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  • nettle tree (plant)

    hackberry: …American tree called hackberry, or nettle tree, is C. occidentalis. It has bright green elmlike leaves, which often have three prominent veins arising from the base of the blade, and edible pea-sized purplish-black fruits attractive to birds. The bark is sometimes covered with wartlike bumps. Of easy culture, it is…

  • Nettleford, Ralston Milton (Jamaican scholar)

    Rex Nettleford, (Ralston Milton Nettleford), Jamaican scholar (born Feb. 3, 1933, Falmouth, Jam.—died Feb. 2, 2010, Washington, D.C.), cofounded (1962) the National Dance Theatre Company, for which he served as both performer and artistic director and through which he had a profound impact on the

  • Nettleford, Rex (Jamaican scholar)

    Rex Nettleford, (Ralston Milton Nettleford), Jamaican scholar (born Feb. 3, 1933, Falmouth, Jam.—died Feb. 2, 2010, Washington, D.C.), cofounded (1962) the National Dance Theatre Company, for which he served as both performer and artistic director and through which he had a profound impact on the

  • Nettles, Bonnie (American religious leader)

    Heaven's Gate: Applewhite (1932–1997) and Bonnie Nettles (1927–1985) met in 1972 and soon became convinced that they were the two “endtime” witnesses mentioned in Revelation 11. In 1975 they held gatherings in California and Oregon that attracted their initial followers. Those who attached themselves to “The Two” dropped out of…

  • Neturei Karta (ultra-Orthodox Jewish group)

    fundamentalism: The Haredim: …of groups, ranging from the Neturei Karta (Aramaic: “Guardians of the City”), which does not recognize the legitimacy of the State of Israel, to the political parties of the Haredim, which occasionally determine which of Israel’s major parties is able to form a government. It is important to distinguish between…

  • network (sociology)

    Network, in social science, a group of interdependent actors and the relationships between them. Networks vary widely in their nature and operation, depending on the particular actors involved, their relationships, the level and scope at which they operate, and the wider context. The actors within

  • Network (play)

    Bryan Cranston: …debut, starring in the play Network, about a television network that exploits the breakdown of one its news anchors. For his performance, he won an Olivier Award for best actor. Cranston reprised the role for the Broadway production, which debuted in 2018, and he won his second Tony for best…

  • network (broadcasting)

    radio: The development of networks and production centres: A fundamental shift in American broadcasting came with the realization by the late 1920s that individual stations could easily share the cost of providing programs as a part of a broader network service with national appeal. The first such network was…

  • Network (Roman Catholic organization)

    Sister Simone Campbell: …of the poor, and of Network (2004– ), a Roman Catholic group promoting social justice in public policy. In that capacity Campbell took an active though informal role in the Leadership Conference of Women Religious (LCWR), a coalition representing the majority of American sisters. Campbell was also active on international…

  • Network (film by Lumet [1976])

    Sidney Lumet: The 1970s: Serpico, Dog Day Afternoon, and Network: Lumet’s success continued with Network (1976), an enthusiastically received drama that satirized the television industry and predicted the rise of entertainment news. It centres on an unbalanced newscaster (Peter Finch), whose on-air cry of “I’m mad as hell and I’m not going to take it anymore” causes a sensation.…

  • network analysis (statistics)

    sociology: Statistics and mathematical analysis: …the approach, often mathematized, called network analysis, maps different types of interactions between organizations over extended periods and thus exposes a substructure not revealed from organizational charts or public documents.

  • network cave (geology)

    cave: Geomorphic characteristics of solution caves: Network caves are formed where flows are controlled by diffuse inlets; flow velocities remain low and solutional erosion takes place along all possible joint openings. A network cave is the underground equivalent of a swamp.

  • Network Computer (computer science)

    Oracle Corporation: …and vocal support for the Network Computer (NC). The NC was not as fully equipped as a standard personal computer and relied on computer servers for its data and software. Ellison, now Oracle’s chief executive officer (CEO), and partners such as Sun Microsystems’ Scott McNealy bet that business users of…

  • network database (computing)

    database: …of records at different levels, network databases create multiple linkages between sets by placing links, or pointers, to one set of records in another; the speed and versatility of network databases have led to their wide use within businesses and in e-commerce. Relational databases are used where associations between files…

  • network etiquette (social behaviour)

    Netiquette, guidelines for courteous communication in the online environment. It includes proper manners for sending e-mail, conversing online, and so on. Much like traditional etiquette, which provides rules of conduct in social situations, the purpose of netiquette is to help construct and

  • network file structure (computing)

    database: …of records at different levels, network databases create multiple linkages between sets by placing links, or pointers, to one set of records in another; the speed and versatility of network databases have led to their wide use within businesses and in e-commerce. Relational databases are used where associations between files…

  • network former (material science)

    industrial glass: Sodium silicate glass: …known as a network-forming (NWF) cation—that is, a positively charged ion such as, in this case, silicon (Si4+). The four positive charges of the silicon ion lead it to form bonds with four oxygen atoms, forming SiO4 tetrahedra, or four-sided pyramidal shapes, connected to each other at the corners.…

  • network layer (OSI level)

    computer science: Networking and communication: The network and transport layers break messages into the standard-size packets and route them to their destinations. The session layer supports interactions between applications on two communicating machines. For example, it provides a mechanism with which to insert checkpoints (saving the current status of a task)…

  • network level (OSI level)

    computer science: Networking and communication: The network and transport layers break messages into the standard-size packets and route them to their destinations. The session layer supports interactions between applications on two communicating machines. For example, it provides a mechanism with which to insert checkpoints (saving the current status of a task)…

  • network marketing (business)

    marketing: Direct selling: Network marketing, a direct-selling approach similar to home sales, is also gaining prevalence in markets worldwide. In the model used by companies such as Amway and Shaklee, distributors are rewarded not only for their direct sales but also for the sales of those they have…

  • network model (computing)

    database: …of records at different levels, network databases create multiple linkages between sets by placing links, or pointers, to one set of records in another; the speed and versatility of network databases have led to their wide use within businesses and in e-commerce. Relational databases are used where associations between files…

  • network modifier (cluster)

    amorphous solid: Models of atomic scale structures: …its interstitial holes, are called network modifiers.

  • network modifier (glass)

    industrial glass: Properties of glass: …and nature of network-modifying (NWM) ions, (3) the openness of the structure, determined, again, by the concentration of NWM ions, and (4) the mobility of the NWM ions. Thus, tetrahedrally connected networks, such as those formed by silicates and illustrated in Figure 2, are more viscous than triangularly connected…

  • network organization (information science)

    information system: Organizational impacts of information systems: In a network organization, long-term corporate partners supply goods and services through a central hub firm. Together, a network of relatively small companies can present the appearance of a large corporation. Indeed, at the core of such an organization may be nothing more than a single entrepreneur…

  • network polymer (chemistry)

    man-made fibre: Linear, branched, and network polymers: …polymer chains, thus forming a network structure. (These three polymer structures are illustrated in Figures 1A, 1B, and 1C of industrial polymers, chemistry of.)

  • network protocol (computer science)

    Protocol, in computer science, a set of rules or procedures for transmitting data between electronic devices, such as computers. In order for computers to exchange information, there must be a preexisting agreement as to how the information will be structured and how each side will send and receive

  • network routing (industrial engineering)

    operations research: Network routing: A network may be defined by a set of points, or “nodes,” that are connected by lines, or “links.” A way of going from one node (the “origin”) to another (the “destination”) is called a “route” or “path.” Links, which may be one-way…

  • network software (computing)

    software: …software category is that of network software, which coordinates communication between the computers linked in a network.

  • network solid (crystallography)

    chemical bonding: Network solids: There exists a class of solids called network solids in which the bonding is essentially due to a network of covalent bonds that extends throughout the solid. Such solids are hard and rigid and have high melting points because the crystal is like…

  • network structure (cluster)

    cluster: Network structures: Still another kind of particularly stable closed shell occurs in clusters sometimes called network structures. The best-known of these is C60, the 60-atom cluster of carbon atoms. In this cluster the atoms occupy the sites of the 60 equivalent vertices of the soccer…

  • network theory (mathematics)

    number game: Graphs and networks: The word graph may refer to the familiar curves of analytic geometry and function theory, or it may refer to simple geometric figures consisting of points and lines connecting some of these points; the latter are sometimes called linear graphs, although there is little…

  • network theory (immunology)

    Niels K. Jerne: …of Jerne’s theories is the network theory, which he introduced in 1974. According to this concept, the immune system is a complex, self-regulating network that can turn itself on or off when necessary.

  • network-generalized exchange (sociology)

    generalized exchange: …one another is also called network-generalized or chain-generalized exchange. In addition, this form of generalized exchange is sometimes referred to as a gift economy. However, generalized exchange systems do not have explicit reciprocity between participants (as some gift economies do). The indirect nature of generalized exchange distinguishes it from similar…

  • networking (social interaction)

    Networking, the development, maintenance, or use of social or professional contacts for the purpose of exchanging information, resources, or services. A professional network can be thought of as a web or series of interconnected webs—whereby links or ties exist between focal individuals and the

  • Networks and Marginality: Life in a Mexican Shantytown (work by Lomnitz)

    urban culture: The neocolonial city: As Larissa Lomnitz indicates in Networks and Marginality: Life in a Mexican Shantytown (1977), recent rural migrants and shantytown dwellers act as maids, gardeners, and handymen to the industrial workers and the middle class at costs well below what would be charged if the formal sector supplied these services (comparable…

  • Netzahualcóyotl (Mexico)

    Nezahualcóyotl, municipality northeast of Mexico City, México estado (state), central Mexico. Situated at the northeastern end of the Valle de México just outside of Mexico City, Nezahualcóyotl has become one of Mexico’s largest localities. Settlement began shortly after 1900, when Lake Texcoco was

  • Neu Lauenburg (islands, Papua New Guinea)

    Duke of York Group, coral formations of the Bismarck Archipelago, eastern Papua New Guinea, in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The Duke of York Group is situated in St. George’s Channel between the islands of New Ireland (east) and New Britain (southwest). The low, wooded islands, which include

  • Neu-Darchau (Germany)

    Elbe River: Hydrology: At Neu-Darchau, about 140 miles above the mouth, the discharge rate was 24,700 cubic feet per second in the period 1926–65, with extremes of 5,100 and 127,700. These great variations sometimes hinder navigation. Although there are dams on the upper Elbe in the Czech Republic and…

  • neu-ozier (pottery)

    ozier pattern: …which has radial ribs; the neu-ozier (“new ozier”), the ribs of which resemble the curves of an S, appearing around 1742; and the Brühlsches Allerei-Dessin (“Brühl’s varied design”), a pattern of basketwork and molded motifs, such as shells and flowers, surrounded by Rococo scrollwork. Like much else that originated at…

  • Neuber, Caroline (German actress and manager)

    Caroline Neuber, actress-manager who was influential in the development of modern German theatre. Rebelling against her tyrannical father, she ran away at age 20 with a young clerk, Johann Neuber, and married him in 1718. They served their theatrical apprenticeship in the traveling companies of

  • Neuber, Johann (German theatrical manager)

    Caroline Neuber: …20 with a young clerk, Johann Neuber, and married him in 1718. They served their theatrical apprenticeship in the traveling companies of Christian Spiegelberg (1717–22) and Karl Caspar Haack (1722–25). In 1727 they formed their own company and were granted a patent by the elector of Saxony, Frederick Augustus I,…

  • Neuberg, Treaty of (1379)

    Austria: Division of the Habsburg lands: …and in 1379, by the Treaty of Neuberg, partitioned the family lands. Albert, as the elder brother, received the more prosperous countries on the Danube (Upper and Lower Austria). The rest of the widespread domains fell to Leopold (including Steiermark, K?rnten, Tirol, the old Habsburg countries in the west, and…

  • Neubrandenburg (Germany)

    Neubrandenburg, city, Mecklenburg–West Pomerania Land (state), northeastern Germany. It lies near the northern end of Tollense Lake, where the Tollense River flows from the lake, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Stralsund. Founded in 1248 by the margraves of Brandenburg as a fortified outpost, it

  • Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    Neuchatel, capital (since 1815) of Neuchatel canton, western Switzerland, on the northwestern shore of Lake Neuchatel, at the mouth of the Seyon River, partly on the slopes of the Chaumont (3,566 feet [1,087 metres]) and partly on land reclaimed from the lake. A Burgundian town by the 11th century,

  • Neuchatel (canton, Switzerland)

    Neuchatel, canton, western Switzerland, bordering France to the northwest and Lake Neuchatel to the southeast and bounded by the cantons of Bern on the northeast and Vaud on the southwest. It lies in the central Jura Mountains and is drained by Lake Neuchatel (leading to the Rhine) and Le Doubs

  • Neuchatel crisis (Switzerland [1856–1857])

    Neuchatel crisis, (1856–57), tense episode of Swiss history that had repercussions among the Great Powers of Europe. The Congress of Vienna (1814–15), in its general settlement of territorial questions after the Napoleonic Wars, ordained that Neuchatel (or Neuenburg) should have a dual status: it

  • Neuchatel, Lac de (lake, Switzerland)

    Lake Neuchatel, largest lake wholly in Switzerland; its area of 84 square miles (218 square km) is divided among the cantons of Neuchatel, Vaud, Fribourg, and Bern. Lakes Neuchatel, Biel (Bienne), and Morat, connected by canals, are survivors of a former glacial lake in the lower Aare valley, at

  • Neuchatel, Lake (lake, Switzerland)

    Lake Neuchatel, largest lake wholly in Switzerland; its area of 84 square miles (218 square km) is divided among the cantons of Neuchatel, Vaud, Fribourg, and Bern. Lakes Neuchatel, Biel (Bienne), and Morat, connected by canals, are survivors of a former glacial lake in the lower Aare valley, at

  • Neuchateloises Mountains (mountains, Switzerland)

    Neuchatel: …and the highest region, the Neuchateloises Mountains (3,000–3,500 feet [915–1,065 metres]), mainly composed of a long valley in which stand the industrial centres of La Chaux-de-Fonds, Le Locle, La Sagne, Les Ponts-de-Martel, and La Brévine. Neuchatel is the capital.

  • Neudeck-Nymphenburg porcelain

    Nymphenburg porcelain: …produced here are sometimes called “Neudeck–Nymphenburg.” In 1761 the factory was moved to Nymphenburg, on the outskirts of Munich, where it still operates. The tableware and vases produced by Nymphenburg are often reminiscent of Meissen, even to their use of the ozier, or basketwork, pattern borders. Nymphenburg’s most original contribution…

  • Neue Apologie des Socrates (work by Eberhard)

    Johann August Eberhard: Consequently, in his Neue Apologie des Socrates (1772–78; “A New Apology for Socrates”) and in his Allgemeine Theorie des Denkens und Empfindens (1776; “General Theory of Thinking and Feeling”), Eberhard advocated the free examination of religious doctrine and epistemological rationalism in the manner of Leibniz and the German…

  • Neue Bach-Gesellschaft (German music society)

    Johann Sebastian Bach: Revival of music: …BG was succeeded by the Neue Bach-Gesellschaft (NBG), which exists still, organizing festivals and publishing popular editions. Its chief publication is its research journal, the Bach-Jahrbuch (from 1904). By 1950 the deficiencies of the BG edition had become painfully obvious, and the Bach-Institut was founded, with headquarters at G?ttingen and…

  • Neue Erdbeschreibung (work by Büsching)

    Anton Friedrich Büsching: …100 publications was the multivolume Neue Erdbeschreibung, which began appearing in 1760. At his death only the sections dealing with Europe and a part of Asia had been published. A New System of Geography, a six-volume English translation of the first parts, was published in 1762.

  • Neue Freie Presse (newspaper)

    Theodor Herzl: Conversion to Zionism: …in the leading Viennese newspaper, Neue Freie Presse, led to his appointment as the paper’s Paris correspondent. He arrived in Paris with his wife in the fall of 1891 and was shocked to find in the homeland of the French Revolution the same anti-Semitism with which he had become so…

  • Neue Freie Volksbühne (German theatrical organization)

    Germany: Government and audience support: …the People’s Independent Theatre (Theater der Freien Volksbühne), dating from 1890 in Berlin. Going to the theatre or opera in Germany is nearly as affordable and as unremarkable as attending the cinema is elsewhere. The same is also true of concert music. Every major city has at least one…

  • Neue Gedichte (work by Rilke)

    Rainer Maria Rilke: Maturity.: These Neue Gedichte (1907–08) represented a departure from traditional German lyric poetry. Rilke forced his language to such extremes of subtlety and refinement that it may be characterized as a distinct art among other arts and a language distinct from existing languages. The worldly elegance of…

  • Neue Gedichte (work by Strachwitz)

    Moritz, count von Strachwitz: …German poet remembered for his Neue Gedichte (“New Poems”), which included such distinctive poems as “Der Himmel ist blau” and a national patriotic song, “Germania.”

  • Neue Gedichte (work by Heine)

    Heinrich Heine: Later life and works: …of poems, Neue Gedichte (1844; New Poems), illustrates the change. The first group, “Neuer Frühling” (“New Spring,” written mostly in 1830/31), is a more mannered reprise of the love poems of Buch der Lieder, and the volume also contains some ballad poetry, a genre in which Heine worked all his…

  • Neue Geometrie des Raumes gegründet auf die Betrachtung der geraden Linie als Raumelement (work by Plücker)

    Julius Plücker: …pioneering work on line geometry, Neue Geometrie des Raumes gegründet auf die Betrachtung der geraden Linie als Raumelement (1868–69; “New Geometry of Space Founded on the Treatment of the Straight Line as Space Element”). He died before finishing the second volume, which was edited and brought to completion by his…

  • neue Kino, das (German film genre)

    Germany: Film: …das neue Kino, or the New German Cinema. Relying on state subsidy to subsist, the members of the movement sought to examine Germany’s unbew?ltige Vergangenheit, or “unassimilated past.” The New German Cinema had little commercial success outside of Germany, but it still was internationally influential. The critical acclaim afforded directors…

  • Neue Künstlervereinigung (art organization)

    Neue Künstlervereinigung (NKV), (German: New Artists’ Association) exhibiting group founded in Munich, Germany, in 1909 by Wassily Kandinsky, Alexey von Jawlensky, Gabriele Münter, and numerous others who were united by opposition to the official art of Munich rather than by similarity of style.

  • Neue Nationalgalerie (museum, Berlin, Germany)

    New National Gallery, art museum in Berlin, Ger., featuring 20th-century European painting and sculpture. The New National Gallery is one of the museums that make up the National Museums of Berlin. The name “New” refers both to the relatively new building and the age of its collection. The gallery

  • Neue oder anthropologische Kritik der Vernunft (work by Fries)

    Jakob Friedrich Fries: His important Neue oder anthropologische Kritik der Vernunft, 3 vol. (1807; “New or Anthropological Critique of Reason”) attempted to give a new foundation of psychological analysis to the critical theory of Immanuel Kant, which he sought to reconcile with the philosophy of F.H. Jacobi. His System der…

  • Neue Pinakothek (museum, Munich, Germany)

    Bavarian State Picture Galleries: The Neue Pinakothek (New Pinakothek), based on private picture collections of the Bavarian kings, is a collection noted for its works of European painting from the 18th through the 20th century and for its sculpture of the 19th–20th centuries. It is housed with the New State…

  • neue Pitaval, Der (work by Alexis)

    Willibald Alexis: …remarkable collection of famous lawsuits, Der neue Pitaval (“The New Pitaval”). He suffered a stroke in 1856 and later retired permanently to Arnstadt.

  • Neue Rheinische Zeitung (European periodical)

    Friedrich Engels: Partnership with Marx: …major tool was the newspaper Neue Rheinische Zeitung, which Marx edited in Cologne with the able assistance of Engels. Such a party organ, then appearing in a democratic guise, was of prime importance for their purposes; with it they could furnish daily guidelines and incitement in the face of shifting…

  • Neue Sachlichkeit (German art movement)

    Neue Sachlichkeit, (German: New Objectivity), a group of German artists in the 1920s whose works were executed in a realistic style (in contrast to the prevailing styles of Expressionism and Abstraction) and who reflected what was characterized as the resignation and cynicism of the post-World War

  • Neue Sezession (German art group)

    Max Pechstein: …of the founders of the Neue Sezession (“New Secession”), an association of artists who disagreed with the policies of the Sezession. In his works of this period he adopted more simple compositions and sombre colours. Like the other Die Brücke artists, Pechstein had an interest in the art of non-European…

  • Neue Staatsgalerie (gallery, Stuttgart, Germany)

    Sir James Stirling: His New State Gallery, or Neue Staatsgalerie (1977–84), in Stuttgart, Germany, a combination of classicism and geometric abstraction, is considered by many to be his finest achievement. Among his other works are a building for the Fogg Art Museum (1979–84) and the Arthur M. Sackler Museum…

  • Neue Subjektivit?t (German literature)

    German literature: The 1970s and ’80s: …turning that became known as Neue Subjektivit?t (“New Subjectivity”). The dominant genre was lyric poetry. Its authors had formerly been involved in the “student revolution” of 1967–68, which had called for a new politicization of literature in the face of the Vietnam War and the problems of the Third World.…

  • Neue Thalia (periodical)

    Friedrich H?lderlin: …ways too; in his periodical Neue Thalia, he published some of the poetry that H?lderlin had written, as well as a fragment of his novel Hyperion. This elegiac story of a disillusioned fighter for the liberation of Greece remained unfinished. H?lderlin held Schiller in great reverence; he saw him again…

  • neue Typographie, Die (work by Tschichold)

    Jan Tschichold: …book, Die neue Typographie (1928; The New Typography; A Handbook for Modern Designers), which expounded the principles and functional uses of Modernist typography to printers, type compositors, and designers. In Germany, where black letter, or Gothic script (called Fraktur in German), remained in use until the 20th century, a simplified…

  • Neue Wege der Ontologie (work by Hartmann)

    Nicolai Hartmann: …Neue Wege der Ontologie (1942; New Ways of Ontology). According to his new ontology, epistemology depends on ontology, not the opposite. Thus, the “being” of objects is a necessary prerequisite for thought or knowledge about them. The knowledge that people have of reality is itself a part of reality, as…

  • neue Wirtschaft, Die (work by Rathenau)

    Walther Rathenau: …over, he advocated in his Die neue Wirtschaft (1918; “The New Economy”) industrial self-government combined with employee participation and effective state control rather than the wholesale nationalization of industry by the state.

  • Neue Zeit (newspaper)

    Karl Kautsky: …and edited the Marxist review Neue Zeit, publishing it in Zürich, London, Berlin, and Vienna until 1917. In 1891 the Social Democrats adopted his Erfurt Program, which committed the party to an evolutionary form of Marxism that rejected both the radicalism of Rosa Luxemburg and the evolutionary socialist doctrines of…

  • Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (periodical by Schumann)

    musical criticism: Historical development: …1834 he founded the periodical Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (“New Journal for Music”) and remained its editor in chief for 10 years. Its pages are full of the most perceptive insights into music and music makers. The first major article Schumann wrote was a laudatory essay on the young Chopin,…

  • Neue Zürcher Zeitung (Swiss newspaper)

    Neue Zürcher Zeitung (NZZ), (German: “New Zürich Newspaper”) Swiss daily newspaper published in Zürich and generally considered one of the world’s great newspapers. It was founded as a weekly, the Zürcher Zeitung, in 1780. Reorganized in 1821, the paper became the Neue Zürcher Zeitung and appeared

  • Neuenburg (canton, Switzerland)

    Neuchatel, canton, western Switzerland, bordering France to the northwest and Lake Neuchatel to the southeast and bounded by the cantons of Bern on the northeast and Vaud on the southwest. It lies in the central Jura Mountains and is drained by Lake Neuchatel (leading to the Rhine) and Le Doubs

  • Neuenburg (Switzerland)

    Neuchatel, capital (since 1815) of Neuchatel canton, western Switzerland, on the northwestern shore of Lake Neuchatel, at the mouth of the Seyon River, partly on the slopes of the Chaumont (3,566 feet [1,087 metres]) and partly on land reclaimed from the lake. A Burgundian town by the 11th century,

  • Neuenburgersee (lake, Switzerland)

    Lake Neuchatel, largest lake wholly in Switzerland; its area of 84 square miles (218 square km) is divided among the cantons of Neuchatel, Vaud, Fribourg, and Bern. Lakes Neuchatel, Biel (Bienne), and Morat, connected by canals, are survivors of a former glacial lake in the lower Aare valley, at

  • Neuengamme-Ring (concentration camps, Germany)

    Neuengamme-Ring, a complex of Nazi German concentration camps situated in marshy country near Neuengamme, a suburb of the port city of Hamburg, Germany. The first camp was established in 1940 to provide slave labour for local armaments industries, and beginning in 1942 annexes to the camp were set

  • Neuer, Manuel (German association football player)

    Manuel Neuer, German football (soccer) player who, as one of the game’s leading goalkeepers, helped Germany win the 2014 World Cup; for his performance, he received the Golden Glove award as the tournament’s best goalkeeper. Neuer began playing soccer before he was five years old. He initially

  • Neuer, Manuel Peter (German association football player)

    Manuel Neuer, German football (soccer) player who, as one of the game’s leading goalkeepers, helped Germany win the 2014 World Cup; for his performance, he received the Golden Glove award as the tournament’s best goalkeeper. Neuer began playing soccer before he was five years old. He initially

  • Neuere Gedichte (work by Nikolaus Lenau)

    Nikolaus Lenau: …in Gedichte (1832; “Poems”) and Neuere Gedichte (1838; “Newer Poems”), demonstrate close ties to the Weltschmerz (“World Pain”) mood of the Romantic period and reveal a personal, almost religious relationship to nature. His later poems, Gesammelte Gedichte (1844; “Collected Poems”) and the religious epics Savonarola (1837) and Die Albigenser

  • Neuere politische und soziale Gedichte (work by Freiligrath)

    Ferdinand Freiligrath: … (1846; “This Will Be”) and Neuere politische und soziale Gedichte (1849 and 1851; “Newer Political and Social Poetry”), celebrating the Revolution of 1848, which brought him back to Germany, were even more strongly socialistic and antimonarchical; they are considered to be among the best examples of German revolutionary poetry of…

  • Neues Deutschland (German newspaper)

    Neues Deutschland, (German: “New Germany”) morning daily newspaper published in Germany. Headquarters are in Berlin. Neues Deutschland initially functioned as the official organ of the Central Committee of the Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (SED; Socialist Unity Party of Germany) in the

  • Neues Liebesliederwalzer (work by Brahms)

    Liebeslieder waltzes, two groups of songs by Johannes Brahms intended for entertainment at casual social occasions. The first set (Op. 52), consisting of 18 songs, was published in 1869 and the second (Op. 65), called Neues Liebesliederwalzer (“New Love Song Waltzes”) and consisting of 15 songs, in

  • Neues Organon (book by Lambert)

    Johann Heinrich Lambert: The Neues Organon (1764; “New Organon”), his principal philosophical work, contains an analysis of a great variety of questions, among them formal logic, probability, and the principles of science. He also corresponded with Immanuel Kant, with whom he shares the honour of being among the first…

  • Neufahrer, Ludwig (German artist)

    medal: Germany and Austria: Ludwig Neufahrer worked mainly in Nürnberg and the Austrian Habsburg domains, employed by Ferdinand I from 1545. The Italian expatriate medalist Abondio was called to Vienna and also appointed court medalist by Emperor Maximilian II in Prague in 1566.

  • Neufville, Fran?ois de (French marshal)

    Fran?ois de Neufville, duc de Villeroi, French courtier, a lifelong favourite of King Louis XIV, who became marshal of France in 1693. His ducal father, Nicolas de Neufville, had been governor (educational supervisor) of the infant Louis XIV and marshal of France from 1646. Fran?ois is remembered

  • Neugebauer, Gerhart Otto (American astrophysicist)

    Gerry Neugebauer, (Gerhart Otto Neugebauer), American astrophysicist (born Sept. 3, 1932, G?ttingen, Ger.—died Sept. 26, 2014, Tucson, Ariz.), made major advances in the observation of distant astronomical objects by detecting their emission of infrared radiation—the portion of the electromagnetic

  • Neugebauer, Gerry (American astrophysicist)

    Gerry Neugebauer, (Gerhart Otto Neugebauer), American astrophysicist (born Sept. 3, 1932, G?ttingen, Ger.—died Sept. 26, 2014, Tucson, Ariz.), made major advances in the observation of distant astronomical objects by detecting their emission of infrared radiation—the portion of the electromagnetic

  • Neuharth, Al (American business executive)

    Al Neuharth, (Allen Harold Neuharth), American business executive (born March 22, 1924, Eureka, S.D.—died April 19, 2013, Cocoa Beach, Fla.), was the pioneering and pugnacious founder (1982) of USA Today, a colourful graphics-laden Gannett newspaper that included concise news stories and

  • Neuharth, Allen Harold (American business executive)

    Al Neuharth, (Allen Harold Neuharth), American business executive (born March 22, 1924, Eureka, S.D.—died April 19, 2013, Cocoa Beach, Fla.), was the pioneering and pugnacious founder (1982) of USA Today, a colourful graphics-laden Gannett newspaper that included concise news stories and

  • Neuhaus, Max Henry (American sound artist)

    Max Henry Neuhaus, American sound artist (born Aug. 9, 1939, Beaumont, Texas—died Feb. 3, 2009, Maratea, Italy), created aural artworks that he termed “sound installations.” Many of his most noted works were featured in New York City, among them New Work (Underground) 1978, which featured a

  • Neuhaus, Solomon (American publisher)

    Newhouse family: The family’s fortunes began with Samuel Irving Newhouse (b. May 24, 1895, New York, N.Y., U.S.—d. Aug. 29, 1979, New York City), who was born Solomon Neuhaus and was later known as S.I. Newhouse. He was working as a clerk for Judge Herman Lazarus in Bayonne, N.J., when Lazarus took…

  • Neuhaus, the Rev. Richard John (Canadian-born American cleric and theologian)

    The Rev. Richard John Neuhaus, Canadian-born American cleric and theologian (born May 14, 1936, Pembroke, Ont.—died Jan. 8, 2009, New York, N.Y.), wielded considerable political influence as an informal adviser to U.S. Pres. George W. Bush on a range of issues, including abortion, same-sex

  • Neuhauser, Frank (American spelling champion)

    National Spelling Bee: The inaugural champion was 11-year-old Frank Neuhauser of Louisville, who correctly spelled gladiolus to claim a prize of $500. The event proved popular, and the number of participating newspapers (and therefore contestants) soon proliferated. In 1941 the sponsorship of the national bee was assumed by the Scripps newspaper conglomerate, though…

  • Neuhof, Theodor, Baron (German adventurer)

    Theodor, Baron Neuhof, German adventurer. An indefatigable intriguer in military, political, and financial affairs throughout Europe, he was for a time (1736–43) the nominal king of Corsica under the style of Theodore I. After serving in the French and Bavarian armies, Neuhof went to England and

  • Neuhoff, Theodor (German adventurer)

    Theodor, Baron Neuhof, German adventurer. An indefatigable intriguer in military, political, and financial affairs throughout Europe, he was for a time (1736–43) the nominal king of Corsica under the style of Theodore I. After serving in the French and Bavarian armies, Neuhof went to England and

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