provides resident facilities for disturbed persons, offers follow-up services, and trains mental-health personnel, in addition to carrying on educational programs. The Mental Health Act of 1959 nullified earlier British laws governing policies toward psychiatric disturbance and…

  • National Association for Mental Health (American organization)

    mental hygiene: Modern approaches: …was instrumental in organizing the National Association for Mental Health in 1950.

  • National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (sports organization)

    NASCAR, sanctioning body for stock-car racing in North America, founded in 1948 in Daytona Beach, Fla., and responsible for making stock-car racing a widely popular sport in the United States by the turn of the 21st century. Integral to NASCAR’s founding in the late 1940s was Bill France, an auto

  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (American organization)

    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), interracial American organization created to work for the abolition of segregation and discrimination in housing, education, employment, voting, and transportation; to oppose racism; and to ensure African Americans their

  • National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws (American organization)

    NARAL Pro-Choice America, American organization, founded in 1969 to centralize state abortion-rights efforts and continuing its mission thereafter to protect and promote reproductive freedom. The organization consists of three related entities: NARAL Pro-Choice America, Inc., a nonprofit

  • National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis (American organization)

    clinic: Public health clinics: …in the founding of the National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis in 1904. It was the association’s goal to study and prevent tuberculosis by making clinic facilities available for free examination and treatment in every city and county. Other nationwide, private health agencies in specialized medical fields…

  • National Association of Amateur Athletes of America (American sports organization)

    athletics: Modern development: …formation in 1879 of the National Association of Amateur Athletes of America (NAAAA) to conduct national championships. Nine years later the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) took over as national governing body, amid reports that the NAAAA was lax in enforcing amateurism.

  • National Association of Audubon Societies (American organization)

    National Audubon Society, U.S. organization dedicated to conserving and restoring natural ecosystems. Founded in 1905 and named for John James Audubon, the society has 600,000 members and maintains more than 100 wildlife sanctuaries and nature centres throughout the U.S. Its high-priority campaigns

  • National Association of Base Ball Players (American sports organization)

    baseball: Early years: The National Association of Base Ball Players was organized in 1857, comprising clubs from New York City and vicinity. In 1859 Washington, D.C., organized a club, and in the next year clubs were formed in Lowell, Massachusetts; Allegheny, Pennsylvania; and Hartford, Connecticut. The game continued to…

  • National Association of Broadcasters (American broadcast trade association)

    National Association of Broadcasters (NAB), trade association that supports and advances the interests of the commercial broadcasting industry in the United States. The National Association of Broadcasters (NAB), headquartered in Washington, D.C., represents the interests of thousands of local

  • National Association of Chiropodists (American medical organization)

    podiatry: …in 1912 and became the American Podiatric Medical Association in 1983. The term podiatry was coined by M.J. Lewi of New York in 1917.

  • National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses (American organization)

    Mary Mahoney: …ANA), she later joined the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses (NACGN) and addressed its first annual convention in Boston (1909). The association awarded her life membership in 1911 and elected her its national chaplain.

  • National Association of Colored Women (American organization)

    National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs (NACWC), American organization formed at a convention in Washington, D.C., as the product of the merger in 1896 of the National Federation of Afro-American Women and the National League of Colored Women—organizations that had arisen out of the African

  • National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs (American organization)

    National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs (NACWC), American organization formed at a convention in Washington, D.C., as the product of the merger in 1896 of the National Federation of Afro-American Women and the National League of Colored Women—organizations that had arisen out of the African

  • National Association of Congregational Christian Churches (American religious organization)

    National Association of Congregational Christian Churches, association of churches organized in Detroit, Mich., in 1955 by ministers and laymen of Congregational Christian Churches who did not wish to take part in the merger of the Congregational Christian Churches and the Evangelical and Reformed

  • National Association of Educational Broadcasters (American organization)
  • National Association of Evangelicals (American religious organization)

    National Association of Evangelicals, fellowship of Evangelical Protestant groups in the United States, founded in 1942 by 147 Evangelical leaders. It embraces some 50 denominations, many independent religious organizations, local churches, groups of churches, and individual Christians. All members

  • National Association of Free Will Baptists (American religious organization)

    National Association of Free Will Baptists, association of Baptist churches organized in Nashville, Tennessee, U.S., in 1935. It traces its history back to Free Will, or Arminian, Baptists in the 18th century. These Baptists believed in free will, free grace, and free salvation, in contrast to most

  • National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (American organization)

    gridiron football: The era of television: …in that sport, became the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) in 1952 and first sponsored a national championship in football in 1956.

  • National Association of Professional Base Ball Players (American organization)

    baseball: Professional baseball: The National Association of Professional Base Ball Players was formed in 1871. The founding teams were the Philadelphia Athletics; the Chicago White Stockings (who would also play as the Chicago Colts and the Chicago Orphans before becoming the Cubs—the American League Chicago White Sox were not…

  • National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations (American organization)

    NASDAQ, an American stock market that handles electronic securities trading around the world. It was developed by the National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD) and is monitored by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Trading on the NASDAQ stock exchange began in 1971. In 1992 it

  • National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc. (American organization)

    NYSE Amex Equities: …Amex was part of the National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD) from 1998 to 2004, when ownership of the Amex returned to private hands. Unlike many other exchanges around the world, it did not relinquish floor trading in favour of computer trading, and, at the beginning of the 21st century,…

  • National Association of Software and Services Companies (Indian trade association)

    National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM), trade association of Indian information technology (IT) and computer software and services companies, established in 1988. NASSCOM’s membership also includes Indian branch offices of foreign companies. It is headquartered in New

  • National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage (American organization)

    National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage (NAOWS), organization formed in New York City in 1911 during a convention of state antisuffrage groups. Led by Josephine Dodge, the founder and first president, the NAOWS believed that woman suffrage would decrease women’s work in communities and their

  • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (observatory, Japan)

    Atacama Large Millimeter Array: European Southern Observatory, and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. The radio signals received by the individual dishes can be integrated to give a resolving power equal to that of a single dish as large as 16 km (10 miles) in diameter. Its high angular resolution and large collecting area…

  • National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (observatory, Arecibo, Puerto Rico)

    Arecibo Observatory, astronomical observatory located 16 km (10 miles) south of the town of Arecibo in Puerto Rico. It was the site of the world’s largest single-unit radio telescope until FAST in China began observations in 2016. This instrument, built in the early 1960s, employs a 305-metre

  • National Atlas (United States map)

    map: Types of maps and charts available: The National Atlas of the United States of America, published by the Geological Survey in 1970, contains contributions from all of that country’s mapping agencies. Summaries are provided of all thematic and economic data of interest. The atlas also indicates where more detailed information or large-scale…

  • National Audubon Society v. Superior Court (law case)

    environmental law: Levels of environmental law: Significant local decisions included National Audubon Society v. Superior Court (1976), in which the California Supreme Court dramatically limited the ability of the Los Angeles to divert water that might otherwise fill Mono Lake in California’s eastern desert.

  • National Autonomist Party (political party, Argentina)

    Argentina: The conservative regime, 1880–1916: …was now dominated by the National Autonomist Party, which had originally supported Avellaneda’s candidacy and was now an alliance of the various groups supporting Roca. These included many of the big ranchers, as well as commercial and business interests who were more than happy with Roca’s formula of “peace and…

  • National Autonomous University of Honduras (university, Tegucigalpa, Honduras)

    Honduras: Education: …education is centred at the National Autonomous University of Honduras in Tegucigalpa (founded 1847).

  • National Aviation Company of India Ltd. (Indian ariline)

    Indian Airlines: …with Air India, forming the National Aviation Company of India Ltd. (NACIL).

  • National Awakening Party (political party, Indonesia)

    National Awakening Party, moderate Islamic political party in Indonesia. The PKB was formed in 1998 by Abdurrahman Wahid—a Muslim cleric and head of the Council of Scholars (Nahdlatul-?Ulama), the country’s largest Muslim organization— and his supporters. Its opposition to an Islamic government,

  • National Ballet of Canada (ballet company)

    ballet: Ballet in the cultural milieu: …other Canadian ballet companies, the National Ballet of Canada (founded 1951) has carefully nurtured the classical tradition and has also supported contemporary works by Canadian choreographers that address Canadian issues. The company’s “You dance” campaign introduces Canadian middle-school students to classical and modern ballet. The Ballet Nacional de Cuba was…

  • National Ballet of Cuba (ballet company)

    ballet: Ballet in the cultural milieu: The Ballet Nacional de Cuba was founded in 1948 by Cuban ballerina Alicia Alonso, who also headed the National School of Ballet Alicia Alonso (founded 1950). It provides a good model of how a western European tradition is taken up and reinterpreted to suit national and…

  • national bank (United States banking)

    National bank, in the United States, any commercial bank chartered and supervised by the federal government and operated by private individuals. The first Bank of the United States (1791–1811) and the second Bank of the United States (1816–36) had functioned as agents of the U.S. Treasury and

  • National Bank Act (United States [1863])

    wildcat bank: …after the passage of the National Bank Act of 1863, which provided for the incorporation of national banks under federal law and the issue of bank notes on the security of government bonds. The term wildcat bank was subsequently applied to any unstable bank.

  • National Bank of Angola (bank, Angola)

    Angola: Finance: The National Bank of Angola, which issues Angola’s currency, the kwanza, acts as the central bank. Banks were nationalized after independence, but in 1985 foreign banks reentered the country, and in 1995 the government allowed the formation of private banks. Most savings are held in informal…

  • National Bank of Belarus (bank, Belarus)

    Belarus: Finance: …two-tier system consisting of the National Bank of Belarus and a growing number of commercial banks, most of which are either joint-stock or limited-liability companies. The republic introduced its own currency, the Belarusian rubel, in 1992. A securities market and stock exchange were also established that year.

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