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  • needle (snowflake)

    climate: Snow and sleet: stellars, columns, needles, spatial dendrites, capped columns, and irregular crystals. The size and shape of the snow crystals depend mainly on the temperature of their formation and on the amount of water vapour that is available for deposition. The two principal influences are not independent; the possible…

  • needle (tool)

    Needle, basic implement used in sewing or embroidering and, in variant forms, for knitting and crocheting. The sewing needle is small, slender, rodlike, with a sharply pointed end to facilitate passing through fabric and with the opposite end slotted to carry a thread. Bone and horn needles have

  • needle biopsy (medicine)

    cancer: Biopsy: Needle biopsy involves the removal of a core of tissue from a tumour mass with a specially designed needle often under imaging guidance. Alternatively, the needle can be stereotactically guided to a previously localized lesion. This type of biopsy yields a tissue core or cylinder…

  • needle dropping (music)

    hip-hop: Origins and the old school: Needle dropping, created by Grandmaster Flash, prolonged short drum breaks by playing two copies of a record simultaneously and moving the needle on one turntable back to the start of the break while the other played. Sliding the record back and forth underneath the needle…

  • needle gun (military weapon)

    Dreyse rifle, rifle named for its inventor, Nikolaus von Dreyse. It had a long, sharp firing pin designed to pierce the charge of propelling powder and strike the detonating material (usually mercury fulminate) located at the base of the bullet. The Dreyse rifle, invented between 1827 and 1829, w

  • needle lace (lace)

    Needle lace, with bobbin lace, one of the two main kinds of lace. In needle lace the design is drawn on a piece of parchment or thick paper, cloth-backed. An outlining thread stitched onto this serves as a supporting framework, and the lace is worked with a needle and a single thread in a

  • needle spire (architecture)

    spire: … period in England, a slender, needle spire was set in from the edge of the tower, broaches disappeared, corner pinnacles became customary, and a low parapet was added around the tower’s edge, as seen in the two western spires of Lichfield cathedral.

  • Needle’s Eye, The (novel by Drabble)

    Margaret Drabble: Forster Award for The Needle’s Eye (1972), which explores questions of religion and morality. Her trilogy comprising The Radiant Way (1987), A Natural Curiosity (1989), and The Gates of Ivory (1991) follows the lives of three women who met at Cambridge during the 1950s. In The Peppered Moth…

  • needle, northeasting of the (compass)

    navigation: The lodestone and the compass card: …but is now called the variation or declination. For a time, compass makers in northern countries mounted the needle askew on the card so that the fleur-de-lis indicated true north when the needle pointed to magnetic north. This practice died out about 1700 because it succeeded only for short voyages…

  • needle-clawed bush baby (primate)

    bush baby: The needle-clawed bush babies are classified in another genus, Euoticus. The two species live in the rainforests of west-central Africa. They feed on tree exudate, clinging upside-down to the bark of a tree by digging in their sharp-pointed clawlike nails, stabbing the bark with specialized canine…

  • needle-clawed galago (primate)

    bush baby: The needle-clawed bush babies are classified in another genus, Euoticus. The two species live in the rainforests of west-central Africa. They feed on tree exudate, clinging upside-down to the bark of a tree by digging in their sharp-pointed clawlike nails, stabbing the bark with specialized canine…

  • needlefish (fish)

    Needlefish, any of the long, slim, primarily marine fishes of the family Belonidae (order Atheriniformes), found throughout temperate and tropical waters. Needlefish are adept jumpers, carnivorous in habit, and distinguished by long, slender jaws equipped with sharp teeth. They are silvery fish,

  • needlegrass (plant)

    Needlegrass, (genus Stipa), genus of about 150 species of grasses in the family Poaceae, characterized by sharply pointed grains and long threadlike awns (bristles). Most needlegrasses provide good forage in dry areas before the seed is formed, but the sharp grain of some species may puncture the

  • Needleman-Wunsch algorithm (mathematics)

    bioinformatics: Goals of bioinformatics: The Needleman-Wunsch algorithm, which is based on dynamic programming, guarantees finding the optimal alignment of pairs of sequences. This algorithm essentially divides a large problem (the full sequence) into a series of smaller problems (short sequence segments) and uses the solutions of the smaller problems to…

  • needlepoint (canvas work embroidery)

    Needlepoint, type of embroidery known as canvas work until the early 19th century. In needlepoint the stitches are counted and worked with a needle over the threads, or mesh, of a canvas foundation. Either single- or double-mesh canvas of linen or cotton is used. If needlepoint is worked on a

  • needlepoint (lace)

    Needle lace, with bobbin lace, one of the two main kinds of lace. In needle lace the design is drawn on a piece of parchment or thick paper, cloth-backed. An outlining thread stitched onto this serves as a supporting framework, and the lace is worked with a needle and a single thread in a

  • Needles (New Mexico, United States)

    Shiprock, town, San Juan county, northwestern New Mexico, U.S. Lying on the vast Navajo reservation, the town, originally called Needles, was founded in 1903 as a centre of tribal government. It served as such until 1938, when the Navajo nation established its capital at Window Rock, Arizona. The

  • Needles (California, United States)

    Needles, city, San Bernardino county, southeastern California, U.S. Situated on the Colorado River (impounded [south] to form Lake Havasu), the city was founded in 1883 as a way station for the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad (now the Santa Fe) and was named for a group of isolated needlelike peaks

  • Needles (rock formation, Utah, United States)

    Canyonlands National Park: The Needles has sandstone formations that include the massive red- and white-banded rock pinnacles for which the area is named, as well as the Druid and Angel arches, which are gigantic balanced rock formations, the latter reaching a height of 150 feet (45 metres). Grabens, or…

  • Needles and Opium (play by Lepage)

    Robert Lepage: Early life and career: There he staged Needles and Opium (1991), in which French poet and filmmaker Jean Cocteau and American jazz trumpeter Miles Davis, both played by Lepage, exchanged places. Lepage envisioned the men in 1949 traveling between New York and Paris at the same time, both addicted to drugs. In…

  • Needles, Howard (American engineer)

    bridge: U.S. designs: …Point Bridge (1987), designed by Howard Needles in consultation with Ulrich Finsterwalder, crosses the St. Johns River in Jacksonville, Florida. The main span at Dames Point is 390 metres (1,300 feet), with side spans of 200 metres (660 feet). From H-shaped towers of reinforced concrete, two planes of stays in…

  • Needles, The (Isle of Wight, England, United Kingdom)

    Isle of Wight: …Cliff in the east to The Needles in the west. The ridge is the thickest bed of chalk in the British Isles. The Needles are three detached masses of chalk that lie off the island’s westernmost point and rise to about 100 feet (30 metres). In the northern portion of…

  • Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees, Union of (trade union, North America)

    Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees, North American trade union formed in 1995 by the merger of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (q.v.) and the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union (q.v.). The union represents apparel workers in the United States,

  • Neefe, Christian Gottlob (German musician)

    Ludwig van Beethoven: The early years: …nomination as court organist of Christian Gottlob Neefe, a Protestant from Saxony, who became Beethoven’s teacher. Although somewhat limited as a musician, Neefe was nonetheless a man of high ideals and wide culture, a man of letters as well as a composer of songs and light theatrical pieces; and it…

  • Néel temperature (physics)

    Curie point: …Curie point is called the Néel temperature in honour of the French physicist Louis Néel, who in 1936 successfully explained antiferromagnetism.

  • Neel, Alice (American painter)

    Alice Neel, (b. January 28, 1900, Merion Square [now Gladwyne], Pennsylvania, U.S.—d. October 13, 1984, New York, New York), American realist painter celebrated for her honest and expressive portraits, produced at a time when Abstract Expressionism was the prevailing style in American painting.

  • Neel, Alice Hartley (American painter)

    Alice Neel, (b. January 28, 1900, Merion Square [now Gladwyne], Pennsylvania, U.S.—d. October 13, 1984, New York, New York), American realist painter celebrated for her honest and expressive portraits, produced at a time when Abstract Expressionism was the prevailing style in American painting.

  • Neel, James Van Gundia (American geneticist)

    James Van Gundia Neel, American geneticist (born March 22, 1915, Hamilton, Ohio—died Feb. 1, 2000, Ann Arbor, Mich.), was a pioneer in the field of genetics; his studies provided evidence of the genetic basis of numerous diseases, including sickle-cell anemia. In the late 1940s, as acting d

  • Néel, Louis-Eugène-Félix (French physicist)

    Louis-Eugène-Félix Néel, French physicist who was corecipient, with the Swedish astrophysicist Hannes Alfvén, of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1970 for his pioneering studies of the magnetic properties of solids. His contributions to solid-state physics have found numerous useful applications,

  • neem (tree)

    Neem, (Azadirachta indica), fast-growing tree of the mahogany family (Meliaceae), valued as a medicinal plant, as a source of organic pesticides, and for its timber. Neem is likely native to the Indian subcontinent and to dry areas throughout South Asia. It has been introduced to parts of Africa,

  • neem oil (chemical compound)

    neem: Uses: Neem oil and neem bark and leaves are unsafe for consumption by pregnant women and can cause miscarriage.

  • ?eembucú (Paraguay)

    Pilar, town, southwestern Paraguay. It lies on the eastern bank of the Paraguay River, across from the mouth of the Arroyo Bermejo. Founded in 1779 and originally known as ?eembucú, the town is a river port handling the agricultural products of the fertile area between the Paraguay and Paraná

  • Neemuch (India)

    Neemuch, city, northwestern Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It is located in an upland plateau region on a barren basaltic ridge at an elevation of 1,640 feet (500 metres). The city site was the location of a palace in the district of the Ajmer province. Originally a part of the territory of

  • Neenah (Wisconsin, United States)

    Neenah, city, Winnebago county, east-central Wisconsin, U.S. It lies on Lake Winnebago and the Fox River, just south of Appleton. The city, with adjoining Menasha to the north, forms one economic and social community. Menominee, Fox, and Ho-Chunk Nation (Winnebago) Indians were early inhabitants of

  • neep (plant)

    Rutabaga, (Brassica napus, variety napobrassica), root vegetable in the mustard family (Brassicaceae), cultivated for its fleshy roots and edible leaves. Rutabagas likely originated as a cross between turnips (Brassica rapa, variety rapa) and wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and are thought to have

  • Neer, Aart van der (Dutch painter)

    Aert van der Neer, Dutch painter of the Baroque period, famous for his nocturnal landscapes and winter scenes. His mastery of light effects is revealed in his many darkened landscapes lit by a full moon or a burning building as well as by his sensitivity to the appearance of light on water and ice.

  • Neer, Aart van der (Dutch painter)

    Aert van der Neer, Dutch painter of the Baroque period, famous for his nocturnal landscapes and winter scenes. His mastery of light effects is revealed in his many darkened landscapes lit by a full moon or a burning building as well as by his sensitivity to the appearance of light on water and ice.

  • Neer, Aernou van der (Dutch painter)

    Aert van der Neer, Dutch painter of the Baroque period, famous for his nocturnal landscapes and winter scenes. His mastery of light effects is revealed in his many darkened landscapes lit by a full moon or a burning building as well as by his sensitivity to the appearance of light on water and ice.

  • Neer, Aernout van der (Dutch painter)

    Aert van der Neer, Dutch painter of the Baroque period, famous for his nocturnal landscapes and winter scenes. His mastery of light effects is revealed in his many darkened landscapes lit by a full moon or a burning building as well as by his sensitivity to the appearance of light on water and ice.

  • Neer, Aert van der (Dutch painter)

    Aert van der Neer, Dutch painter of the Baroque period, famous for his nocturnal landscapes and winter scenes. His mastery of light effects is revealed in his many darkened landscapes lit by a full moon or a burning building as well as by his sensitivity to the appearance of light on water and ice.

  • Neeskens, Johan (Dutch football player and manager)

    Ajax: …players such as Ruud Krol, Johan Neeskens, Arie Haan, and Johan Cruyff frequently swapped positions during a game. That playing style, known as “total football,” soon became famous around the world. From 1966 Ajax won the Eredivisie six times in eight years, and in 1969 it became the first Dutch…

  • Neeson, Liam (Northern Irish American actor)

    Liam Neeson, Northern Irish American actor perhaps best known for playing powerful leading men. Neeson was an accomplished boxer in his early years. He abandoned that activity, however, and entered Queen’s University Belfast with the intention of studying physics and computer science. After a year

  • Neeson, William (Northern Irish American actor)

    Liam Neeson, Northern Irish American actor perhaps best known for playing powerful leading men. Neeson was an accomplished boxer in his early years. He abandoned that activity, however, and entered Queen’s University Belfast with the intention of studying physics and computer science. After a year

  • nef (tableware vessel)

    Nef, European vessel in the form of a medieval ship, often complete with rigging. Although occasionally made of Venetian glass, nefs were usually elaborately constructed of precious metals and sometimes had a hull of rock crystal, hardstone, or nautilus shell. Perhaps first used as a drinking

  • Nef, John Ulric (American chemist)

    John Ulric Nef, American chemist whose studies demonstrated that carbon can have a valence (i.e., affinity for electrons) of two as well as a valence of four, thus greatly advancing the understanding of theoretical organic chemistry. Brought to the United States by his father, Nef studied at

  • NEFA (state, India)

    Arunachal Pradesh, state of India. It constitutes a mountainous area in the extreme northeastern part of the country and is bordered by the kingdom of Bhutan to the west, the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, Myanmar (Burma) and the Indian state of Nagaland to the south and southeast,

  • nefazodone (drug)

    antidepressant: Nefazodone, an atypical antidepressant, inhibits serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake and is an antagonist at certain serotonin receptors and at α1-adrenoceptors.

  • Nefelibal (work by Martínez Estrada)

    Ezequiel Martínez Estrada: …and Stone”), was followed by Nefelibal (1922), Motivos del cielo (1924; “Heaven’s Reasons”), Argentina (1927), and Humoresca (1929). These displayed very complex techniques. Language and imagery are often tinted with humour, conveying a satirical view reminiscent of Francisco Gómez de Quevedo y Villegas, the master satirist of Spain’s Golden Age.

  • Neferirkare (king of Egypt)

    ancient Egypt: The 5th dynasty (c. 2465–c. 2325 bce): The third king, Neferirkare, may also have been her son. A story from the Middle Kingdom that makes them all sons of a priest of Re may derive from a tradition that they were true worshipers of the sun god and implies, probably falsely, that the 4th-dynasty kings…

  • Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti (queen of Egypt)

    Nefertiti, queen of Egypt and wife of King Akhenaton (formerly Amenhotep IV; reigned c. 1353–36 bce), who played a prominent role in the cult of the sun god known as the Aton. Nefertiti’s parentage is unrecorded, but, as her name translates as “A Beautiful Woman Has Come,” early Egyptologists

  • Nefertari (queen of Egypt)

    Ramses II: Prosperity during the reign of Ramses II: …and perhaps favourite queen was Nefertari; the smaller temple at Abu Simbel was dedicated to her. She seems to have died comparatively early in the reign, and her fine tomb in the Valley of the Queens at Thebes is well known. Other queens whose names are preserved were Isinofre, who…

  • Nefertem (Egyptian deity)

    Nefertem, in ancient Egyptian religion, youthful god associated with the lotus flower. Nefertem was an ancient god, mentioned in the Pyramid Texts (c. 2350 bce), but he became more prominent during the New Kingdom (1539–c. 1075 bce) and later. As a blue lotus he was believed to have emerged from

  • Nefertemu (Egyptian deity)

    Nefertem, in ancient Egyptian religion, youthful god associated with the lotus flower. Nefertem was an ancient god, mentioned in the Pyramid Texts (c. 2350 bce), but he became more prominent during the New Kingdom (1539–c. 1075 bce) and later. As a blue lotus he was believed to have emerged from

  • Nefertiti (queen of Egypt)

    Nefertiti, queen of Egypt and wife of King Akhenaton (formerly Amenhotep IV; reigned c. 1353–36 bce), who played a prominent role in the cult of the sun god known as the Aton. Nefertiti’s parentage is unrecorded, but, as her name translates as “A Beautiful Woman Has Come,” early Egyptologists

  • Nefertum (Egyptian deity)

    Nefertem, in ancient Egyptian religion, youthful god associated with the lotus flower. Nefertem was an ancient god, mentioned in the Pyramid Texts (c. 2350 bce), but he became more prominent during the New Kingdom (1539–c. 1075 bce) and later. As a blue lotus he was believed to have emerged from

  • nefesh (Judaism)

    Judaism: The earthly-spiritual creature: …biblical material, particularly the words nefesh, neshama, and rua?—which are often too broadly translated as “soul” and “spirit”—indicates that these terms must not be understood as referring to the psychical side of a psychophysical pair. A human being does not possess a nefesh but rather is a nefesh, as Genesis…

  • Nefta (Tunisia)

    Nefta, oasis town situated in southwestern Tunisia. It lies on the northwest shore of Chott El-Jarid (Sha?? Al-Jarīd), a saline lake that is an important source of phosphates. It was known to the Romans as Aggarsel Nepte. Nefta has many small mosques and is an important Sufi centre, where shrines

  • Nefusa (plateau, Libya)

    Nafūsah Plateau, hilly limestone massif, northwestern Libya. It extends in a west-northeasterly arc between Al-Jifārah (Gefara) plain and Al-?amrā? Plateau. With heights ranging from 1,500 to 3,200 feet (460 to 980 m), the plateau runs east for 120 miles (190 km) from the Tunisian border to the K

  • Nef?i (Ottoman poet)

    Nef?i, one of the greatest classical Ottoman poets and one of the most famous satirists and panegyrists in Ottoman Turkish literature. Little is known of Nef?i’s early life; he served as a minor government official in the reign of the sultan Ahmed I (1603–17). Not until the time of Sultan Murad IV

  • Nef?i of Erzurum (Ottoman poet)

    Nef?i, one of the greatest classical Ottoman poets and one of the most famous satirists and panegyrists in Ottoman Turkish literature. Little is known of Nef?i’s early life; he served as a minor government official in the reign of the sultan Ahmed I (1603–17). Not until the time of Sultan Murad IV

  • Negapattam (India)

    Nagapattinam, port city, east-central Tamil Nadu state, southeastern India. It lies on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal, about 250 miles (400 km) south of Chennai (Madras). The city was an ancient port known to have traded with Europe in Greek and Roman times before it became a Portuguese

  • Negaprion brevirostris (fish)

    Lemon shark, species of shark in the family Carcharhinidae. See

  • Negara Brunei Darussalam

    Brunei, independent Islamic sultanate on the northern coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. It is bounded to the north by the South China Sea and on all other sides by the East Malaysian state of Sarawak, which also divides the state into two disconnected segments of unequal size. The

  • negari (Indonesian government unit)

    Minangkabau: Several clans made up the negari, the largest unit of government, roughly equivalent in size to a village, which was administered by a council. Since World War II the traditional kinship structure has declined in importance, and many nuclear families have left the village to establish their own households. Some…

  • Negasso Gidada (president of Ethiopia)

    Ethiopia: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia since 1995: Negasso Gidada, a Christian Oromo who had served as minister of information in the transitional government, became president, and Meles became prime minister. The ethnic balance of the country was reflected in the careful selection of members for the Council of Ministers.

  • negation (grammar)

    Romance languages: Syntax: Negation in Latin was expressed by a range of special items (non, nemo, nihil, nullus, nunquam, and so on). Although some of the others survive in Romance, continuators of non are usually used for negative expression and are regularly prefixed to the verb. Nuances within…

  • negation (logic)

    history of logic: Categorical forms: …a copula, (4) perhaps a negation (“not”), (5) a predicate. Propositions analyzable in this way were later called categorical propositions and fall into one or another of the following forms:

  • negative (photography)

    Negative, photographic image that reproduces the bright portions of the photographed subject as dark and the dark parts as light areas. Negatives are usually formed on a transparent material, such as plastic or glass. Exposure of sensitized paper through the negative, done either by placing the

  • negative acceleration stress (physiology)

    acceleration stress: Negative acceleration stress: Negative acceleration stress occurs when the direction of acceleration is from feet to head. This causes a slight displacement of the internal organs in the abdomen and chest and a rush of blood to the face accompanied by the feeling of congestion.…

  • negative assortative mating (genetics)

    assortative mating: Negative assortative mating is the opposite case, when people avoid mating with persons similar to themselves.

  • negative beta decay (physics)

    radioactivity: Beta-minus decay: In beta-minus decay, an energetic negative electron is emitted, producing a daughter nucleus of one higher atomic number and the same mass number. An example is the decay of the uranium daughter product thorium-234 into protactinium-234:

  • negative beta-particle decay (physics)

    radioactivity: Beta-minus decay: In beta-minus decay, an energetic negative electron is emitted, producing a daughter nucleus of one higher atomic number and the same mass number. An example is the decay of the uranium daughter product thorium-234 into protactinium-234:

  • negative capability (literature)

    Negative capability, a writer’s ability, “which Shakespeare possessed so enormously,” to accept “uncertainties, mysteries, doubts, without any irritable reaching after fact and reason,” according to English poet John Keats, who first used the term in an 1817 letter. An author possessing negative

  • negative conditioning (psychology)

    Aversion therapy, psychotherapy designed to cause a patient to reduce or avoid an undesirable behaviour pattern by conditioning the person to associate the behaviour with an undesirable stimulus. The chief stimuli used in the therapy are electrical, chemical, or imagined aversive situations. In the

  • negative covenant (property law)

    servitude: …render some other performance, and negative covenants, which require the landowner to refrain from doing something. Negative covenants that restrict the uses of a parcel of the land are called restrictive covenants. Typical affirmative covenants require landowners to pay assessments for common-area maintenance and covenant-enforcement purposes. Restrictive covenants are commonly…

  • negative easement (law)

    property law: Easements and profits: …to do (known as a negative easement). Examples of affirmative easements include rights-of-way, the privilege of using land for pasture, the privilege of using a wall between two properties as a party (common) wall, the privilege of flooding land, and the privilege of maintaining a nuisance on one’s own land…

  • negative electrode (electronics)

    Anode, the terminal or electrode from which electrons leave a system. In a battery or other source of direct current the anode is the negative terminal, but in a passive load it is the positive terminal. For example, in an electron tube electrons from the cathode travel across the tube toward the

  • negative electron (subatomic particle)

    Electron, lightest stable subatomic particle known. It carries a negative charge of 1.602176634 × 10?19 coulomb, which is considered the basic unit of electric charge. The rest mass of the electron is 9.1093837015 × 10?31 kg, which is only 11,836the mass of a proton. An electron is therefore

  • negative energy state (physics)

    principles of physical science: Rise of quantum mechanics: …m might exist with any negative energy between ?mc2 and ?∞. Between ?mc2 and +mc2, which is in relativistic theory the energy of an electron at rest, no state is possible. It became clear that other predictions of the theory would not agree with experiment if the negative-energy states were…

  • negative engraving (art)

    map: Scribing: In the negative engraving or scribing process, guide copy is printed on several sheets of plastic coated with an opaque paint, usually yellow. The scriber follows copy on the respective plates by engraving through the coating. Because arc light can pass only through the…

  • negative entropy (information theory)

    communication: Entropy, negative entropy, and redundancy: Negative entropy may also occur in instances in which incomplete or blurred messages are nevertheless received intact, either because of the ability of the receiver to fill in missing details or to recognize, despite distortion or a paucity of information, both the intent and content…

  • negative eugenics (genetics)

    eugenics: Early history: …proliferation of “good stock,” and negative eugenics, defined as prohibiting marriage and breeding between “defective stock.” For eugenicists, nature was far more contributory than nurture in shaping humanity.

  • negative externality (economics)

    environmental economics: Market failure: Negative externalities exist when individuals bear a portion of the cost associated with a good’s production without having any influence over the related production decisions. For example, parents may have to pay higher health-care costs related to pollution-induced asthma among their children because of increased…

  • negative feedback (electronics)

    automation: Early developments: …elegant early example of a negative feedback control system, in which the increasing output of the system is used to decrease the activity of the system.

  • negative feedback (biology)

    hormone: Adrenocorticotropic hormone: …is an example of the negative feedback characteristic of endocrine systems; i.e., a decrease in the level of glucocorticoids circulating in the bloodstream evokes an increase in the secretion of ACTH, which, by stimulating the secretory activity of its target gland (the adrenal cortex), tends to restore to normal the…

  • negative freedom (philosophy)

    philosophical anthropology: The idealism of Kant and Hegel: …is unfavourably contrasted with the “negative” freedom that is, in essence, the ability and the right to say “no,” and to disaffiliate from the institutional contexts into which one may have been born. It should, of course, be kept in mind that the liberal tradition from which these objections derive…

  • negative g-force (physical force)

    roller coaster: Overview: The so-called negative g-forces create the rider’s sense of weightlessness when lifted from the seat over the peaks of hills. On most roller coasters, riders remain seated beneath a safety bar, but variations include riders’ standing on a platform or hanging from a shoulder harness.

  • negative identity formation (psychology)

    human behaviour: Personality: This latter option is called negative identity formation and is often associated with delinquent behaviour. Resolution of the adolescent identity crisis has a profound influence on development during later adulthood.

  • negative income tax (tax law)

    income tax: The negative income tax: The idea of a negative income tax has been considered in the United States as a method of providing very-low-income families with a stable subsistence level of income in the form of government payments geared into the individual income tax structure. It…

  • negative ion (chemistry)

    Anion, atom or group of atoms carrying a negative electric charge. See

  • negative mysticism (mysticism)

    Christianity: Eastern Christianity: …on the “apophatic” or “negative” approach to God. Through a gradual process of ascension from material things to spiritual realities and an eventual stripping away of all created beings in “unknowing,” the soul arrives at “union with Him who transcends all being and all knowledge” (Mystical Theology, chapter 1).…

  • negative number (mathematics)

    algebra: The equation in India and China: …for operating with positive and negative numbers and for treating zero like any other number. Several hundred years passed before European mathematicians fully integrated such ideas into the developing discipline of algebra.

  • negative option

    book club: …them—usually use a technique called negative option, whereby the subscriber must exercise his right to refuse the offered special of the month by returning a refusal notice by mail; otherwise, the book is shipped and the subscriber billed automatically.

  • negative proposition (logic)

    history of logic: Categorical forms: ” Universal negative: “Every β is not an α,” or equivalently “No β is an α.” Particular affirmative: “Some β is an α.” Particular negative: “Some β is not an α.” Indefinite affirmative: “β is an α.” Indefinite negative: “β is not an α.” Singular

  • negative refractive index (optics)

    metamaterial: …a positive-index medium to a negative-index medium, the light is refracted on the same side of the normal as the incident light. In other words, light is bent “negatively” at the interface between the two media; that is, negative refraction takes place.

  • negative sanction (international relations)

    economic statecraft: Forms and uses: Negative sanctions are actual or threatened punishments, whereas positive sanctions are actual or promised rewards. Examples of negative sanctions include the following: refusing to export (embargoes), refusing to import (boycotts), covert refusals to trade (blacklists), purchases intended to keep goods out of the hands of…

  • negative selection (Soviet history)

    Soviet Union: Postwar: …20th-century Russian publications as “negative selection.”

  • negative sentence (grammar)

    Uralic languages: Negative sentences and questions: Negative sentences in Early Uralic were indicated by means of a marker known as an auxiliary of negation, which preceded the main verb and was marked with suffixes that agreed with the subject and perhaps tense. This is best reflected in…

  • negative space (design)

    painting: Shape and mass: The negative spaces between shapes and masses are also carefully considered by the artist, since they can be so adjusted as to enhance the action and character of the positive images. They can be as important to the design as time intervals in music or the…

  • negative strand (biochemistry)

    virus: The nucleic acid: …genomic single-stranded RNA, termed a negative strand, which is complementary to mRNA. All of these negative-strand RNA viruses have an enzyme, called an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (transcriptase), which must first catalyze the synthesis of complementary mRNA from the virion genomic RNA before viral protein synthesis can occur. These variations in…

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