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  • Naurūz (Zoroastrianism and Parsiism)

    Nowruz, festival celebrating the new year on the Persian calendar, usually beginning on March 21 on the Gregorian calendar. Though it is a largely secular celebration, it is often associated with and influenced by Zoroastrianism and Parsiism, in which Nowruz is a religious holiday. The festival is

  • naus (prehistoric grave)

    Naus , prehistoric grave found in the Balearic Isles. The naus was built of closely fitting blocks of stone in the shape of an overturned boat with a rounded stern and a squared or slightly concave front. A small door in the front gave access to a slab-roofed passage leading to a long, rectangular

  • Nausea (novel by Sartre)

    Nausea, first novel by Jean-Paul Sartre, published in French in 1938 as La Nausée. It is considered Sartre’s fiction masterwork and is an important expression of existentialist philosophy. Nausea is written in the form of a diary that narrates the recurring feelings of revulsion that overcome

  • nausea (pathology)

    Nausea, (from Greek nausia, “seasickness”), feeling of discomfort in the pit of the stomach that is associated with a revulsion for food and an expectation that vomiting will follow, as it often does. Nausea results from the irritation of nerve endings in the stomach or duodenum, which in turn

  • Nauset (people)

    Nauset, any member of an Algonquian-speaking Native North American tribe that occupied most of what is now Cape Cod, in Massachusetts. The Nauset probably came into contact with Europeans at an early date because of their location, and Samuel de Champlain is known to have encountered them in 1606.

  • Naushad Ali (Indian composer and music director)

    Naushad Ali, Indian motion-picture composer and music director (born Dec. 25, 1919, Lucknow, British India—died May 5, 2006, Mumbai [Bombay], India), was credited with the introduction of an elegant new style of music to Indian cinema through the incorporation of Indian classical and folk music in

  • Naushahra (Pakistan)

    Nowshera, town, Kyber Pakhtunkhwa province, northern Pakistan. Lying on a sandy plain surrounded by hills, on the banks of the Kābul River (there bridged), Nowshera is a commercial and industrial centre that is connected by rail and road with Dargai (Malakand Pass), Mardan, Peshawar, and

  • Naushahro-Fīroz (archaeological site, Pakistan)

    India: Other important sites: …Balochistan, the small settlement of Naushahro Firoz provides valuable evidence of the actual transformation of Early Harappan into mature Harappan. Near the Rann of Kachchh, Surkotada is a small settlement with an oblong fortification wall of stone. Also in Kachchh is Dholavira, which appears to be among the largest Harappan…

  • Naushehra (Pakistan)

    Rahīmyār Khān, town, southern Punjab province, Pakistan. The town was founded in 1751 as Naushehra and received its present name in 1881. It is linked by road and rail with Bahāwalpur, Multān, and Sukkur and is a growing industrial centre (cotton ginning and cottonseed-oil pressing). It has a large

  • Nausica? of the Valley of the Wind (film by Miyazaki)

    Miyazaki Hayao: …no tani no Naushika (Nausica? of the Valley of the Wind), a monthly manga (Japanese cartoon) strip he wrote for Animage magazine. The story followed Naushika, a princess and reluctant warrior, on her journey through an ecologically ravaged world. Its success inspired a film of the same name (released…

  • Nausikaa (drama by Goethe)

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Italian journey (1786–88): …some scenes for a drama, Nausikaa, which was never completed but contains some of his most beautiful verse, evocative of the Mediterranean islands and, flitting about them, the almost audible ghosts of Classical antiquity. From Messina he returned to Naples, from which he visited the best-preserved of all Doric temples,…

  • Nausiphanes (Greek philosopher)

    Epicurus: Early life and training: …Teos, where his teacher was Nausiphanes, a disciple of the naturalistic philosopher Democritus. It may have been from this source that Epicurus’ atomistic theory came, which he used not as a means of studying physics but as the basis for a philosophical system that ultimately sought ethical ends.

  • nautanki (Indian folk dance)

    South Asian arts: The performing arts in India: …of opera (bhavai, terukkuttu, and nautanki), the characters sing and dance at the same time or alternate. Ballad singers from the states of Orissa and Andhra Pradesh dramatize their singing by strong facial gestures and rhythmic ankle bells and execute dance phrases between the narrative singing. On the other hand,…

  • Nautical Almanac, The (British publication)

    navigation: Almanacs and tables: …were published in the annual Nautical Almanac, which was inaugurated in 1766.

  • nautical chart

    map: Nautical charts: Nautical charts are commonly large, 28 by 40 inches (70 centimetres by 1 metre) being an internationally accepted maximum size. In order that a navigator may work with them efficiently, charts must be kept with a minimum of folding in drawers in a…

  • nautical mile (unit of measurement)

    mile: A nautical mile was originally defined as the length on the Earth’s surface of one minute (160 of a degree) of arc along a meridian (north-south line of longitude). Because of a slight flattening of the Earth in polar latitudes, however, the measurement of a nautical…

  • nautili (cephalopod)

    Nautilus, either of two genera of cephalopod mollusks: the pearly, or chambered, nautilus (Nautilus), to which the name properly applies; and the paper nautilus (Argonauta), a cosmopolitan genus related to the octopus. The pearly nautilus has a smooth, coiled external shell about 25 cm (10 inches)

  • nautiloid (cephalopod)

    mollusk: Annotated classification: …subclasses are Palcephalopoda (Orthoceroida; fossils); Nautiloida (fossil groups and 3–5 recent species); Ammonoida (fossils); and Coleoida (fossils and 4 recent orders). Many aspects of molluscan classification remain unsettled, particularly for gastropods and bivalves. The Amphineura, the former name for a group made up of the Polyplacophora (chitons)

  • Nautiloida (cephalopod)

    mollusk: Annotated classification: …subclasses are Palcephalopoda (Orthoceroida; fossils); Nautiloida (fossil groups and 3–5 recent species); Ammonoida (fossils); and Coleoida (fossils and 4 recent orders). Many aspects of molluscan classification remain unsettled, particularly for gastropods and bivalves. The Amphineura, the former name for a group made up of the Polyplacophora (chitons)

  • Nautiloida (cephalopod subclass)

    mollusk: Annotated classification: …subclasses are Palcephalopoda (Orthoceroida; fossils); Nautiloida (fossil groups and 3–5 recent species); Ammonoida (fossils); and Coleoida (fossils and 4 recent orders). Many aspects of molluscan classification remain unsettled, particularly for gastropods and bivalves. The Amphineura, the former name for a group made up of the Polyplacophora (chitons)

  • Nautiloidea (cephalopod)

    mollusk: Annotated classification: …subclasses are Palcephalopoda (Orthoceroida; fossils); Nautiloida (fossil groups and 3–5 recent species); Ammonoida (fossils); and Coleoida (fossils and 4 recent orders). Many aspects of molluscan classification remain unsettled, particularly for gastropods and bivalves. The Amphineura, the former name for a group made up of the Polyplacophora (chitons)

  • nautilus (cephalopod)

    Nautilus, either of two genera of cephalopod mollusks: the pearly, or chambered, nautilus (Nautilus), to which the name properly applies; and the paper nautilus (Argonauta), a cosmopolitan genus related to the octopus. The pearly nautilus has a smooth, coiled external shell about 25 cm (10 inches)

  • Nautilus (submarine)

    Nautilus, any of at least three historic submarines (including the world’s first nuclear-powered vessel) and a fourth submarine famous in science fiction. The American engineer Robert Fulton built one of the earliest submersible craft in 1800 in France under a grant from Napoleon. A collapsible

  • Nautilus (United States submarine)

    Nautilus: The name Nautilus was chosen for the U.S. Navy vessel launched January 21, 1954, as the first submarine capable of prolonged, instead of temporary, submersion. Powered by propulsion turbines that were driven by steam produced by a nuclear reactor, the Nautilus was capable of traveling submerged at…

  • Nautilus (cephalopod)

    Nautilus, either of two genera of cephalopod mollusks: the pearly, or chambered, nautilus (Nautilus), to which the name properly applies; and the paper nautilus (Argonauta), a cosmopolitan genus related to the octopus. The pearly nautilus has a smooth, coiled external shell about 25 cm (10 inches)

  • nautiluses (cephalopod)

    Nautilus, either of two genera of cephalopod mollusks: the pearly, or chambered, nautilus (Nautilus), to which the name properly applies; and the paper nautilus (Argonauta), a cosmopolitan genus related to the octopus. The pearly nautilus has a smooth, coiled external shell about 25 cm (10 inches)

  • Nauvoo (Illinois, United States)

    Nauvoo, city, Hancock county, western Illinois, U.S. It lies along the Mississippi River, about 30 miles (50 km) southwest of Burlington, Iowa. The area was long inhabited by Sauk and Fox Indians before American settlement. Permanent settlement was begun in 1824 by Captain James White, and the area

  • Nauwalabila I (archaeological site, Northern Territory, Australia)

    Nauwalabila I, rock shelter archaeological site in the Northern Territory, Australia, that archaeological evidence suggests is among the oldest Aboriginal sites on the continent, with an estimated age of more than 50,000 years. Nauwalabila I is located on the southern margin of Deaf Adder Gorge in

  • nav aid (navigation)

    airport: Navigational aids: The most common form of navaid used for the approach phase of aircraft descent is the instrument landing system (ILS). This is a radio signal that is beamed along the centreline of the runway and at the correct angle of approach (usually 3°…

  • Nava Vidhana (Hindu religious organization)

    Keshab Chunder Sen: …a new society—Naba Bidhan, or Nava Vidhana (“New Dispensation”)—continuing to preach a mixture of Hindu philosophy and Christian theology. He revived many ancient Vedic practices and sent 12 disciples to preach under a flag bearing a crescent, a cross, and a trident, the respective symbols of Islam, Christianity, and Shaivism…

  • Navadvipa school (Indian philosophy)

    Indian philosophy: The new school: … (author of Upaskara); and the Navadvipa school, whose chief representatives were Vasudeva Sarvabhauma (1450–1525), Raghunatha Shiromani (c. 1475–c. 1550), Mathuranatha Tarkavagisha (flourished c. 1570), Jagadisha Tarkalankara (flourished c. 1625), and Gadadhara Bhattacharya (flourished

  • Navadwip (India)

    Navadwip, city, southeastern West Bengal state, northeastern India. It lies at the confluence of the Bhagirathi and Jalangi rivers. The Bhagirathi River has shifted its course, cutting the city off from the rest of the surrounding area. Reputedly founded in 1063, the town served as the ancient

  • Navaho (people)

    Navajo, second most populous of all Native American peoples in the United States, with some 300,000 individuals in the early 21st century, most of them living in New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah. The Navajo speak an Apachean language which is classified in the Athabaskan language family. At some point

  • Navaho (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Navaho: The second postwar U.S. cruise missile effort was the Navaho, an intercontinental supersonic design. Unlike earlier efforts, which were extrapolated from V-1 engineering, the Navaho was based on the V-2; the basic V-2 structure was fitted with new control surfaces, and the rocket engine…

  • Navaho language

    Navajo language, North American Indian language of the Athabascan family, spoken by the Navajo people of Arizona and New Mexico and closely related to Apache. Navajo is a tone language, meaning that pitch helps distinguish words. Nouns are either animate or inanimate. Animate nouns may be

  • Navaho Witchcraft (work by Kluckhohn)

    Clyde K.M. Kluckhohn: Wyman), and Navaho Witchcraft (1944), which is considered his finest work.

  • navaid (navigation)

    airport: Navigational aids: The most common form of navaid used for the approach phase of aircraft descent is the instrument landing system (ILS). This is a radio signal that is beamed along the centreline of the runway and at the correct angle of approach (usually 3°…

  • Navajo (people)

    Navajo, second most populous of all Native American peoples in the United States, with some 300,000 individuals in the early 21st century, most of them living in New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah. The Navajo speak an Apachean language which is classified in the Athabaskan language family. At some point

  • Navajo code talkers (United States history)

    code talker: …initiated its employment of the Navajo code talkers with its first cohort of 29 recruits in May 1942. They served in all of the marine divisions and took part in their major campaigns. By the end of the war, the Marine Corps had employed 540 Navajos for service, 375 to…

  • Navajo language

    Navajo language, North American Indian language of the Athabascan family, spoken by the Navajo people of Arizona and New Mexico and closely related to Apache. Navajo is a tone language, meaning that pitch helps distinguish words. Nouns are either animate or inanimate. Animate nouns may be

  • Navajo National Monument (Arizona, United States)

    Navajo National Monument, a complex of three prehistoric cliff dwellings near the town of Tonalea in northeastern Arizona, U.S. Located in the Navajo Reservation, the three sites—Betatakin (Navajo: “Ledge House”), Keet Seel (“Broken Pottery”), and Inscription House—are among the best-preserved and

  • Navajo weaving (art)

    Navajo weaving, blankets and rugs made by the Navajo and thought to be some of the most colourful and best-made textiles produced by North American Indians. The Navajo, formerly a seminomadic tribe, settled in the southwestern United States in the 10th and 11th centuries and were well established

  • Naval Academy, United States (military academy, Annapolis, Maryland, United States)

    United States Naval Academy, institution of higher education conducted by the U.S. Department of the Navy and located at Annapolis, Md., for the purpose of preparing young men and women to enter the lowest commissioned ranks of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps. The academy was founded as a Naval

  • naval aircraft (military technology)

    airplane: Takeoff and landing gear: The demands placed on naval planes used on aircraft carriers require a heavier structure to withstand the stresses of catapult launches and landings abruptly terminated by arresting gear. Landing-gear mechanisms are also reinforced, and a tail hook is installed to engage the arresting gear, a system that is also…

  • Naval Appropriations Act (United States [1916])

    United States: Arming for war: …the National Guard, but the Naval Appropriations Act of 1916 provided for more ships than the administration had requested.

  • naval architecture

    Naval architecture, the art and science of designing boats and ships to perform the missions and to meet the requirements laid down by the prospective owners and operators. It involves knowledge of mechanics, hydrostatics, hydrodynamics, steady and unsteady body motion, strength of materials, and

  • naval base

    logistics: Special features of naval logistics: …involved a major dislocation in naval logistics and changed the stakes of imperial competition.

  • Naval Battle of the Lake (Venezuelan history [1823])

    Battle of Lake Maracaibo, also called the "Naval Battle of the Lake," (24 July 1823). Here José Prudencio Padilla led the little fleet of Simón Bolívar’s Republic of Gran Colombia to victory over ángel Laborde y Navarro’s superior Spanish squadron. Against unequal odds, his remarkable daring and

  • naval blockade (warfare)

    Blockade, an act of war whereby one party blocks entry to or departure from a defined part of an enemy’s territory, most often its coasts. Blockades are regulated by international law and custom and require advance warning to neutral states and impartial application. In a memorandum prepared for

  • naval brass (alloy)

    brass: Characteristics of the alloy: …are more easily machined; the naval and admiralty brasses, in which a small amount of tin improves resistance to corrosion by seawater; and the aluminum brasses, which provide strength and corrosion resistance where the naval brasses may fail.

  • naval combat demolition unit (United States military unit)

    Navy SEAL: History: …World War II, particularly to naval combat demolition units (NCDUs) and underwater demolition teams (UDTs) whose “frogmen” were trained to destroy obstacles on enemy-held beaches prior to amphibious landings in Europe and the Pacific. Other special units of that war were scouts and raiders, who were assigned to reconnoitre coastal…

  • naval fleet (military force unit)

    military unit: …which in turn form a fleet. For operations, however, many navies organize their vessels into task units (3–5 ships), task or battle groups (4–10 ships), task forces (2–5 task groups), and fleets (several task forces).

  • naval force (military force)

    Navy, a nation’s warships and craft of every kind maintained for fighting on, under, or over the sea. A large modern navy includes aircraft carriers, cruisers, destroyers, frigates, submarines, minesweepers and minelayers, gunboats, and various types of support, supply, and repair ships, as well as

  • Naval Intelligence, Office of (United States military)

    Central Intelligence Agency: The emergence of the CIA: …an unsystematic way by the Office of Naval Intelligence, by U.S. Army intelligence, and by the FBI. The information gathered was rarely shared with other government agencies and was sometimes not even provided to senior policy makers. For example, because of rivalries between army and navy intelligence offices, which did…

  • naval mine (weapon)

    Submarine mine, underwater weapon designed to explode when a target presents itself. See

  • Naval Observatory, United States (observatory, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    United States Naval Observatory (USNO), in Washington, D.C., an official source, with the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST; formerly the National Bureau of Standards), for standard time in the United States. The positional measurement of celestial objects for purposes of

  • Naval Ordnance Laboratory (United States military organization)

    operations research: History: … began in 1942 in the Naval Ordnance Laboratory. This group, which dealt with mine warfare problems, was later transferred to the Navy Department, from which it designed the aircraft mining blockade of the Inland Sea of Japan.

  • naval ship

    Naval ship, the chief instrument by which a nation extends its military power onto the seas. Warships protect the movement over water of military forces to coastal areas where they may be landed and used against enemy forces; warships protect merchant shipping against enemy attack; they prevent the

  • Naval Special Warfare Development Group (United States military group)

    Navy SEAL: Training and deployment: …SEAL Team 6 or the Naval Special Warfare Development Group (DEVGRU), is not officially acknowledged by the U.S. Navy to exist.

  • Naval Special Warfare Group One (United States military group)

    Navy SEAL: Training and deployment: …teams are components of either Naval Special Warfare Group One, based at Coronado on the West Coast, or Naval Special Warfare Group Two, based at Little Creek, near Virginia Beach, Virginia, on the East Coast. Each of the groups is also assigned an SDV team, which operates submersible craft designed…

  • Naval Special Warfare Group Two (United States military group)

    Navy SEAL: Training and deployment: …on the West Coast, or Naval Special Warfare Group Two, based at Little Creek, near Virginia Beach, Virginia, on the East Coast. Each of the groups is also assigned an SDV team, which operates submersible craft designed to insert and extract SEALs operating in marine areas. Many other boat and…

  • naval stores (resinous products)

    Naval stores, products such as tar, pitch, turpentine, pine oil, rosin, and terpenes obtained from the pine and other coniferous trees, and originally used in maintaining wooden sailing ships. Naval stores are produced chiefly by the United States and France, with large amounts coming also from

  • Naval Tactical Data System (United States military)

    warning system: Air defense systems: …links, is connected with the Naval Tactical Data System, located in fleet headquarters, which processes, organizes, and displays information of the overall picture of the tactical situation.

  • Naval Tracts (work by Monson)

    Sir William Monson: …his retirement he composed his Naval Tracts, which were first printed in abbreviated form in 1682, then in full in 1704, a definitive edition in five volumes being edited by M. Oppenheim for the Navy Records Society in 1902–14. It is to these writings that Monson owes his fame, since,…

  • Naval War College (college, Newport, Rhode Island, United States)

    war college: U.S. Naval War College: The oldest military institution in the United States is the NWC, established in 1884 on Coasters Harbor Island, Newport, Rhode Island, to offer an advanced course of professional study for naval officers. The founding president, Commodore Stephen B. Luce, viewed the…

  • Naval War with France (United States history)

    United States: The Federalist administration and the formation of parties: Virtual naval war with France had followed from American acceptance of British naval protection. In 1798 a French attempt to solicit bribes from American commissioners negotiating a settlement of differences (the so-called XYZ Affair) aroused a wave of anti-French feeling. Later that year the Federalist majority…

  • naval warfare

    Naval warfare, the tactics of military operations conducted on, under, or over the sea. Being the activities of battle itself, tactics are conceived and executed at the literal and metaphoric centre of war’s violence. Tactical science is an orderly description of these activities, and tactical art

  • Naval Warfare (work by Colomb)

    Philip Howard Colomb: …but his major work remains Naval Warfare, 8 vol. (1891). In this overly long historical study he stressed the importance of sea power in maintaining Britain’s colonial empire and its geopolitical supremacy vis-à-vis the other European powers. Colomb thus came independently to many of the conclusions that were more ably…

  • Navalny, Aleksey (Russian lawyer)

    Vladimir Putin: Silencing critics and actions in the West: Aleksey Navalny, an opposition activist who had first achieved prominence as a leader of the 2011 protest movement, was repeatedly imprisoned on what supporters characterized as politically motivated charges. Navalny finished second in the Moscow mayoral race in 2013, but his Progress Party was shut…

  • Navan (Ireland)

    Navan, urban district and county seat of County Meath, Ireland. It lies at the confluence of the Rivers Boyne and Blackwater. The Great Motte, an imposing earthwork 52 feet (16 metres) high, is on its western outskirts. The town was walled and fortified by Hugh de Lacy and later became an outpost

  • Navan Fort (ancient fortress, Armagh, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Armagh: …at the site known as Navan Fort, served as the centre of a kingdom of Ulster extending to the Rivers Shannon and Boyne in the west and south. Also associated with that period is an ancient frontier earthwork, Black Pig’s Dyke. Following the decline of Ulster in the 4th century,…

  • navapada (Jainism)

    siddha: … sect the saint-wheel is called navapada (“nine dignities,” or “nine virtues”) and consists of the pa?ca-parame??hin plus the Jina (saviour) image, temple, scriptures, and dharma-cakra (sacred wheel of the law).

  • Navapolatsk (town, Belarus)

    Polatsk: …Polatsk and its satellite town, Navapolatsk (Novopolotsk), are railway junctions and industrial centres, with oil-refining, petrochemical, glass-fibre, woodworking, and food-processing industries, as well as a teacher-training institute. Pop. (2006 est.) 82,400.

  • Navaratri (Hindu festival)

    Navratri, (Sanskrit: “nine nights”) in Hinduism, major festival held in honour of the divine feminine. Navratri occurs over 9 days during the month of Ashvin, or Ashvina (in the Gregorian calendar, usually September–October). It often ends with the Dussehra (also called Vijayadashami) celebration

  • navarin à la printanière (stew)

    stew: … made with lamb or mutton; navarin à la printanière has been garnished with new potatoes, carrots, peas, onions, and turnips. Fricassees and blanquettes are “white” stews of poultry (in the case of fricassee), veal, or lamb. They are delicately flavoured with mushrooms, mild vegetables, and herbs; the sauce is thickened…

  • Navarino (ancient site, Greece)

    Pylos, any of three sites in Greece. The most important of them is identified with the modern Pylos, the capital of the eparkhía (“eparchy”) of Pylia in the nomós (department) of Messenia (Modern Greek: Messinía), Greece, on the southern headland of the órmos (bay) Navarínou, a deepwater shipping

  • Navarino, Battle of (1827)

    Battle of Navarino, (Oct. 20, 1827), decisive naval engagement of the War of Greek Independence against Turkey. The Turks, with assistance from Egypt, had gained the upper hand in the Greek Independence War, but then Britain, France, and Russia intervened, leading to the defeat of the Turkish and

  • Navarino, Bay of (bay, Greece)

    Bay of Navarino, small, deep, and almost landlocked bay of the Ionian Sea (Modern Greek: Ióvio Pélagos) in the nomós (department) of Messenia (Messinía), in the southwestern Peloponnese (Pelopónnisos), Greece. Known also as Pylos (Pylos) Bay after Homeric Pylos, which has been identified farther to

  • Navarínou, órmos (bay, Greece)

    Bay of Navarino, small, deep, and almost landlocked bay of the Ionian Sea (Modern Greek: Ióvio Pélagos) in the nomós (department) of Messenia (Messinía), in the southwestern Peloponnese (Pelopónnisos), Greece. Known also as Pylos (Pylos) Bay after Homeric Pylos, which has been identified farther to

  • Navarra (autonomous area, Spain)

    Navarra, comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of northern Spain, officially known as the Comunidad Foral de Navarra (“Regional Community of Navarra”). It is roughly coextensive with the Spanish portion of the historical kingdom of Navarra and coextensive with the modern provincia (province) of

  • Navarra, University of (university, Pamplona, Spain)

    Opus Dei: Membership and activities: …endowed (with government assistance) the University of Navarra, which is regarded by many as Spain’s finest university, and operates the Pontifical University of the Holy Cross in Rome and the University of Piura in Peru.

  • Navarre (autonomous area, Spain)

    Navarra, comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of northern Spain, officially known as the Comunidad Foral de Navarra (“Regional Community of Navarra”). It is roughly coextensive with the Spanish portion of the historical kingdom of Navarra and coextensive with the modern provincia (province) of

  • Navarre, Kingdom of (historic kingdom, Spain)

    Kingdom of Navarre, former independent kingdom of Spain (known until the last half of the 12th century as the Kingdom of Pamplona, after its capital and chief city), which, at the time it ceased to exist as such (1512), occupied the area of the present province of Navarra (about 4,000 square miles

  • Navarre, Pierre Freischütz (American trader)

    South Bend: In 1820 Pierre Freischütz Navarre, an agent of the American Fur Company, established a trading post at the site (his cabin has been restored). Three years later the post was bought by Alexis Coquillard and his business partner, Francis Comparet; Coquillard named the place Big St. Joseph…

  • Navarrese Company (Spanish mercenary group)

    Greece: Athens, Thebes, and Corinth: …dominated the region until the Navarrese Company (an army of mercenaries originally hired by Luis of Evreux, brother of Charles II of Navarre, to help assert his claim over Albania and then temporarily in the service of the Hospitallers, a military-monastic order) took Thebes in 1378 or 1379. This weakened…

  • Navarrete, Juan Fernández de (Spanish painter)

    Juan Fernández de Navarrete, painter of the Spanish Mannerist school. He studied in Italy, mostly in Venice, where he was influenced by Sebastiano del Piombo, Tintoretto, and Titian. In 1568 he was appointed painter to the king, who chose him (1576) to play a major role in the decoration of El

  • Navarro, Fats (American musician)

    Fats Navarro, African-American jazz trumpet virtuoso, one of the founders of bebop, who was distinguished by the beauty and fertility of his melodic creations. Navarro first performed as a tenor saxophonist in Miami, Florida, and went on to play trumpet in big bands, most notably Andy Kirk’s

  • Navarro, Guillermo (Mexican cinematographer)
  • Navarro, Pedro, conde de Olivetto (Spanish military engineer and general)

    Pedro Navarro, count de Olivetto, Spanish military engineer and general who fought for various countries and city-states in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Navarro began life as a sailor and was employed later as mozo de espuela, or running footman, by Cardinal Juan de Aragon. On the death

  • Navarro, Theodore (American musician)

    Fats Navarro, African-American jazz trumpet virtuoso, one of the founders of bebop, who was distinguished by the beauty and fertility of his melodic creations. Navarro first performed as a tenor saxophonist in Miami, Florida, and went on to play trumpet in big bands, most notably Andy Kirk’s

  • Navas de Tolosa, Battle of Las (Spanish history)

    Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, (July 16, 1212), major battle of the Christian reconquest of Spain in which the Almohads (a Muslim dynasty of North Africa and Spain) were severely defeated by the combined armies of Castile, Aragon, Navarre, and Portugal. The battle was fought about 40 miles (64 km)

  • Navasky, Victor (American publisher)

    The Nation: In 1995 Victor Navasky, who had been The Nation’s editor since 1978, became its publisher. He held the position until 2005, when he was succeeded by Katrina vanden Heuvel.

  • Navā?ī, Mir ?Alī Shīr (Turkish poet)

    ?Alī Shīr Navā?ī, Turkish poet and scholar who was the greatest representative of Chagatai literature. Born into an aristocratic military family, he studied in Herāt and in Meshed. After his school companion, the sultan ?usayn Bayqarah, succeeded to the throne of Herāt, Navā?ī held a number of

  • Navā?ī, ?Alī Shīr (Turkish poet)

    ?Alī Shīr Navā?ī, Turkish poet and scholar who was the greatest representative of Chagatai literature. Born into an aristocratic military family, he studied in Herāt and in Meshed. After his school companion, the sultan ?usayn Bayqarah, succeeded to the throne of Herāt, Navā?ī held a number of

  • Navdanya (Indian agricultural project)

    Vandana Shiva: In 1991 Shiva launched Navdanya, meaning “Nine Seeds,” or “New Gift” in Hindi. The project, part of RFSTE, strove to combat the growing tendency toward monoculture promoted by large corporations. Navdanya formed over 40 seed banks in India and attempted to educate farmers on the benefits of conserving their…

  • nave (church architecture)

    Nave, central and principal part of a Christian church, extending from the entrance (the narthex) to the transepts (transverse aisle crossing the nave in front of the sanctuary in a cruciform church) or, in the absence of transepts, to the chancel (area around the altar). In a basilican church (see

  • nave del mercader, La (play by Calderón)

    Spanish literature: The plays of Calderón: …of his later productions (La nave del mercader [1674; “The Merchant’s Ship”]).

  • navel (anatomy)

    Navel, in anatomy, a small depression in the abdominal wall at the point of attachment of the umbilical cord (q.v.). It indicates the point through which the mammalian fetus obtained nourishment from its mother through the blood vessels of the umbilical

  • Naven (work by Bateson)

    Gregory Bateson: His most important book, Naven (1936), was a groundbreaking study of cultural symbolism and ritual based on fieldwork in New Guinea. From 1936 to 1950 he was married to Margaret Mead, with whom he studied the connection between culture and personality, publishing Balinese Character in 1942. His interests broadened…

  • navetas (prehistoric grave)

    Naus , prehistoric grave found in the Balearic Isles. The naus was built of closely fitting blocks of stone in the shape of an overturned boat with a rounded stern and a squared or slightly concave front. A small door in the front gave access to a slab-roofed passage leading to a long, rectangular

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