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  • negative temperature coefficient of resistance thermistor (electronics)

    conductive ceramics: Thermistors: Negative TCR, or NTCR, ceramics are materials whose electric resistance decreases as temperatures rise. These ceramics are usually spinels based on oxides of iron, cobalt, and manganese that exhibit small polaron conduction. Under normal temperatures there is an energy barrier to moving electrons from site…

  • negative theology (philosophy)

    Scholasticism: Roots of Scholasticism: …corrective exercised by the “negative theology” of the so-called Pseudo-Dionysius, around whose writings revolved some of the strangest events in the history of Western culture. The true name of this protagonist is, in spite of intensive research, unknown. Probably it will remain forever an enigma why the author of…

  • negative transfer of training

    thought: Obstacles to effective thinking: Negative transfer occurs when the process of solving an earlier problem makes later problems harder to solve. It is contrasted with positive transfer, which occurs when solving an earlier problem makes it easier to solve a later problem. Learning a foreign language, for example, can…

  • Negative, The (book by Adams)

    Ansel Adams: Maturity: …edition of his often-reprinted book The Negative was published in 1948; written for photographers and not the general reader, the book expresses Adams’s technical and aesthetic views in an uncompromising manner.

  • negative-sum game (game theory)

    positive-sum game: The term negative-sum game describes situations in which the total of gains and losses is less than zero, and the only way for one party to maintain the status quo is to take something from another party. It is in the context of negative-sum games that the…

  • negatron emission (physics)

    radioactivity: Beta-minus decay: In beta-minus decay, an energetic negative electron is emitted, producing a daughter nucleus of one higher atomic number and the same mass number. An example is the decay of the uranium daughter product thorium-234 into protactinium-234:

  • Negeb (desert region, Israel)

    Negev, arid region spanning the southern part of Israel and occupying almost half of Palestine west of the Jordan River and about 60 percent of Israeli territory under the 1949–67 boundaries. The name is derived from the Hebrew verbal root n-g-b, “to dry” or “to wipe dry.” The Negev is shaped like

  • Negeri Sembilan (state, Malaysia)

    Negeri Sembilan, state (negeri), southwestern Peninsular (West) Malaysia (Malaya), bounded by the states of Selangor (northwest), Pahang (north), Johor (east), and Melaka (south). Its area of is drained by the Linggi and Mirar rivers and has a 30-mile (48-km) coastline on the Strait of Malacca. Its

  • Negev (desert region, Israel)

    Negev, arid region spanning the southern part of Israel and occupying almost half of Palestine west of the Jordan River and about 60 percent of Israeli territory under the 1949–67 boundaries. The name is derived from the Hebrew verbal root n-g-b, “to dry” or “to wipe dry.” The Negev is shaped like

  • Negev, Ben Gurion University of the (university, Beersheba, Israel)

    Israel: Education: …located near Tel Aviv), and Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Beersheba. The Open University of Israel (formerly Everyman’s University) in Tel Aviv opened in 1974, and teachers’ training colleges include two for Arabs. The language of instruction at Israeli universities is Hebrew, while the teaching system represents a mixture…

  • Negidal (people)

    Even: …reindeer-breeding group, and the riverine Negidals, who are primarily fishermen and hunters.

  • Negishi Ei-ichi (Japanese chemist)

    Negishi Ei-ichi, Japanese chemist who was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work in using palladium as a catalyst in producing organic molecules. He shared the prize with fellow Japanese chemist Suzuki Akira and American chemist Richard F. Heck. Negishi received a bachelor’s degree

  • Neglasny Komitet (political organization, Russia)

    Alexander I: Ascent to the throne: …and Nikolay Novosiltsev—he formed the Private Committee (Neglasny Komitet). Its avowed purpose was to frame “good laws, which are the source of the well-being of the Nation.”

  • neglected tropical disease (medicine)

    tropical disease: Neglected tropical diseases: Numerous tropical diseases have been described, and they collectively affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide each year. However, while many tropical diseases have been eliminated from more-developed countries, some of those diseases have remained major sources of illness and mortality in…

  • negligee (clothing)

    Negligee, (French: “careless, neglected”) informal gown, usually of a soft sheer fabric, worn at home by women. When the corset was fashionable, the negligee was a loose-fitting gown worn during the rest period after lunch. Women’s dresses were also referred to as negligés after the Restoration of

  • negligence (law)

    Negligence, in law, the failure to meet a standard of behaviour established to protect society against unreasonable risk. Negligence is the cornerstone of tort liability and a key factor in most personal injury and property-damage trials. Roman law used a similar principle, distinguishing

  • negligence, comparative (law)

    insurance: Liability law: …a substitute doctrine known as comparative negligence. Under this, each party is held responsible for a portion of the loss corresponding to the degree of blame attached to that party; a person who is judged to be 20 percent to blame for an accident may be required to pay 20…

  • negligence, contributory (law)

    Contributory negligence, in law, behaviour that contributes to one’s own injury or loss and fails to meet the standard of prudence that one should observe for one’s own good. Contributory negligence of the plaintiff is frequently pleaded in defense to a charge of negligence. Historically the

  • Neglinnaya (river, Russia)

    Moscow: Foundation and medieval growth: … and a small tributary, the Neglinnaya. The triangular piece of land between the rivers was protected on the eastern side by a moat joining them. The Neglinnaya now flows through an underground conduit, but part of its course is traced by a street of the same name.

  • Negm, Ahmed Fouad (Egyptian poet)

    Ahmed Fouad Negm, Egyptian dissident poet (born May 22, 1929, Kafr Abu Negm, Egypt—died Dec. 3, 2013, Cairo, Egypt), inspired generations of Egyptians with his slangy, sometimes crude poems in which he described the struggles of the working class and lampooned the excesses of Egypt’s political

  • Negoiu, Mount (mountain, Romania)

    F?g?ra? Mountains: … (8,346 feet [2,544 m]) and Negoiu (8,317 feet [2,535 m]) are the highest peaks. On the northern face many short streams fall precipitously into the Olt; on the southern face rise several rivers, the major one being the Arge?. The 30-mile- (48-kilometre-) long range is relatively isolated and inaccessible in…

  • negotiable instrument (banking and economics)

    Negotiable instrument, Transferable document (e.g., a bank note, check, or draft) containing an unconditional promise or order to pay a specified amount to its holder upon demand or at a specified time. In the U.S., the Uniform Commercial Code governs negotiable

  • negotiated management (crowd control)

    police: Methods of crowd policing: …1970s, when the strategy of negotiated management emerged. The success of the latter strategy depends on two key factors: the willingness of the police and the groups involved to negotiate control of the event and, more fundamentally, the availability of group representatives with whom to negotiate. Such people are easily…

  • negotiated-contract buying (business)

    marketing: Purchasing procedures: In negotiated-contract buying, a government agency negotiates directly with one or more companies regarding a specific project or supply need. In most cases, contracts are negotiated for complex projects that involve major research-and-development costs and in matters where there is little effective competition.

  • Negotiating with the Dead: A Writer on Writing (work by Atwood)

    Margaret Atwood: Her nonfiction includes Negotiating with the Dead: A Writer on Writing (2002), which grew out of a series of lectures she gave at the University of Cambridge; Payback (2008; film 2012), an impassioned essay that treats debt—both personal and governmental—as a cultural issue rather than as a political…

  • negotiation

    law of war: Cessation of hostilities: Hostilities may be suspended pending negotiation between the parties. Negotiation may, or may not, be preceded by the display of a white flag, which merely means that one side wishes to enter into communication with the other. The parties may then enter into an armistice, and, when all matters are…

  • Negotiator, The (film by Gray [1998])

    Samuel L. Jackson: (1996), Tarantino’s Jackie Brown (1997), The Negotiator (1998), and Star Wars: Episode I—The Phantom Menace (1999), as Mace Windu. He reprised that role in Star Wars: Episode II—Attack of the Clones (2002) and Star Wars: Episode III—Revenge of the Sith (2005). In addition, he provided the voice of that character…

  • negotiorum gestio (law)

    Roman law: Delict and contract: …most noticeable examples were, first, negotiorum gestio, which enabled one who intervened without authority in another’s affairs for the latter’s benefit to claim reimbursement and indemnity, and second, the group of cases in which an action (condictio) was allowed for the recovery by A from B of what would otherwise…

  • Negra, Cordillera (mountain range, Peru)

    Cordillera Negra, range of the Andes Mountains in west-central Peru. It extends for about 110 miles (180 km) southeast from the mouth of the Santa River and rises to an elevation of 14,764 feet (4,430 metres). The upper Santa River Valley, also known as the Callejón de Huaylas, separates the

  • Nègre à Paris, Un (work by Dadié)

    Bernard Binlin Dadié: Un Nègre à Paris (1959), his examination of Parisian society, is presented in epistolary form. Dadié’s love of Africa’s oral traditions caused him to collect and publish several more volumes of legends, fables, folktales, and proverbs, which he felt provided the moral backbone of African…

  • Nègre, Charles (French photographer)

    Charles Nègre, French painter and photographer best known for his photographs of Paris street scenes and architectural monuments, notably the Notre-Dame and Chartres cathedrals. Nègre first went to Paris in 1839 to study painting in the studio of Paul Delaroche. His fellow students there included

  • Nègre, Le (work by Soupault)

    Philippe Soupault: His novels centre on the concepts of freedom and revolt. Les Frères Durandeau (1924; “The Durandeau Brothers”) is a scathing portrait of the middle class. Le Nègre (1927; “The Negro”) traces a black man’s pursuit of liberty. Les Moribonds (1934; “The Dying”) is a semiautobiographical description of…

  • Nègres, Les (play by Genet)

    Jean Genet: …The Balcony), Les Nègres (1958; The Blacks), and Les Paravents (1961; The Screens), are large-scale, stylized dramas in the Expressionist manner, designed to shock and implicate an audience by revealing its hypocrisy and complicity. This “Theatre of Hatred” attempts to wrest the maximum dramatic power from a social or political…

  • Negress Notes (Brown Follies) (work by Walker)

    Kara Walker: …a series of watercolours titled Negress Notes (Brown Follies) (1996–97), caused a stir. Some African American artists, particularly those who participated in the civil rights movement, deplored her use of racist caricatures. Walker made it clear that her intent as an artist was not to create pleasing images or to…

  • Negretti, Jacopo (Italian painter [1480?–1528])

    Jacopo Palma, Venetian painter of the High Renaissance, noted for the craftsmanship of his religious and mythological works. He may have studied under Giovanni Bellini, the originator of the Venetian High Renaissance style. Palma specialized in the type of contemplative religious picture known as

  • Negri Sembilan (state, Malaysia)

    Negeri Sembilan, state (negeri), southwestern Peninsular (West) Malaysia (Malaya), bounded by the states of Selangor (northwest), Pahang (north), Johor (east), and Melaka (south). Its area of is drained by the Linggi and Mirar rivers and has a 30-mile (48-km) coastline on the Strait of Malacca. Its

  • Negri, Giuditta Maria Costanza (Italian opera singer)

    Giuditta Pasta, reigning Italian soprano of her time, acclaimed for her vocal range and expressiveness. She studied with Bonifazio Asioli and Giuseppe Scappa at Milan and made her debut there in 1815 in Scappa’s Le tre Eleonore. She gave a brilliant performance in 1821 at the Théatre-Italien in

  • Negri, Toni (Italian sociologist)

    antiglobalization: The antiglobalization movement: Michael Hardt and Toni Negri used the term multitude to describe the antiglobalization movement as a whole of singularities that act in common, a decentred authority, a polyphonic dialogue, a constituent cooperative power of a global democracy from below, an open-source society, and a direct democratic government by…

  • Negrín López, Juan (prime minister of Spain)

    Juan Negrín López, Republican prime minister (1937–39) of Spain who held office during the last two years of the Spanish Civil War. He was a determined wartime leader but was forced to rely heavily on communist support during his time in power. His policies as prime minister have been the subject

  • Negrito (people)

    Philippines: Ethnic groups: …of the islands were the Negritos, a term referring collectively to numerous peoples of dark skin and small stature, including the Aeta, Ita, Agta, and others. Those communities now constitute only a tiny percentage of the total population. From the 10th century, contacts with China resulted in a group of…

  • Negritude (literary movement)

    Negritude, literary movement of the 1930s, ’40s, and ’50s that began among French-speaking African and Caribbean writers living in Paris as a protest against French colonial rule and the policy of assimilation. Its leading figure was Léopold Sédar Senghor (elected first president of the Republic of

  • Négritude (literary movement)

    Negritude, literary movement of the 1930s, ’40s, and ’50s that began among French-speaking African and Caribbean writers living in Paris as a protest against French colonial rule and the policy of assimilation. Its leading figure was Léopold Sédar Senghor (elected first president of the Republic of

  • Negro Actors Guild of America (American organization)

    Noble Sissle: Meanwhile, he helped found the Negro Actors Guild of America and became its first president in 1937. In 1950 he assumed the honorary post of mayor of Harlem. In 1952 Sissle, Blake, and Miller headed the cast of Shuffle Along of 1952, a four-performance debacle that compared unfavourably with the…

  • Negro American League (American baseball organization)

    baseball: Segregation: …in that decade, and the Negro American League, formed in 1936, ultimately had Eastern and Western divisions that in 1952 played a Negro East-West game. Among the most famous players in the various Negro leagues were Josh Gibson (who was credited with hitting 89 home runs in one season), Satchel…

  • negro bug (insect subfamily)

    burrower bug: Sometimes the subfamily Thyreocorinae is elevated to the family level (Thyreocoridae). Its members, slightly smaller than those of the burrower-bug subfamily Cydninae, at one time were commonly called negro bugs but are now called thyreocorids. They are found on vegetation, flowers, and fruits, especially raspberries. These are usually…

  • Negro Digest (American magazine)

    John H. Johnson: …1942 he began publication of Negro Digest. Its first issue sold some 3,000 copies, and within a year the monthly circulation was 50,000. From that beginning, Johnson launched Ebony, a general-interest magazine catering to an African American audience, in 1945. Ebony’s initial pressrun of 25,000 copies was completely sold out.…

  • Negro Eastern League (sports organization)

    baseball: Segregation: …Negro National League and the Negro Eastern League played in New York City, Chicago, St. Louis, Kansas City (Missouri), Detroit, and other cities that had absorbed a large influx of African Americans from the South during and after World War I. In the 1920s a Negro World Series was begun…

  • Negro English (dialect)

    African American English (AAE), a language variety that has also been identified at different times in dialectology and literary studies as Black English, black dialect, and Negro (nonstandard) English. Since the late 1980s, the term has been used ambiguously, sometimes with reference to only

  • Negro Experimental Theatre (American theatrical company)

    Regina M. Anderson: …Krigwa Players evolved into the Negro Experimental Theatre (also known as the Harlem Experimental Theatre), which in 1931 produced Anderson’s one-act play Climbing Jacob’s Ladder, about a lynching that happened while people prayed in church. The next year the theatre produced her one-act play Underground, about the Underground Railroad. Both…

  • Negro Explorer at the North Pole, A (work by Henson)

    Matthew Alexander Henson: Henson’s account of the journey, A Negro Explorer at the North Pole, appeared in 1912. The following year, by order of Pres. William Howard Taft, Henson was appointed a clerk in the U.S. Customs House in New York City, a post he held until his retirement in 1936. Henson received…

  • Negro Family: The Case for National Action, The (work by Moynihan)

    Daniel Patrick Moynihan: …the Department of Labor, cowrote The Negro Family: The Case for National Action, popularly called the Moynihan Report, which held that many of the educational problems of American blacks resulted from the instability of black urban families. The report caused a storm of controversy and made Moynihan famous. He became…

  • Negro Fellowship League (American organization)

    Ida B. Wells-Barnett: …the first president of the Negro Fellowship League, which aided newly arrived migrants from the South. In 1913 she founded what may have been the first black woman suffrage group, Chicago’s Alpha Suffrage Club. From 1913 to 1916 she served as a probation officer of the Chicago municipal court. She…

  • Negro History Week

    African American History Month: Together they organized a Negro History Week, beginning in February 1926. They selected the month of February for this celebration because it was close to the birthdays of Pres. Abraham Lincoln, who had been responsible for the Emancipation Proclamation, and the African American orator and abolitionist Frederick Douglass.

  • Negro in American History, The (publication by Britannica [1968-1969])
  • Negro in Art, The (essay by Motley)

    Archibald Motley: …was compelled to write “The Negro in Art,” an essay on the limitations placed on black artists that was printed in the July 6, 1918, edition of the influential Chicago Defender, a newspaper by and for African Americans. The long and violent Chicago race riot of 1919, though it…

  • Negro in Chicago, The (work by Johnson)

    Charles Spurgeon Johnson: His first important writing, The Negro in Chicago (1922), was a sociological study of the race riot in that city in July 1919. His research technique, called “community self-survey of race relations,” facilitated the gathering of sociological data and interpretations from both blacks and whites. After directing research for…

  • Negro league (baseball)

    Negro league, any of the associations of African American baseball teams active largely between 1920 and the late 1940s, when black players were at last contracted to play major and minor league baseball. The principal Negro leagues were the Negro National League (1920–31, 1933–48), the Eastern

  • Negro Leagues Baseball Museum (museum, Kansas City, Missouri, United States)

    Negro league: Decline of the Negro leagues: In 1990 the Negro Leagues Baseball Museum opened in Kansas City, Missouri.

  • Negro Motorist Green Book, The (travel guide)

    The Green Book, travel guide published (1936–67) during the segregation era in the United States that identified businesses that would accept African American customers. Compiled by Victor Hugo Green (1892–1960), a black postman who lived in the Harlem section of New York City, the Green Book

  • Negro National League (American baseball organization)

    Negro league: The Negro National League and the Eastern Colored League: Foster was a visionary who dreamed that the champion of his black major league would play the best of the white league clubs in an interracial world series. His original plan called for a black major league…

  • Negro of Peter the Great, The (novel by Pushkin)

    Aleksandr Pushkin: The early years: …novel, Arap Petra Velikogo (1827; The Negro of Peter the Great). Like many aristocratic families in early 19th-century Russia, Pushkin’s parents adopted French culture, and he and his brother and sister learned to talk and to read in French. They were left much to the care of their maternal grandmother,…

  • Negro Problem, The (work by Du Bois)

    Talented Tenth: …first appeared in Du Bois’ The Negro Problem (New York, 1903).

  • Negro Revolution

    American civil rights movement, mass protest movement against racial segregation and discrimination in the southern United States that came to national prominence during the mid-1950s. This movement had its roots in the centuries-long efforts of African slaves and their descendants to resist racial

  • Negro River (river, Nicaragua)

    Nicaragua: Drainage: …the most important are the Negro and Estero Real rivers, which empty into the Gulf of Fonseca, and the Tamarindo River, which flows into the Pacific.

  • Negro River (river, Guatemala)

    Chixoy River, river in central Guatemala, rising as the Negro River in the southern part of the Altos (mountains) Cuchumatanes, west of Huehuetenango. First flowing eastward, it forms part of the borders between the Quiché and Huehuetenango regions and between Quiché and Baja Verapaz. Southwest of

  • Negro River (river, Argentina)

    Negro River, river, southern Argentina, whose major headstreams, the Neuquén and the Limay, rise in the Andes Mountains near the Chilean border. At Neuquén city they meet to form the Negro, which flows generally east-southeastward across northern Patagonia and empties into the Atlantic Ocean s

  • Negro River (river, South America)

    Negro River, major tributary of the Amazon. It originates in several headstreams, including the Vaupés (Mapés) and the Guainía, which rise in the rain forest of eastern Colombia. The Guainía flows east and then arches northeast and southeast, forming the Colombian–Venezuelan border. Below its

  • Negro River (river, Uruguay)

    Negro River, river in Uruguay, rising in the southern highlands of Brazil just east of Bagé. The Negro flows southwestward into Uruguay, where it is dammed near Paso de los Toros to create the Rincón del Bonete Reservoir (also called the Gabriel Terra Reservoir or the Rio Negro Reservoir), which is

  • Negro Soldier, The (film by Heisler [1944])

    Carlton Moss: …wrote, directed, and appeared in The Negro Soldier (1944), a training film aimed at fostering African American patriotism and racial harmony. Its portrayal of the heroism and dignity of its black characters is regarded as a touchstone of African American filmmaking. Moss collaborated on the script for director Elia Kazan’s…

  • Negro Southern League (American baseball organization)

    Negro league: The Negro National League and the Eastern Colored League: A few weeks later the Negro Southern League was organized with clubs in the large cities of the South; however, it was regarded as a minor circuit during its on-again, off-again life over the next 30 years.

  • Negro Speaks of Rivers, The (poem by Hughes)

    The Negro Speaks of Rivers, poem in free verse by Langston Hughes, published in the June 1921 issue of The Crisis, the magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. It is Hughes’s first acclaimed poem and is a panegyric to people of black African origin throughout

  • negro spiritual (music)

    Spiritual, in North American white and black folk music, an English-language folk hymn. White spirituals include both revival and camp-meeting songs and a smaller number of other hymns. They derived variously, notably from the “lining out” of psalms, dating from at least the mid-17th century.

  • Negro Travelers’ Green Book, The (travel guide)

    The Green Book, travel guide published (1936–67) during the segregation era in the United States that identified businesses that would accept African American customers. Compiled by Victor Hugo Green (1892–1960), a black postman who lived in the Harlem section of New York City, the Green Book

  • Negro World (American newspaper)

    African American literature: Playwrights and editors: …published young black writers in Negro World, the organ of Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association, provided significant visibility for New Negro writers. Anthologies, particularly of poetry, abounded during the Harlem Renaissance, enhancing the literary reputations of both the writers represented in them and their editors. The editors included James…

  • Negro World Series (baseball)

    baseball: Segregation: In the 1920s a Negro World Series was begun and was held annually until the Negro leagues failed in the 1930s. A second Negro National League was founded late in that decade, and the Negro American League, formed in 1936, ultimately had Eastern and Western divisions that in 1952…

  • Negro, American (people)

    African Americans, one of the largest of the many ethnic groups in the United States. African Americans are mainly of African ancestry, but many have nonblack ancestors as well. African Americans are largely the descendants of slaves—people who were brought from their African homelands by force to

  • Negroponte (island, Greece)

    Euboea, island, the largest in Greece, after Crete (Modern Greek: Kríti). It is located in the Central Greece (Stereá Elláda) periféreia (region), in the Aegean Sea. It lies along the coasts of the periféreies (regions) of Western Greece (Dytikí Elláda), Peloponnese (Pelopónnisos), and Attica

  • Negroponte, John (United States government official)

    John Negroponte, American diplomat, who served as ambassador to a number of countries, including Honduras (1981–85) and Iraq (2004–05), and was the U.S. representative to the United Nations (UN; 2001–04) before being named the first director of national intelligence (DNI; 2005–07). The son of a

  • Negroponte, John Dmitri (United States government official)

    John Negroponte, American diplomat, who served as ambassador to a number of countries, including Honduras (1981–85) and Iraq (2004–05), and was the U.S. representative to the United Nations (UN; 2001–04) before being named the first director of national intelligence (DNI; 2005–07). The son of a

  • Negroponte, Nicholas (American architect and computer scientist)

    Nicholas Negroponte, American architect and computer scientist who was the founding director of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Media Laboratory and founded One Laptop per Child (OLPC). Negroponte gained fame with his book Being Digital (1995), which predicted a future in which

  • Negros (island, Philippines)

    Negros, island, one of the Visayan Islands, central Philippines. It is separated from the island of Panay to the northwest by the Guimaras Strait and from Cebu island to the east by Tanon Strait. The island is bordered on the north and south by the Visayan and Sulu seas, respectively. Negros is

  • negros brujos, Los (work by Ortiz)

    Fernando Ortiz: In 1906 he published Los negros brujos (“Black Sorcerers”), his first book on the subject, and in 1916 Los negros esclavos (“Black Slaves”), in which he studies Cuban blacks according to the region of Africa from which they came. His Un catauro de cubanismos (1923; “A Load of Cubanisms”)…

  • negros esclavos, Los (work by Ortiz)

    Fernando Ortiz: …the subject, and in 1916 Los negros esclavos (“Black Slaves”), in which he studies Cuban blacks according to the region of Africa from which they came. His Un catauro de cubanismos (1923; “A Load of Cubanisms”) identifies the African origins of many words used in Cuba, as well as the…

  • Neguib, Mo?ammad (president of Egypt)

    Mu?ammad Naguib, Egyptian army officer and statesman who played a prominent role in the revolutionary overthrow of King Farouk I in 1952. He twice served as president (June 18, 1953–February 25, 1954 and February 27–November 14, 1954) of Egypt. A professional soldier, Naguib distinguished himself

  • Negulesco, Jean (Romanian-born artist and director)

    Jean Negulesco, Romanian-born artist and director who first gained notice for his film noirs and later made such notable movies as Johnny Belinda (1948), How to Marry a Millionaire (1953), and Three Coins in the Fountain (1954). While still a teenager, Negulesco left Romania and moved to Paris,

  • Negundo (plant genus)

    Sapindales: Distribution and abundance: …placed in a separate genus, Negundo. Another former member of Aceraceae is Dipteronia, a genus of central and southern China with two species.

  • NEH (United States agency)

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), an independent agency of the U.S. government that supports research, education, preservation, and public programs in the humanities. It was created by the U.S. Congress in the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965. The

  • Nehanda (Shona religion)

    Nehanda, Shona spirit who uses women as her mediums. The mediums are then given the title Nehanda or Mbuya Nehanda (mbuya being the Shona word for “grandmother” and a title of respect). Nehanda is a mhondoro (a powerful and revered ancestral spirit) based in central and northern Mashonaland in

  • Nehanda Charwe Nyakasikana (Shona spiritual leader)

    Charwe, one of the major spiritual leaders of African resistance to white rule during the late 19th century in what is now Zimbabwe. She was considered to be a medium of Nehanda, a female Shona mhondoro (powerful and revered ancestral spirit). Charwe was born among the Shona people, one of

  • Nehardea (ancient city, Iraq)

    history of Mesopotamia: The Parthian period: …where they joined their coreligionists; Nehardea, north of Ctesiphon, became a centre of Jewish population. Naturally also many migrants from the east came to Mesopotamia in the wake of the Parthian occupation. With many merchants from east and west passing through or remaining in Mesopotamia, the population became more diverse…

  • Nehavend, Battle of (Iranian history)

    Battle of Nahāvand, (ad 642), military clash in Iran between Arab and Sāsānian forces that was a major turning point in Iranian history. The battle ended in disastrous defeat for the Sāsānian armies and paved the way for the Arab conquest, which resulted in the Islamization of Iran. At Nahāvand

  • Nehemiah (Jewish leader)

    Nehemiah, Jewish leader who supervised the rebuilding of Jerusalem in the mid-5th century bc after his release from captivity by the Persian king Artaxerxes I. He also instituted extensive moral and liturgical reforms in rededicating the Jews to Yahweh. Nehemiah was the cupbearer to King

  • Nehemiah, Book of (Old Testament)

    biblical literature: Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles: The final books of the Hebrew Bible are the books of Chronicles and Ezra–Nehemiah, which once formed a unitary history of Israel from Adam to the 4th century bce, written by an anonymous Chronicler. That these books constituted a single work—referred to…

  • Nehemias (Jewish leader)

    Nehemiah, Jewish leader who supervised the rebuilding of Jerusalem in the mid-5th century bc after his release from captivity by the Persian king Artaxerxes I. He also instituted extensive moral and liturgical reforms in rededicating the Jews to Yahweh. Nehemiah was the cupbearer to King

  • Nehemias, Book of (Old Testament)

    biblical literature: Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles: The final books of the Hebrew Bible are the books of Chronicles and Ezra–Nehemiah, which once formed a unitary history of Israel from Adam to the 4th century bce, written by an anonymous Chronicler. That these books constituted a single work—referred to…

  • Neher, Erwin (German physicist)

    Erwin Neher, German physicist who was a corecipient, with Bert Sakmann, of the 1991 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their research into basic cell function and for the development of the patch-clamp technique, a laboratory method that can detect the very small electrical currents

  • Nehorai (Jewish rabbi and scholar)

    Me?r, (Hebrew: “the Enlightener”) rabbi who was among the greatest of the tannaim, the group of some 225 masters of the Jewish Oral Law that flourished in Palestine for roughly the first 200 years ad. He continued the work of his teacher, Rabbi Akiba, in compiling by subject the Halakhot (laws)

  • Nehru Report (Indian history)

    Motilal Nehru: …he wrote the Congress Party’s Nehru Report, a future constitution for independent India based on the granting of dominion status. After the British rejected these proposals, Motilal participated in the civil disobedience movement of 1930 that was related to the Salt March, for which he was imprisoned. He died soon…

  • Nehru, Indira (prime minister of India)

    Indira Gandhi, Indian politician who was the first female prime minister of India, serving for three consecutive terms (1966–77) and a fourth term from 1980 until she was assassinated in 1984. Indira Nehru was the only child of Jawaharlal Nehru, who was one of the chief figures in India’s struggle

  • Nehru, Jawaharlal (prime minister of India)

    Jawaharlal Nehru, first prime minister of independent India (1947–64), who established parliamentary government and became noted for his neutralist (nonaligned) policies in foreign affairs. He was also one of the principal leaders of India’s independence movement in the 1930s and ’40s. Nehru was

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