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  • Natural Way to Draw, The (work by Nicolaides)

    contour drawing: …popularized by Kimon Nicola?des in The Natural Way to Draw (1941).

  • natural will (social organization)

    Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft: …are determined by Wesenwille (natural will)—i.e., natural and spontaneously arising emotions and expressions of sentiment.

  • Natural, The (film by Levinson [1984])

    Randy Newman: …notably for Ragtime (1981) and The Natural (1984); he earned his first Grammy for his sound track for the latter film. In 1995 he began a fruitful collaboration with Pixar Animation Studios, and he received two Academy Award nominations for his work on Toy Story (1995). He received three more…

  • Natural, The (novel by Malamud)

    The Natural, first novel by Bernard Malamud, published in 1952. The story of gifted athlete Roy Hobbs and his talismanic bat “Wonderboy” is counted among the finest baseball novels. It is at heart a fable that loosely follows the Holy Grail myth. Hobbs’s promising baseball career is cut short when

  • natural-circulation reactor (nuclear energy)

    submarine: Reactors: …of marine nuclear reactor: pressurized-water, natural-circulation, and liquid-metal.

  • natural-flow doctrine (water-rights law)

    riparian right: …States was premised on the natural-flow doctrine, pursuant to which a riparian owner has the right to a natural-water flow of undiminished quantity and unimpaired quality. By the mid-19th century, however, virtually all American states had repudiated the natural-flow doctrine in favour of a second doctrine, that of “reasonable use.”…

  • natural-language processing (computer science)

    information processing: Semantic content analysis: The analysis of digitally recorded natural-language information from the semantic viewpoint is a matter of considerable complexity, and it lies at the foundation of such incipient applications as automatic question answering from a database or retrieval by means of unrestricted natural-language queries. The general approach has been that of computational…

  • Naturales quaestiones (work by Seneca)

    Seneca: Philosophical works and tragedies: …natural science, Naturales quaestiones (Natural Questions), where lofty generalities on the investigation of nature are offset by a jejune exposition of the facts. Of the Consolationes, Ad Marciam (To Marcia) consoles a lady on the loss of a son; Ad Helviam matrem (To Mother Helvia), Seneca’s mother on his…

  • Naturalienkabinett (nature collection)

    art market: Northern Europe and the Austrian Empire: …were known as Kunstkammern or Wunderkammern, from Kunst (“man-made objects”), Wunder (“natural curiosities”), and Kammern (“chambers, rooms”).

  • Naturalis historia (encyclopedic scientific work by Pliny the Elder)

    Natural History, encyclopaedic scientific work of dubious accuracy by Pliny the Elder, completed in 77 ce as Naturae historiae and conventionally known as Naturalis historia. Although Pliny did not distinguish between fact, opinion, and speculation in his 37-volume treatise, he can be credited with

  • naturalism (art)

    Naturalism, in literature and the visual arts, late 19th- and early 20th-century movement that was inspired by adaptation of the principles and methods of natural science, especially the Darwinian view of nature, to literature and art. In literature it extended the tradition of realism, aiming at

  • naturalism (philosophy)

    Naturalism, in philosophy, a theory that relates scientific method to philosophy by affirming that all beings and events in the universe (whatever their inherent character may be) are natural. Consequently, all knowledge of the universe falls within the pale of scientific investigation. Although

  • Naturalism and Religion (work by Otto)

    Rudolf Otto: Scholarly pursuits.: …Naturalistische und religi?se Weltansicht (1904; Naturalism and Religion, 1907), in which he contrasted the naturalistic and the religious ways of interpreting the world, first indicating their antitheses and then raising the question of whether the contradictions can be or should be reconciled.

  • Naturalist on the River Amazons, The (work by Bates)

    Amazon River: Early European exploration: His book The Naturalist on the River Amazons, originally published in two volumes in 1863, is still regarded as one of the great classics on the Amazon River. An official expedition was sent from the United States to Amazonia in the mid-19th century; in 1854 in Washington,…

  • Naturalistic Bubaline (prehistoric art style and school)

    Tassili-n-Ajjer: …school of art, the “Naturalistic Bubaline,” which was approximately contemporary with the Round Head paintings. These artists used a remarkably naturalistic style to depict domestic cattle and wild animals, including the now-extinct giant buffalo.

  • naturalistic fallacy (ethics)

    Naturalistic fallacy, Fallacy of treating the term “good” (or any equivalent term) as if it were the name of a natural property. In 1903 G.E. Moore presented in Principia Ethica his “open-question argument” against what he called the naturalistic fallacy, with the aim of proving that “good” is the

  • Naturalistic Photography (work by Emerson)

    Peter Henry Emerson: In his handbook Naturalistic Photography (1889), he outlined a system of aesthetics. He decreed that a photograph should be direct and simple and show real people in their own environment, not costumed models posed before fake backdrops or other such predetermined formulas.

  • Naturalistische und religi?se Weltansicht (work by Otto)

    Rudolf Otto: Scholarly pursuits.: …Naturalistische und religi?se Weltansicht (1904; Naturalism and Religion, 1907), in which he contrasted the naturalistic and the religious ways of interpreting the world, first indicating their antitheses and then raising the question of whether the contradictions can be or should be reconciled.

  • naturalization (citizenship)

    Naturalization, the act of investing an alien with the status of a national in a given state; it may be accomplished as the result of voluntary application, special legislative direction, marriage to a citizen, or parental action. Naturalization may also occur when one’s home territory is annexed

  • Naturalization Act of 1870 (United Kingdom)

    Act of Settlement: ” By the Naturalization Act of 1870 this clause was virtually repealed for all persons who obtain a certificate of naturalization.

  • naturalized epistemology (philosophy)

    Western philosophy: Naturalized epistemology: The philosophical psychology and philosophy of mind developed since the 1950s by the American philosopher Willard Van Orman Quine (1908–2000), known generally as naturalized epistemology, was influenced both by Russell’s work in logic and by logical positivism. Quine’s philosophy forms a comprehensive system…

  • Naturb?rn (work by Claussen)

    Sophus Claussen: …myths of human existence in Naturb?rn (1887; “Children of Nature”) and Pilefl?jter (1899; “Willow Pipes”) remains in the Danish tradition. Claussen also published several travel books and lyrical prose tales of small-town life in Denmark. He translated some of his favourite poets, including Percy Bysshe Shelley, Heinrich Heine, and Charles…

  • Nature (British periodical)

    Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer: …he founded the science periodical Nature in 1869 and edited it until a few months before his death. He was knighted in 1897.

  • Nature (work by Emerson)

    Ralph Waldo Emerson: Mature life and works: …in man’s spiritual relation to nature. In England he paid memorable visits to Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth, and Thomas Carlyle. At home once more in 1833, he began to write Nature and established himself as a popular and influential lecturer. By 1834 he had found a permanent dwelling place…

  • nature

    Japanese architecture: …Japan—is an understanding of the natural world as a source of spiritual insight and an instructive mirror of human emotion.

  • Nature (work by Medwall)

    Henry Medwall: A morality play, Nature, a good example of the allegorical type of early drama, displays Medwall’s talent for realistic dialogue and his skill as a versifier. Fulgens and Lucrece is a debate on the origins of true nobility, enlivened by the interruptions of household servants.

  • Nature and Destiny of Man, The (work by Niebuhr)

    Reinhold Niebuhr: Pastor and theologian: …grace—so-called Neo-orthodoxy—his salient theological work, The Nature and Destiny of Man, 2 vol. (1941–43), was planned by him as a synthesis both of the insights of the Reformation and of the Renaissance, with its hopefulness about cultural achievements.

  • Nature and the Greeks (work by Schr?dinger)

    Erwin Schr?dinger: …and philosophy, summarized in his Nature and the Greeks (1954), gave him both an admiration for the Greek invention of the scientific view of the world and a skepticism toward the relevance of science as a unique tool with which to unravel the ultimate mysteries of human existence. Schr?dinger’s own…

  • Nature and the Supernatural (work by Bushnell)

    Horace Bushnell: In Nature and the Supernatural (1858) he viewed the twin elements of the title as constituting the one “system of God” and sought to defend from skeptical attack the Christian position on sin, miracles, incarnation, revelation, and Christ’s divinity.

  • Nature Conservancy (American organization)

    Nature Conservancy, nonprofit organization dedicated to environmental conservation and the preservation of biodiversity. It operates the largest private system of nature sanctuaries in the world. Founded in 1951 in Washington, D.C., it owns and manages more than 1,500 preserves throughout the

  • Nature Conservancy Ten Sleep Preserve (encampment, Wyoming, United States)

    Ten Sleep: …entrance to the canyon is Nature Conservancy Ten Sleep Preserve (formerly the Girl Scouts National Center West), which harbours populations of mammals and more than 100 bird species. A conservation buffalo herd was begun at a nearby ranch in 1974. The village is a supply point for a livestock and…

  • nature conservation (ecology)

    Conservation, study of the loss of Earth’s biological diversity and the ways this loss can be prevented. Biological diversity, or biodiversity, is the variety of life either in a particular place or on the entire planet Earth, including its ecosystems, species, populations, and genes. Conservation

  • nature mysticism

    mysticism: Mysticism and reason: …Western rational mystics have contemplated nature—its forms, structures, laws, and quantities—as a means of participating in the divine intellect. While some rational mystics have regarded nature as a contemplative end in itself, for others the contemplation of nature is a source of insight regarding its creator. The most famous modern…

  • Nature of Abstract Art (essay by Schapiro)

    art criticism: Clement Greenberg: In his famous essay “Nature of Abstract Art” (1937), Meyer Schapiro critiques Barr, arguing that such a clearly defined “flowchart” view of formal development—seeing art as moving in one clear direction—assumes that artistic development has nothing to do with extra-artistic reality or, for that matter, as Schapiro emphasizes, the…

  • Nature of Culture (work by Kroeber)

    A.L. Kroeber: The Nature of Culture (1952) collected Kroeber’s essays published on such topics as cultural theory, kinship, social psychology, and psychoanalysis.

  • Nature of Harmony and Metric, The (work by Hauptmann)

    Moritz Hauptmann: …der Harmonik und Metrik (1853; The Nature of Harmony and Metric).

  • Nature of Human Intelligence, The (work by Guilford)

    Joy Paul Guilford: …of intellect, was outlined in The Nature of Human Intelligence (1967).

  • Nature of Judgment, The (work by Moore)

    analytic philosophy: Moore and Russell: …in a paper entitled “The Nature of Judgment” (1899), argued for a theory of truth that implies that the physical world does have the independent existence that it is naively supposed to have. Although the theory was soon abandoned, it represented British philosophy’s return to common sense.

  • Nature of Mathematics, The (work by Black)

    Max Black: …interest in mathematics resulted in The Nature of Mathematics (1933), a study of the various historical conceptions of that field. Black was heavily influenced by Ludwig Wittgenstein, and his interest in that philosopher’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus bore fruit in the comprehensive and highly regarded study A Companion to Wittgenstein’s Tractatus (1964).…

  • Nature of Passion, The (work by Jhabvala)

    Ruth Prawer Jhabvala: …also published as Amrita) and The Nature of Passion (1956), won much critical acclaim for their comic depiction of Indian society and manners. She was often compared to Jane Austen for her microscopic studies of a tightly conventional world. Her position as both insider and detached observer allowed her a…

  • Nature of the Archons (Coptic literature)

    gnosticism: Diversity of gnostic myths: …the Nag Hammadi library, the Nature of the Archons and On the Origin of the World, contain a figure named Sabaoth, one of the sons of Ialdabaoth, who is reminiscent of Justin’s Elohim. When Sabaoth realizes that there is a higher realm, he undergoes a kind of conversion, condemns Ialdabaoth,…

  • Nature of the Chemical Bond, and the Structure of Molecules and Crystals, The (work by Pauling)

    Linus Pauling: Elucidation of molecular structures: His book The Nature of the Chemical Bond, and the Structure of Molecules and Crystals (1939) provided a unified summary of his vision of structural chemistry.

  • Nature of the Firm, The (paper by Coase)

    Ronald Coase: …other published works include “The Nature of the Firm” (1937), his seminal paper in which he introduced the concept of transaction costs to explain the evolution of companies and industries; The Firm, the Market, and the Law (1988); and How China Became Capitalist (2012; with Ning Wang).

  • Nature of Things with David Suzuki, The (Canadian television series)

    David Suzuki: …especially through his television series The Nature of Things with David Suzuki (1979– ), and for his efforts in environmental conservation.

  • Nature of True Virtue, The (work by Edwards)

    Jonathan Edwards: Pastorate at Stockbridge: …God Created the World and The Nature of True Virtue (1765). God’s glory, not human happiness, is his end in creation; but this is because God in his all-sufficient fullness must communicate himself by the exercise of his attributes. God can be said to aim at the creature’s happiness, but…

  • nature religion (Tiele’s classification)

    classification of religions: Morphological: …Tiele’s views, develops out of nature religion,

  • nature reserve (ecology)

    Nature reserve, area set aside for the purpose of preserving certain animals, plants, or both. A nature reserve differs from a national park usually in being smaller and having as its sole purpose the protection of nature. Endangered species are often kept in reserves, away from the hunters who

  • nature spirit (religion)

    nature worship: Nature as a sacred totality: …to what are called “nature spirits,” which are the forces or personifications of the forces of nature. High gods exist, for example, in such indigenous religions on Africa’s west coast as that of the Dyola of Guinea. In such religions the human spiritual environment is functionally structured by means…

  • nature study (illustration)

    Anna Botsford Comstock: …remembered for her work in nature study.

  • nature versus nurture (psychology)

    heredity: Heredity and environment: A notion that was widespread among pioneer biologists in the 18th century was that the fetus, and hence the adult organism that develops from it, is preformed in the sex cells. Some early microscopists even imagined that they saw…

  • nature worship (religion)

    Nature worship, system of religion based on the veneration of natural phenomena—for example, celestial objects such as the sun and moon and terrestrial objects such as water and fire. In the history of religions and cultures, nature worship as a definite and complex system of belief or as a

  • nature, law of (logic)

    Law of nature, in the philosophy of science, a stated regularity in the relations or order of phenomena in the world that holds, under a stipulated set of conditions, either universally or in a stated proportion of instances. (The notion is distinct from that of a natural law—i.e., a law of right

  • nature, philosophy of

    Aristotelianism: Nature of Aristotelianism: In the philosophy of nature (see philosophy of biology; philosophy of physics), Aristotelianism denotes an optimistic position concerning nature’s aims and its economy; believing in the perfection and in the eternity of the heavenly, geocentric spheres, perceiving them as driven by intelligent movers, as carrying in their…

  • nature, state of (political theory)

    State of nature, in political theory, the real or hypothetical condition of human beings before or without political association. Many social-contract theorists, such as Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, relied on this notion to examine the limits and justification of political authority or even, as in

  • nature-nurture controversy (psychology)

    heredity: Heredity and environment: A notion that was widespread among pioneer biologists in the 18th century was that the fetus, and hence the adult organism that develops from it, is preformed in the sex cells. Some early microscopists even imagined that they saw…

  • Naturen Bloeme, Der (work by Maerlant)

    Dutch literature: Poetry and prose: …compendia of knowledge, including his Der naturen bloeme (“The Flower of Nature”) and Spieghel historiael (“The Mirror of History”), answered a demand for the kind of self-instructional literature that long remained a characteristic of Dutch literature. The change in social patterns at this time is also evident in two epic…

  • Naturgeschichte des deutschen Volkes als Grundlage einer deutschen Socialpolitik, Die (work by Riehl)

    Wilhelm Heinrich Riehl: …best known work is Die Naturgeschichte des deutschen Volkes als Grundlage einer deutschen Socialpolitik, 4 vol. (1851–69; “The Natural History of the German People as a Foundation of German Social Politics”), in which he emphasized geographical factors, social conditions, and German local life and culture. In the third volume, Die…

  • naturism (behaviour)

    Nudism, the practice of going without clothes, generally for reasons of health or comfort. Nudism is a social practice in which the sexes interact freely but commonly without engaging in sexual activities. The origin of the practice in Germany in the early 20th century coincided with a rebellion

  • natürliche Tochter, Die (play by Goethe)

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Friendship with Schiller (1794–1805): …last conventional drama he wrote, Die natürliche Tochter (“The Natural Daughter”), which he began planning in 1799 and which was finally completed, produced, and published in 1803. In it the French Revolution appears as the enemy of beauty and as inaugurating a new age in which the Classical world will…

  • natürliche Wert, Der (work by Wieser)

    Friedrich von Wieser: …two most important works are Der natürliche Wert (1889; “Natural Value”) and Grundriss der Sozial?konomik (1914; “Foundations of Social Economy”). In the first of these he developed the Austrian-school theory of costs, building on Menger’s subjective-value approach and introducing the concept of opportunity cost. In Sozial?konomik the principle of marginal…

  • natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, Die (work by Engler)

    Adolf Engler: …to taxonomy is his monumental Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien (“The Natural Plant Families”) edited with Karl von Prantl and others (published in parts, 1887–1911), followed by Das Pflanzenreich (1900–37; “The Plant Kingdom”). In these works, Engler provided a comprehensive system of classification whose arrangements of plant orders and families became widely…

  • naturopathy (health)

    physical culture: Health fads: Naturopathy, including such practices as hydrotherapy, electrotherapy, herbal medicine, nutrition, massage, and homeopathy, drew on the Hippocratic notion of the healing power of nature and the capacity of the body for regeneration. One early health reformer was Sylvester Graham, a Presbyterian minister who preached temperance

  • Naturphilosophie (work by Schelling)

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen: Early life.: …the German philosopher Friedrich Schelling’s Naturphilosophie.

  • Naturrecht und Staatswissenschaft im Grundrisse (work by Hegel)

    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: At Berlin: …der Philosophie des Rechts (1821; The Philosophy of Right). In Hegel’s works on politics and history, the human mind objectifies itself in its endeavour to find an object identical with itself. The Philosophy of Right (or The Philosophy of Law) falls into three main divisions. The first is concerned with…

  • NatWest (British company)

    National Westminster Bank, former British bank holding company with branches and subbranches in the United Kingdom and operations across the world. It was acquired by the Royal Bank of Scotland in 2000. The organization was formed in 1968 as National Westminster Bank Ltd. to merge two banking

  • Natwick, Mildred (American actress)

    Mildred Natwick, U.S. actress (born June 19, 1905, Baltimore, Md.—died Oct. 25, 1994, New York, N.Y.), specialized in portraying mischievous spinsters and likable eccentric characters on stage and television and in films. She was best remembered as the medium in the stage and television p

  • natya (dance)

    dance: Indian classical dance: They are natya, the dramatic element of the dance (i.e., the imitation of character); nritta, pure dance, in which the rhythms and phrases of the music are reflected in the decorative movements of the hands and body and in the stamping of the feet; and nritya, the…

  • natyadharmi (Indian drama)

    South Asian arts: Classical theatre: …the popular taste, and the natyadharmi, or stylized drama, which, using gesture language and symbols, was considered more artistic. In Shakuntala the king enters riding an imaginary chariot, and Shakuntala plucks flowers that are not there; in “The Little Clay Cart” the thief breaks through a nonexistent wall, and Maitreya…

  • Natyasastra (Indian drama treatise)

    Natyashastra, detailed treatise and handbook on dramatic art that deals with all aspects of classical Sanskrit theatre. It is believed to have been written by the mythic Brahman sage and priest Bharata (1st century bce–3rd century ce). Its many chapters contain detailed treatments of all the

  • Natyashastra (Indian drama treatise)

    Natyashastra, detailed treatise and handbook on dramatic art that deals with all aspects of classical Sanskrit theatre. It is believed to have been written by the mythic Brahman sage and priest Bharata (1st century bce–3rd century ce). Its many chapters contain detailed treatments of all the

  • nauarch (ancient Greek naval officer)

    Nauarch, in ancient Greece, an admiral or supreme commander of the navy, used as an official title primarily in Sparta in the late 5th and early 4th centuries bc. The Spartan nauarch could hold office only once, for a period of one year, and being subject to the highest magistrates, the ephors,

  • nauba (music)

    Nawbah , in Middle Eastern music, particularly the traditions of North Africa, an elaborate suite of movements that constitutes the main form of classical Arabic music in that region. It consists of 8 to 10 sections of varying length, rhythmic character, and degree of improvisation, depending on

  • Naucoridae (insect)

    Creeping water bug, any flat-backed, oval-shaped insect of the family Naucoridae (order Heteroptera), which numbers about 150 species. These small, dark bugs, commonly found in tropical regions, range between 5 and 16 millimetres (0.2 and 0.6 inch) and, when submerged, breathe from air stored

  • Naucrates ductor

    Pilot fish, (Naucrates ductor), widely distributed marine fish of the family Carangidae (order Perciformes). Members of the species are found in the open sea throughout warm and tropical waters. The pilot fish is elongated and has a forked tail, a lengthwise keel on each side of the tail base, and

  • Naucratis (ancient Greek settlement, Egypt)

    Naukratis, ancient Greek settlement in the Nile River delta, on the Canopic (western) branch of the river. An emporion (“trading station”) with exclusive trading rights in Egypt, Naukratis was the centre of cultural relations between Greece and Egypt in the pre-Hellenistic period. The station was e

  • Naudé, Gabriel (French librarian)

    Gabriel Naudé, French physician and librarian, considered the first important theoretician of modern library organization. His treatise, Advis pour dresser une bibliothèque (1627; Advice on Establishing a Library), was the first important study of library science. Naudé studied medicine at Paris

  • Naugatuck (Connecticut, United States)

    Seymour, town (township), New Haven county, southwestern Connecticut, U.S. It lies along the Naugatuck River near New Haven. The area was settled about 1678 as part of Derby on land purchased from the Pequot Indians, who called it Naugatuck. It was known successively as Rimmon (1670); Chusetown

  • Naugatuck (town and borough, Connecticut, United States)

    Naugatuck, town (township) and borough, New Haven county, southwestern Connecticut, U.S. It lies along the Naugatuck River just south of Waterbury. Settled as early as 1702 by Samuel Hickox from Waterbury, the locality was called Judd’s Meadows and, later, in 1734, South Farms. Following the

  • Naughton, Bill (British playwright)

    Bill Naughton, Irish-born British playwright who is best remembered for a series of working-class comedies he wrote in the 1960s, most notably Alfie (1963; filmed 1966), an episodic, unsentimental tale of an egocentric Cockney womanizer. When Naughton was a child, his family moved from Ireland to

  • Naughton, William John Francis (British playwright)

    Bill Naughton, Irish-born British playwright who is best remembered for a series of working-class comedies he wrote in the 1960s, most notably Alfie (1963; filmed 1966), an episodic, unsentimental tale of an egocentric Cockney womanizer. When Naughton was a child, his family moved from Ireland to

  • Naughts and Crosses (game)

    number game: Puzzles involving configurations: …for two players, such as ticktacktoe and its more sophisticated variations, one of which calls for each player to begin with three counters (3 black, 3 white); the first player places a counter in any cell, except the center cell, of a 3 × 3 diagram; the players then alternate…

  • Naujan Lake (lake, Philippines)

    Naujan Lake, lake on the northeastern coastal plain of Mindoro, Philippines. It is the Philippines’ fifth largest lake, with an area of 30 square miles (79 square km). The lake is 8.5 miles (14 km) long and 4 miles (6 km) wide and is a productive freshwater fishing site. It is the central feature

  • Naujan Lake National Park (park, Philippines)

    Naujan Lake: …is the central feature of Naujan Lake National Park (established in 1956), which comprises a 5,377-acre (2,175-hectare) area of marshes and forest that serve as breeding grounds for marsh birds, crocodiles, and sail-finned lizards. Naujan Lake was formerly a popular hunting and sport-fishing area; fishing rights have been retained only…

  • Naukanski Siberian Yupik language

    Eskimo-Aleut languages: Yupik: …eastward to Prince William Sound; Naukanski Siberian Yupik, whose speakers were resettled southward from Cape Dezhnyov, the easternmost point of the Eurasian landmass; Central Siberian Yupik (mainly Chaplinski), which is spoken in the Chukchi Peninsula and on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska; and the very divergent Sirenikski, now virtually extinct.

  • Naukratis (ancient Greek settlement, Egypt)

    Naukratis, ancient Greek settlement in the Nile River delta, on the Canopic (western) branch of the river. An emporion (“trading station”) with exclusive trading rights in Egypt, Naukratis was the centre of cultural relations between Greece and Egypt in the pre-Hellenistic period. The station was e

  • Naulahka, The (romance by Kipling and Balestier)

    Rudyard Kipling: Life: …whom he had collaborated in The Naulahka (1892), a facile and unsuccessful romance. That year the young couple moved to the United States and settled on Mrs. Kipling’s property in Vermont, but their manners and attitudes were considered objectionable by their neighbours. Unable or unwilling to adjust to life in…

  • naumachia (ancient Roman theatre)

    Naumachia, (Latin, derived from Greek: “naval battle”) in ancient Rome, a mimic sea battle and the specially constructed basin in which such a battle sometimes took place. These entertainments also took place in flooded amphitheatres. The opposing sides were prisoners of war or convicts, who fought

  • naumachiae (ancient Roman theatre)

    Naumachia, (Latin, derived from Greek: “naval battle”) in ancient Rome, a mimic sea battle and the specially constructed basin in which such a battle sometimes took place. These entertainments also took place in flooded amphitheatres. The opposing sides were prisoners of war or convicts, who fought

  • Nauman, Bruce (American artist)

    Bruce Nauman, American artist whose work in a broad range of mediums has made him a major figure in conceptual art. Nauman was educated at the University of Wisconsin, Madison (B.A., 1964), and the University of California, Davis (M.F.A., 1966), and became part of the burgeoning California art

  • Naumann, Friedrich (German social and political theorist)

    Friedrich Naumann, political and social theorist, publicist, and reformer who became one of the most influential partisans of German liberalism combined with imperialism. As a young pastor, Naumann had joined the Christian Social movement of the Prussian court chaplain Adolf Stoecker, but he was

  • Naumburg (Germany)

    Naumburg, city, Saxony-Anhalt Land (state), east-central Germany. It lies along the Saale River, near the mouth of the Unstrut River, southwest of Halle. Founded by the margraves of Meissen about the year 1000, Naumburg was granted to the bishop of Zeitz when he transferred his seat there in 1028.

  • Naumkeag (Massachusetts, United States)

    Salem, city, Essex county, northeastern Massachusetts, U.S. It lies on Salem Bay Harbor (an inlet of Massachusetts Bay), 16 miles (26 km) northeast of Boston. Salem was incorporated as a town in 1626 by Roger Conant, who emigrated from Cape Ann, 14 miles (22 km) northeast. The first Congregational

  • Nauplia (Greece)

    Nauplia, town and dímos (municipality), Peloponnese (Modern Greek: Pelopónnisos) periféreia (region), southwestern Greece, at the head of the Gulf of Argolís (Argolikós Kólpos). The port, southeast of árgos, sits on the north slope of twin crags; Itche (or Its) Kale (279 feet [85 metres]), the

  • nauplius (zoology)

    animal development: The larval stage: In crustaceans the larva, called nauplius, does not differ substantially in mode of life or means of locomotion from the adult but has fewer appendages than the adult. A typical crustacean nauplius has three pairs of legs and an unpaired simple eye. Additional pairs of appendages and paired compound eyes…

  • Naur, Peter (Danish astronomer and computer scientist)

    Peter Naur, Danish astronomer and computer scientist and winner of the 2005 A.M. Turing Award, the highest honour in computer science, for “fundamental contributions to programming language design and the definition of Algol 60, to compiler design, and to the art and practice of computer

  • nauratan (amulet)

    jewelry: Indian: …of Hindu amulet called a nauratan was made of a gold plaque with nine precious stones fastened above it. A series of nauratans could be used to form a necklace. Jeweled belts followed the shape of the body and often had extra pieces that reached up to the neck or…

  • Nauru (island country, Pacific Ocean)

    Nauru, island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of a raised coral island located in southeastern Micronesia, 25 miles (40 km) south of the Equator. The island is about 800 miles (1,300 km) northeast of the Solomon Islands; its closest neighbour is the island of Banaba, in

  • Nauru, flag of

    national flag consisting of a blue field with a single horizontal yellow stripe and a white star in the lower hoist corner. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is 1 to 2.None of the colonial flags flown by the German, British, or Australian rulers of the island were appropriate for the Republic of

  • Nauru, Republic of (island country, Pacific Ocean)

    Nauru, island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of a raised coral island located in southeastern Micronesia, 25 miles (40 km) south of the Equator. The island is about 800 miles (1,300 km) northeast of the Solomon Islands; its closest neighbour is the island of Banaba, in

  • Nauruan language

    Micronesian languages: …two Micronesian languages, Yapese and Nauruan, are of uncertain relation to the Nuclear Micronesian group. Nuclear Micronesian languages are similar in phonology and close enough in structure to show their close interrelationship, but vocabulary items generally show few similarities, with less than 25 percent of the total vocabulary similar within…

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