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  • National Zoological Park (zoo, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    National Zoological Park, zoo in Washington, D.C., that was established under the Smithsonian Institution by acts of the U.S. Congress in 1889 and 1890, when a site in the wooded valley of Rock Creek, a tributary of the Potomac River, was purchased. The Smithsonian was authorized to transfer to the

  • National, Le (French newspaper)

    Fran?ois Mignet: …and Armand Carrel, he founded Le National in 1830. This newspaper was instrumental in precipitating the July Revolution, which resulted in the accession of Louis-Philippe as French king. Mignet gave up politics and journalism for historical work, and he was appointed keeper of the archives at the Foreign Ministry, holding…

  • national-origins system (American history)

    United States: Immigration: …at 150,000) and established the national-origins system, which was to characterize immigration policy for the next 40 years. Under it, quotas were established for each country based on the number of persons of that national origin who were living in the United States in 1920. The quotas reduced drastically the…

  • National-Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (political party, Germany)

    Nazi Party, political party of the mass movement known as National Socialism. Under the leadership of Adolf Hitler, the party came to power in Germany in 1933 and governed by totalitarian methods until 1945. It was founded as the German Workers’ Party by Anton Drexler, a Munich locksmith, in 1919.

  • Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands (political party, Germany)

    National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD), right-wing German nationalist party that called for German unification during the Cold War and advocated law and order as well as an end to German “guilt” for World War II. The party’s founders included many former supporters of the Nazis. In the 1950s,

  • Nationale Democratische Partij (political party, Suriname)

    Suriname: Suriname since independence: …served as president of the National Democratic Party (Nationale Democratische Partij; NDP) and was widely viewed as the real power behind Jules Wijdenbosch, who was elected president of the country in 1996. In 1997 the government of the Netherlands issued an arrest warrant for Bouterse on charges of drug smuggling,…

  • Nationale Plantentuin Van Belgi? (garden, Meise, Belgium)

    National Botanical Garden of Belgium, botanical garden consisting of the plant collections at Meise, on the outskirts of Brussels, Belgium. The garden has about 18,000 different species of plants. Originally founded in 1870 on a 17-acre (7-hectare) site in the heart of Brussels, the botanical

  • Nationalgalerie (work by Demand)

    Thomas Demand: John to create “Nationalgalerie,” an exhibition highlighting major events in Germany since 1945. “Nationalgalerie” opened in September 2009 at Berlin’s New National Gallery, marking the anniversaries of the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany (1949) and the dismantling of the Berlin Wall (1989). In 2010 the exhibition…

  • Nationalgalerie (museum, Berlin, Germany)

    National Gallery, German art museum in Berlin that was founded in 1861 and opened to the public in 1876. The National Gallery has one of the world’s finest collections of German painting and sculpture from the late 18th to the mid-20th century. Its holdings include many works by Neoclassical, R

  • nationalism (politics)

    Nationalism, ideology based on the premise that the individual’s loyalty and devotion to the nation-state surpass other individual or group interests. This article discusses the origins and history of nationalism to the 1980s. For later developments in the history of nationalism, see 20th-century

  • Nationalism and History: Essays on Old and New Judaism (work by Dubnow)

    Simon Markovich Dubnow: …first expressed in his famous “Letters on Old and New Judaism” (Russian ed. 1907; Nationalism and History: Essays on Old and New Judaism). As a cultural nationalist he rejected Jewish assimilation but at the same time believed that political Zionism was messianic and unrealistic. Other notable works by Dubnow include…

  • Nationalist Action Party (political party, Turkey)

    Justice and Development Party: Expansion of power: …into an alliance with the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP), and, while the AKP itself received less than half the vote, the alliance won the majority. In the presidential election, Erdo?an was reelected, this time with more than 52 percent of the vote. The changes to the constitution were implemented with…

  • Nationalist Association (Italian political group)

    Italy: Conduct of the war: …conservatives in government, by the Nationalist Association, a group formed in 1910 by Enrico Corradini and others to support Italian expansionism, by some Liberals who saw it as the culmination of the Risorgimento’s fight for national unity, by Republicans and reformist Socialists who knew nothing of the Treaty of London…

  • Nationalist Citizens’ Party (political party, Philippines)

    Claro Mayo Recto: …Nacionalistas and joined the new Nationalist Citizens’ Party, advocating neutrality in foreign relations and economic independence from U.S. interests. He ran unsuccessfully as its candidate for president in 1957.

  • Nationalist Congress Party (political party, India)

    Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), national political party in India. The NCP has described itself as a “millennial party with a modern and progressive orientation” with an ideology of “holistic democracy,” “Gandhian secularism,” and “federalism based national unity.” It has called for a “democratic

  • Nationalist Democratic Action (political party, Bolivia)

    Hugo Bánzer Suárez: …the Acción Democrática Nacionalista (ADN; Nationalist Democratic Action), which became one of the country’s most powerful parties. Bánzer ran for president in 1985 and won in the popular vote but lost in the subsequent run-off vote in the country’s Congress. He was successful in his bid for the presidency in…

  • nationalist monarchy (government)

    monarchy: Monarchy in the modern era: …new type of monarchy—the “nationalist monarchy,” whereby the monarch ruled on behalf of society’s nationalist aspirations and drive for independence. Napoleon based his rule on the instruments of the French Revolution, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. He also, however, was an…

  • Nationalist Movement Party (political party, Turkey)

    Justice and Development Party: Expansion of power: …into an alliance with the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP), and, while the AKP itself received less than half the vote, the alliance won the majority. In the presidential election, Erdo?an was reelected, this time with more than 52 percent of the vote. The changes to the constitution were implemented with…

  • Nationalist Party (political party, Malta)

    Malta: Modern history: …Malta was governed by the Nationalist Party (Partit Nazzjonalista; PN), which pursued a policy of firm alignment with the West. In 1971, however, the Malta Labour Party (Partit Laburista; MLP) came to power, embracing a policy of nonalignment and aggressively asserting Malta’s sovereignty. The MLP formed a special friendship with…

  • Nationalist Party (political party, Philippines)

    Sergio Osme?a: …Filipino statesman, founder of the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista) and president of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946.

  • Nationalist Party (Chinese political party)

    Nationalist Party, political party that governed all or part of mainland China from 1928 to 1949 and subsequently ruled Taiwan under Chiang Kai-shek and his successors for most of the time since then. Originally a revolutionary league working for the overthrow of the Chinese monarchy, the

  • Nationalist Party (political party, Australia)

    Australian Labor Party: …as members of the wartime Nationalist Party, formed from an alliance of pro-conscription Labor and the Liberal Party of Australia.

  • Nationalist Party (political party, Puerto Rico)

    Puerto Rico: Political developments: The Nationalist Party arose in the 1920s and argued for immediate independence. Meanwhile, the pro-U.S. Socialist Party, led by the highly respected labour leader Santiago Iglesias, remained focused on the plight of Puerto Rico’s labouring classes, but its program had little support, because popular attention was…

  • Nationalist Republican Alliance (political party, El Salvador)

    El Salvador: Civil war: …a new political organization, the Nationalist Republican Alliance (Alianza Republicana Nacionalista; Arena), led by retired major Roberto D’Aubuisson Arrieta.

  • Nationalist Republican Party (political party, Suriname)

    Suriname: Political movements: In 1961 the left-wing Nationalist Republican Party (Partij Nationalistische Republiek; PNR) was established. Among the South Asian population the Action Group (Aktie Groep) became active. A split occurred in the NPS-VHP coalition after the 1967 elections, which led to a coalition of the Action Group and the NPS, but…

  • nationalistic music (music)

    Western music: Establishment of the Romantic idiom: Nationalism—the consciousness of the distinctive features of a nation and the intent to reveal, emphasize, and glorify those features—played a prominent part in Romantic music, partly as a result of social and political developments. The subject matter favoured by Romantic composers is most apparent in…

  • Nationalists (Spanish Civil War)

    Francisco Franco: …general and leader of the Nationalist forces that overthrew the Spanish democratic republic in the Spanish Civil War (1936–39); thereafter he was the head of the government of Spain until 1973 and head of state until his death in 1975.

  • Nationalists (Chinese political party)

    Nationalist Party, political party that governed all or part of mainland China from 1928 to 1949 and subsequently ruled Taiwan under Chiang Kai-shek and his successors for most of the time since then. Originally a revolutionary league working for the overthrow of the Chinese monarchy, the

  • Nationalit?tenfrage und die Sozialdemokratie, Die (work by Bauer)

    Marxism: The Austrians: …Bauer, a brilliant theoretician whose Die Nationalit?tenfrage und die Sozialdemokratie (1906; “The Nationalities Question and the Social Democracy”) was critically reviewed by Lenin. In this work he dealt with the problem of nationalities in the light of the experience of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He favoured the self-determination of peoples and…

  • Nationalities Law (Austria-Hungary [1868])

    Hungary: The Dual Monarchy, 1867–1918: The Nationalities Law (1868) guaranteed that all citizens of Hungary, whatever their nationality, constituted politically “a single nation, the indivisible, unitary Hungarian nation,” and there could be no differentiation between them except in respect of the official usage of the current languages and then only insofar…

  • Nationalities Question and the Social Democracy, The (work by Bauer)

    Marxism: The Austrians: …Bauer, a brilliant theoretician whose Die Nationalit?tenfrage und die Sozialdemokratie (1906; “The Nationalities Question and the Social Democracy”) was critically reviewed by Lenin. In this work he dealt with the problem of nationalities in the light of the experience of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He favoured the self-determination of peoples and…

  • nationality (international law)

    Nationality, in law, membership in a nation or sovereign state. It is to be distinguished from citizenship (q.v.), a somewhat narrower term that is sometimes used to denote the status of those nationals who have full political privileges. Before an act of the U.S. Congress made them citizens, for

  • nationality principle (international law)

    international law: Jurisdiction: The nationality principle permits a country to exercise criminal jurisdiction over any of its nationals accused of criminal offenses in another state. Historically, this principle has been associated more closely with civil-law systems than with common-law ones, though its use in common-law systems increased in the…

  • nationalization (economic policy)

    Nationalization, alteration or assumption of control or ownership of private property by the state. It is historically a more recent development than, and differs in motive and degree from, expropriation, or eminent domain, which is the right of government to take property, sometimes without

  • Nationalliberale Partei (political party, Germany)

    National Liberal Party, political party that was active first in Prussia and the North German Confederation from 1867, then in Germany in 1871–1918. With largely middle-class support, the National Liberals hoped to make the government under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck less autocratic. Originally a

  • Nationalrat (Austrian government)

    Austria: Early postwar years: The Nationalrat (lower house) was to be elected by universal suffrage on a basis of proportional representation. The Bundesversammlung in full session elected the president of the republic for a four-year term, but the federal government, with the chancellor at its head, was elected in the…

  • Nationals, the (political party, Australia)

    The Nationals, Australian political party that for most of its history has held office as a result of its customary alliance with the Liberal Party of Australia. It often acted as a margin in the balance of power, but its own power declined over the years. In 1934 it could command 16 percent of the

  • Nationalsozialismus (political movement, Germany)

    Nazism, totalitarian movement led by Adolf Hitler as head of the Nazi Party in Germany. In its intense nationalism, mass appeal, and dictatorial rule, Nazism shared many elements with Italian fascism. However, Nazism was far more extreme both in its ideas and in its practice. In almost every

  • Nationalsozialistische Bewegung, Die (work by Hitler)

    Mein Kampf: The second volume, entitled Die Nationalsozialistische Bewegung (“The National Socialist Movement”), written after Hitler’s release from prison in December 1924, outlines the political program, including the terrorist methods, that National Socialism must pursue both in gaining power and in exercising it thereafter in the new Germany.

  • Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (political party, Germany)

    Nazi Party, political party of the mass movement known as National Socialism. Under the leadership of Adolf Hitler, the party came to power in Germany in 1933 and governed by totalitarian methods until 1945. It was founded as the German Workers’ Party by Anton Drexler, a Munich locksmith, in 1919.

  • Nationalverein (political organization, Germany)

    Rudolf von Bennigsen: …in 1859, president of the Nationalverein (German National Union), which he founded with Johannes von Miquel. The organization’s aims were a united Germany led by Prussia, an all-German parliament, and the exclusion of Austria. After the Nationalverein was dissolved in 1867, he was instrumental in founding the National Liberal Party,…

  • Nations Cup (equestrian sport)

    show jumping: …the results of the several Nations Cup competitions each year and is considered a world team championship. The prize is awarded to the team with the six best scores.

  • Nations, Battle of the (European history)

    Battle of Leipzig, (Oct. 16–19, 1813), decisive defeat for Napoleon, resulting in the destruction of what was left of French power in Germany and Poland. The battle was fought at Leipzig, in Saxony, between approximately 185,000 French and other troops under Napoleon, and approximately 320,000

  • Nations, Commonwealth of (association of states)

    Commonwealth, a free association of sovereign states comprising the United Kingdom and a number of its former dependencies who have chosen to maintain ties of friendship and practical cooperation and who acknowledge the British monarch as symbolic head of their association. In 1965 the Commonwealth

  • nations, law of

    International law, the body of legal rules, norms, and standards that apply between sovereign states and other entities that are legally recognized as international actors. The term was coined by the English philosopher Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832). According to Bentham’s classic definition,

  • Nations, League of (international organization)

    League of Nations, an organization for international cooperation established on January 10, 1920, at the initiative of the victorious Allied powers at the end of World War I. The terrible losses of World War I produced, as years went by and peace seemed no nearer, an ever-growing public demand that

  • Nations, Théatre des (theatre, Paris, France)

    Sarah Bernhardt: International success: …is now known as the Théatre de la Ville.

  • NationsBank Corp. (American company)

    Bank of America: It was formed through NationsBank’s acquisition of BankAmerica in 1998. Bank of America is headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina.

  • Nationwide Series (auto racing championship)

    NASCAR: …two major national series: the Nationwide Series (founded in 1982 and called the Busch Series 1984–2007), in which race cars that differ somewhat in engine and body size from Cup cars are used, and the Camping World Truck Series (founded as the Super Truck Series in 1995 and called the…

  • Native (Urban Areas) Act (South Africa [1923])

    Johannesburg: Racist enactments: ” The 1923 Natives (Urban Areas) Act, for example, defined urban blacks as “temporary sojourners,” welcome only insofar as they ministered “to the wants of the white population.” While Johannesburg never availed itself of the full range of powers the law afforded, it took advantage of the act…

  • Native American (indigenous peoples of Canada and United States)

    Native American, member of any of the aboriginal peoples of the Western Hemisphere, although the term often connotes only those groups whose original territories were in present-day Canada and the United States. Pre-Columbian Americans used technology and material culture that included fire and the

  • Native American (people)

    American Indian, member of any of the aboriginal peoples of the Western Hemisphere. Eskimos (Inuit and Yupik/Yupiit) and Aleuts are often excluded from this category, because their closest genetic and cultural relations were and are with other Arctic peoples rather than with the groups to their

  • Native American art (visual arts)

    Native American art, the visual art of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Americas, often called American Indians. For a further discussion of the visual art of the Americas produced in the period after European contact, see Latin American art. The very use of the word art suggests one of the basic

  • Native American arts (the arts)

    Native American arts, arts of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Americas. Native American arts are treated in a number of articles. See Native American literature, which includes a discussion of the oral tradition; Native American art; Native American music; and Native American

  • Native American Church (North American religion)

    Native American Church, most widespread indigenous religious movement among North American Indians and one of the most influential forms of Pan-Indianism. The term peyote derives from the Nahuatl name peyotl for a cactus. The tops of the plants contain mescaline, an alkaloid drug that has

  • Native American dance

    Native American dance, the dance of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Americas, often called American Indians. The treatment of Native American dance in this article is meant to focus first on certain general features of dance and their manifestation in a number of areas. The diversities existing

  • Native American gaming (gambling)

    Indian gaming, in the United States, gambling enterprises that are owned by federally recognized Native American tribal governments and that operate on reservation or other tribal lands. Indian gaming includes a range of business operations, from full casino facilities with slot machines and Las

  • Native American Graves and Repatriation Act (United States [1990])

    Kennewick: government’s application of the Native American Graves and Repatriation Act, which allowed that all remains of a certain age would be given to the proprietorship of an appropriate party and buried. Inc. 1904. Pop. (2000) 54,693; Kennewick-Pasco-Richland Metro Area, 191,822; (2010) 73,917; Kennewick-Pasco-Richland Metro Area, 253,340.

  • Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (United States [1990])

    Kennewick: government’s application of the Native American Graves and Repatriation Act, which allowed that all remains of a certain age would be given to the proprietorship of an appropriate party and buried. Inc. 1904. Pop. (2000) 54,693; Kennewick-Pasco-Richland Metro Area, 191,822; (2010) 73,917; Kennewick-Pasco-Richland Metro Area, 253,340.

  • Native American literature

    Native American literature, the traditional oral and written literatures of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. These include ancient hieroglyphic and pictographic writings of Middle America as well as an extensive set of folktales, myths, and oral histories that were transmitted for centuries

  • Native American music

    Native American music, music of the indigenous peoples of the Western Hemisphere. The Americas contain hundreds of native communities, each with its own distinctive history, language, and musical culture. These communities—although united in placing music at the centre of public life—have developed

  • Native American Music Awards

    peyote music: Peyote music in contemporary popular culture: Since 2007 the Native American Music Awards—founded in 1998 to honour Native American achievement in the music industry—have included a category for best Native American Church recording.

  • Native American religion

    Native American religions, religious beliefs and sacramental practices of the indigenous peoples of North and South America. Until the 1950s it was commonly assumed that the religions of the surviving Native Americans were little more than curious anachronisms, dying remnants of humankind’s

  • Native American Self-Names

    Many ethnic groups have more than one name, and this is as much the case for Native Americans as it is for others. Names can originate in a number of ways, and their creation and use are often intertwined with historical events. The best-known names for many Native American groups were bestowed by

  • Native Argosy, A (work by Callaghan)

    Morley Callaghan: …his short stories collected in A Native Argosy (1929). Later collections of stories include Morley Callaghan’s Stories (1959) and No Man’s Meat and The Enchanted Pimp (1978).

  • native bank (Chinese history)

    China: Economic development: Native banks, as they were called by foreigners in the 19th century, accepted deposits, made loans, issued private notes, and transferred funds from one region to another. Promissory notes issued by native banks on behalf of merchants facilitated the purchase of large quantities of goods,…

  • Native Brotherhood (North American Indian political group)

    Northwest Coast Indian: Cultural continuity and change: …Alaska created political groups called Native Brotherhoods, and in 1923 Native Sisterhoods, to act on behalf of the people in legal and other proceedings; similar groups were subsequently formed in coastal British Columbia. These organizations provided valuable training in modern political processes and negotiations. Their successes are remarkable, given the…

  • native cat (marsupial)

    Native cat, any of the catlike Australian marsupials that make up the genus Dasyurus in the family Dasyuridae. All native cats are predators that hunt chiefly at night. Because they sometimes raid poultry yards, native cats have been persecuted and in some regions are extinct. Also contributing to

  • Native Council of Canada (Canadian organization)

    Canada: Indian affairs: …Indians were represented by the Native Council of Canada. These and other organizations advocated policies including aboriginal rights (recognized in the Constitution Act [Canada Act] of 1982), improved education, and economic development. In 1983 a government report recommended the establishment of new forms of self-government, and since that time efforts…

  • Native Dancer (racehorse)

    Native Dancer, (foaled 1950), American racehorse (Thoroughbred) who won 21 of 22 starts and achieved widespread popularity as the first outstanding horse whose major victories were seen on national television. Sired by Polynesian out of Geisha, the gray colt was undefeated in nine races as a

  • native element (chemical element group)

    Native element, any of a number of chemical elements that may occur in nature uncombined with other elements. The elements that occur as atmospheric gases are excluded. A brief treatment of native elements follows. For full treatment, see mineral: Native elements. Of the 92 chemical elements found

  • Native Guard (poetry by Tretheway)

    Natasha Trethewey: In Native Guard (2006; Pulitzer Prize), Trethewey honoured both her mother’s life and the largely unsung lives of the Union soldiers who made up the Louisiana Native Guards, one of the early African American units that fought in the American Civil War. In Thrall (2012) Trethewey…

  • Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act (United States legislation)

    Hawaii: Constitutional framework: Daniel Inouye, of the Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act, also known as the Akaka Bill, which would establish a Native Hawaiian governing body to negotiate with the state and federal governments on issues relating to land, assets, and natural resources. Although the bill has not been passed by the…

  • Native Institute (Mexican crafts institution)

    Mexico: Cultural institutions: …government bodies, among them the Native Institute, which seeks to preserve and stimulate traditional craftsmanship.

  • Native Land Act (New Zealand [1862])

    Sir Frederick Aloysius Weld: …confiscated under the newly passed Native Lands Act (1865) and distributed to European settlers. However, the government’s controversial removal of the seat of government from Auckland to Wellington, popular opposition to the self-reliant policy, and Weld’s own declining health so weakened his ministry that Weld resigned (1865), did not stand…

  • Native Lands Act (South Africa [1913])

    Southern Africa: White agriculture and African reserves: The Native Lands Act of 1913 and supplementary legislation in 1936 harmonized these conflicting interests, setting aside about one-eighth of South African land for the some 4,000,000 Africans, while reserving the rest for about 1,250,000 whites.

  • Native Races of the Pacific States of North America, The (work by Bancroft)

    Hubert Howe Bancroft: …assigned the task of writing The Native Races of the Pacific States of North America (1875–76), a five-volume description of indigenous ethnic groups, a work still useful to anthropologists. After these five volumes and the next 28 on the settlement and history of the Western states, Bancroft wrote an additional…

  • Native Representation Act (New Zealand [1867])

    Maori Representation Act, (1867), legislation that created four Maori parliamentary seats in New Zealand, bringing the Maori nation into the political system of the self-governing colony. The Native Representation Act was originally intended to be temporary. When Maori landholdings were converted f

  • Native Sisterhood (North American Indian political group)

    Northwest Coast Indian: Cultural continuity and change: …Native Brotherhoods, and in 1923 Native Sisterhoods, to act on behalf of the people in legal and other proceedings; similar groups were subsequently formed in coastal British Columbia. These organizations provided valuable training in modern political processes and negotiations. Their successes are remarkable, given the rampant discrimination faced by indigenous…

  • Native Son (novel by Wright)

    Native Son, novel by Richard Wright, published in 1940. The novel addresses the issue of white American society’s responsibility for the repression of blacks. The plot charts the decline of Bigger Thomas, a young African American imprisoned for two murders—the accidental smothering of his white

  • Native Title Act (Australia [1993])

    Australia: Domestic issues: The resulting Native Title Act (1993) was unsuccessfully challenged, and subsequently, under its judgment in 1996 (the Wik case), the High Court decided that Indigenous title and pastoral leasehold could coexist. Aboriginal descent became a matter of pride, and by the early 21st century the number affirming…

  • Native’s Return, The (work by Adamic)

    Louis Adamic: …wrote about the experience in The Native’s Return (1934), the story of a man who finds he cannot slip comfortably into his former life as a peasant. Two successful sequels, Grandsons (1935) and Cradle of Life (1936), were followed by his first novel, The House in Antigua (1937). His following…

  • Natives of My Person (novel by Lamming)

    George Lamming: …on Shakespeare’s The Tempest, and Natives of My Person (1971), about 16th-century explorers in the West Indies. His poetry and short stories were published in various anthologies, and Conversations, a volume of essays and interviews, was published in 1992.

  • nativism (philosophy)

    rationalism: Types and expressions of rationalism: …claims, the rationalist defends a nativism, which holds that certain perceptual and conceptual capacities are innate—as suggested in the case of depth perception by experiments with “the visual cliff,” which, though platformed over with firm glass, the infant perceives as hazardous—though these native capacities may at times lie dormant until…

  • nativist movement (United States history)

    United States: Minor parties: The variously named nativist parties accused the Roman Catholic Church of all manner of evil. The Liberty Party opposed the spread of slavery. All these parties were ephemeral because they proved incapable of mounting a broad appeal that attracted masses of voters in addition to their original constituencies.…

  • Nativistic movement (religion)

    eschatology: Nativistic movements: Although usually associated with societies in the Judeo-Christian tradition, eschatological and messianic movements have emerged in various societies around the world. For example, the people of the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal believe that the Endtime will come when, at the…

  • Nativity (painting by Barocci)

    Federico Barocci: … (1579) and the exquisitely beautiful Nativity (1597). Barocci was unusual in the Mannerist period for his numerous and extremely sensitive life drawings. His distinctive use of colour is central Italian in origin—pale, fugitive colours blended chiefly from vermilion pinks, mother-of-pearl whites, and grays.

  • Nativity (Christian art)

    Nativity, a theme in Christian art depicting the newborn Jesus with the Virgin Mary and other figures, following descriptions of Christ’s birth in the Gospels and Apocrypha. An old and popular subject with a complicated iconography, the Nativity was first represented in the 4th century, carved on

  • Nativity (Christianity)

    Christianity: Christian practice in the modern world: …on the night of the Nativity, the ritual drama builds toward the moment when the altar-giver opens her home to Joseph and Mary. As Mother Mary prepares to give birth to Jesus, the hostess readies her home, heart, and community so that they may become fit dwelling places for the…

  • Nativity at Night, The (painting by Geertgen)

    Geertgen tot Sint Jans: The Nativity at Night by Geertgen is remarkable for its rendering of chiaroscuro.

  • Nativity play (literature)

    dramatic literature: Audience expectations: …it should be acknowledged that Nativity plays have always been associated with children both as performers and as spectators. These plays tend to be fanciful in conception, broad in characterization, and moralistic in intention. Nevertheless, probably the most famous of children’s plays, James Barrie’s Peter Pan (1904), implied that the…

  • Nativity, Church of the (church, Bethlehem, West Bank)

    Bethlehem: …under the nave of the Church of the Nativity in the heart of the town, has been continuously venerated by Christians since then. St. Helena (c. 248–c. 328), mother of the first Christian Roman emperor (Constantine I), had a church built over the cave; later destroyed, it was rebuilt in…

  • Nativity, The (work by Goes)

    Hugo van der Goes: …of the Magi and The Nativity reveals the direction in which van der Goes’s later works were to evolve. The Adoration is spatially rational, compositionally tranquil, and harmonious in colour. By contrast, the Nativity (also called Adoration of the Shepherds), a later work painted on a curiously elongated panel, is…

  • Nativity, The (work by Uccello)

    Paolo Uccello: Later years: …(sinopia) for his last fresco, The Nativity, and in three drawings universally attributed to him. These drawings indicate a meticulous, analytic mind, keenly interested in the application of scientific laws to the reconstruction of objects in a three-dimensional space. In these studies he was probably assisted by a noted mathematician,…

  • Nativity, The (work by Baldovinetti)

    Alessio Baldovinetti: …mature style in his masterpiece, The Nativity (1460–62), a fresco in the Church of Santissima Annunziata, Florence. Although Baldovinetti’s technical experiments led to the fresco’s rapid decay, it shows the pale colours, atmospheric light, and integration of detail with large-scale design that characterized most of his later works, such as…

  • NATO

    North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), military alliance established by the North Atlantic Treaty (also called the Washington Treaty) of April 4, 1949, which sought to create a counterweight to Soviet armies stationed in central and eastern Europe after World War II. Its original members were

  • NATO air defense ground environment (military technology)

    warning system: Air defense systems: …BUIC in the United States, NATO air defense ground environment (NADGE) in Europe, a similar system in Japan, and various land-mobile, airborne, and ship command and control systems. Little information concerning the Soviet systems is available, but they are known to be extensive, automated, and capable.

  • NATO at 50

    Since the end of the Cold War, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) has revamped its military structure, strategy, and membership while seeking to define its new role in a changed Europe. A festive summit was planned for April 1999 in Washington, D.C., to celebrate the 50th anniversary of

  • Natorp, Paul (German philosopher)

    Paul Natorp, German Neo-Kantian philosopher, who represented the Marburg school in the philosophy of science and inquired particularly into its necessary presuppositions after the fashion of Kantian “transcendental logic.” He wrote Die logischen Grundlagen der exakten Wissenschaft (1910; “The

  • Natricinae (reptile)

    Water snake, (subfamily Natricinae), any of about 200 species of semiaquatic snakes belonging to 38 genera (family Colubridae). Water snakes feed in or near water, and some leave aquatic environments only to bask in the sun or breed. Water snakes are characterized by stout bodies with strongly

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