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  • Nevsky, Alexander (prince of Russia)

    Saint Alexander Nevsky, ; canonized in Russian Church 1547; feast days November 23, August 30), prince of Novgorod (1236–52) and of Kiev (1246–52) and grand prince of Vladimir (1252–63), who halted the eastward drive of the Germans and Swedes but collaborated with the Mongols in imposing their rule

  • nevus (skin blemish)

    Nevus, congenital skin lesion, or birthmark, caused by abnormal pigmentation or by proliferation of blood vessels and other dermal or epidermal structures. Nevi may be raised or may spread along the surface of the skin. In other types, such as the blue nevus, proliferative tissue is buried deep

  • New Acropolis Museum (museum, Athens, Greece)

    New Acropolis Museum, museum in Athens, Greece, built to house the archaeological remains of the ancient Acropolis site that were formerly housed in the original Acropolis Museum (first opened in 1876). The New Acropolis Museum opened in June 2009. The simple exterior of the 226,000-square-foot

  • New Adventures of Old Christine, The (American television series)

    Julia Louis-Dreyfus: …claimed the title role in The New Adventures of Old Christine (2006–10) as a single mother who manages to maintain a friendly relationship with her former husband; she won the 2006 Emmy for outstanding lead actress in a comedy series. In 2010 Louis-Dreyfus earned a star on Hollywood’s Walk of…

  • New Age movement (religious movement)

    New Age movement, movement that spread through the occult and metaphysical religious communities in the 1970s and ?80s. It looked forward to a “New Age” of love and light and offered a foretaste of the coming era through personal transformation and healing. The movement’s strongest supporters were

  • New Age, The (English periodical)

    Alfred Richard Orage: …joint editor in 1907 of The New Age, a periodical of which from 1909 on he was the sole editor and dominant spirit. The New Age became a forum for the views of progressive journalists and published the work of many writers who later became famous. A diverse corps of…

  • New Agenda (political party, Northern Ireland and Ireland)

    Democratic Left (DL), short-lived socialist party, organized in both Northern Ireland and the Irish republic, that broke away from the Workers’ Party in 1992 and went on to serve in the government of the Irish republic between 1994 and 1997. In 1999 the party was incorporated into the Labour Party,

  • New Albany (Wisconsin, United States)

    Beloit, city, Rock county, southern Wisconsin, U.S. It lies along the Illinois state line at the confluence of the Rock River and Turtle Creek, about 15 miles (25 km) south of Janesville. The area had recently been inhabited by Ho-Chunk Nation (Winnebago) Indians when the first permanent settler,

  • New Albany (Indiana, United States)

    New Albany, city, seat (1819) of Floyd county, southeastern Indiana, U.S. It lies along the Ohio River (bridged) opposite Louisville, Kentucky. It was founded in 1813 by Joel, Abner, and Nathaniel Scribner, who named the settlement for Albany, New York. By the 1840s and early ’50s, New Albany had

  • New American Bible
  • New American Practical Navigator, The (work by Bowditch)

    Nathaniel Bowditch: …that in 1802 he published The New American Practical Navigator, based on Moore’s book, which was adopted by the U.S. Department of the Navy and went through some 60 editions.

  • New Amerykah, Part One: 4th World War (album by Badu)

    Erykah Badu: In 2008 she released New Amerykah, Part One: 4th World War, a bass-heavy album that blended elements of funk with Badu’s socially aware lyrics. A flurry of publicity greeted New Amerykah, Part Two: Return of the Ankh upon its release in 2010. The controversial video for that album’s first…

  • New Amerykah, Part Two: Return of the Ankh (album by Badu)

    Erykah Badu: A flurry of publicity greeted New Amerykah, Part Two: Return of the Ankh upon its release in 2010. The controversial video for that album’s first single, “Window Seat,” featured Badu completely disrobing while she walked through Dealey Plaza in downtown Dallas, the site of the assassination of U.S. Pres. John…

  • New Amsterdam (New York, United States)

    New York City, city and port located at the mouth of the Hudson River, southeastern New York state, northeastern U.S. It is the largest and most influential American metropolis, encompassing Manhattan and Staten islands, the western sections of Long Island, and a small portion of the New York state

  • New Amsterdam (Guyana)

    New Amsterdam, town, northeastern Guyana. It lies along the Berbice River near the point at which the latter empties into the Atlantic Ocean. Built in 1740 by the Dutch and first named Fort Sint Andries, it was made seat of the Dutch colonial government in 1790; in 1803 it was taken over by the

  • New and Old Methods of Ethics (work by Edgeworth)

    Francis Ysidro Edgeworth: …questions, but his first work, New and Old Methods of Ethics (1877), depended so heavily on mathematical techniques—especially the calculus of variations—that the book may have deterred otherwise interested readers. His most famous work, Mathematical Psychics (1881), presented his new ideas on the generalized utility function, the indifference curve, and…

  • New Anvil (United States magazine)

    Nelson Algren: …proletarian novelist Jack Conroy the New Anvil, a magazine dedicated to the publication of experimental and leftist writing.

  • New Apocalypse (literary movement)

    English literature: The literature of World War II (1939–45): …although the poets of the New Apocalypse movement produced three anthologies (1940–45) inspired by Neoromantic anarchism. No important new novelists or playwrights appeared. In fact, the best fiction about wartime—Evelyn Waugh’s Put Out More Flags (1942), Henry Green’s Caught (1943), James Hanley’s No Directions (1943), Patrick Hamilton’s The Slaves of…

  • New Apostolic Church

    New Apostolic Church, church organized in Germany in 1863 as the Universal Catholic Church, by members of the Catholic Apostolic Church who believed that new apostles must be appointed to replace deceased apostles and rule the church until the Second Coming of Christ. The present name was adopted

  • New Archaeology (science)

    Lewis R. Binford: …be known as the “New Archaeology,” which champions the use of quantitative methods and the practice of archaeology as a rigorous science. He applied the new methodology in an influential study of Mousterian artifacts and later extended it to a study of the hunting activities of a living people,…

  • New Architecture and the Bauhaus, The (work by Gropius)

    architecture: Venustas: …expressed by Walter Gropius in The New Architecture and the Bauhaus when he wrote in 1935:

  • New Ark College (university, Delaware, United States)

    University of Delaware, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Newark, Del., U.S. It also offers courses at other sites, including Wilmington, Dover, Georgetown, and Lewes. The university consists of seven colleges offering a curriculum in the arts, sciences, agriculture, business,

  • New Art of Writing Plays in This Time (work by Vega)

    Lope de Vega: Works: …key to his plays, the Arte nuevo de hacer comedias en este tiempo. This verse apology rested on the sound Aristotelian principle that the dramatist’s first duty is to hold and satisfy his audience: the comedia, he says in effect, had developed in response to what the Spanish public demanded…

  • New Artists’ Association (art organization)

    Neue Künstlervereinigung (NKV), (German: New Artists’ Association) exhibiting group founded in Munich, Germany, in 1909 by Wassily Kandinsky, Alexey von Jawlensky, Gabriele Münter, and numerous others who were united by opposition to the official art of Munich rather than by similarity of style.

  • New Asian-African Strategic Partnership (Asia-Africa)

    Bandung Conference: …and Bandung to launch the New Asian-African Strategic Partnership (NAASP). They pledged to promote political, economic, and cultural cooperation between the two continents.

  • New Aspects of Politics (book by Merriam)

    political science: Developments in the United States: Merriam, whose New Aspects of Politics (1925) argued for a reconstruction of method in political analysis, urged the greater use of statistics in the aid of empirical observation and measurement, and postulated that “intelligent social control”—a concept reminiscent of the old Comtean positivism—might emerge from the converging…

  • New Assyrian Empire (historical empire, Asia)

    Ashurnasirpal II: …to the establishment of the New Assyrian empire. Although, by his own testimony, he was a brilliant general and administrator, he is perhaps best known for the brutal frankness with which he described the atrocities committed on his captives. The details of his reign are known almost entirely from his…

  • new atheism

    Richard Dawkins: …to foster the acceptance of atheism and championed scientific answers to existential questions. Along with fellow atheists Christopher Hitchens, Sam Harris, and Daniel C. Dennett, he embarked on a campaign of lectures and public debates proselytizing and defending a secular worldview. Dawkins launched the Out Campaign in 2007 in order…

  • New Atlantis, The (work by Bacon)

    Francis Bacon: The new method: …Bacon developed in his utopia, The New Atlantis, may be a more important contribution to science than his theory of induction. Here the idea of science as a collaborative undertaking, conducted in an impersonally methodical fashion and animated by the intention to give material benefits to mankind, is set out…

  • New Baptist (Protestant church group)

    Brethren, group of Protestant churches that trace their origin to Schwarzenau, Hesse, where in 1708 a group of seven persons under the leadership of Alexander Mack (1679–1735) formed a brotherhood dedicated to following the commandments of Jesus Christ. The brotherhood was shaped by three

  • New Barbadoes (New Jersey, United States)

    Hackensack, city, seat (1713) of Bergen county, northeastern New Jersey, U.S., on the Hackensack River, just west of the Hudson River and Manhattan Island, New York City. Originally settled by the Dutch in the 1640s, who called it New Barbadoes, it was taken by the English in 1688 but retained its

  • New Bath Guide; or, Memoirs of the B—R—D Family, The (work by Anstey)

    Christopher Anstey: The New Bath Guide; or, Memoirs of the B—R—D Family (1766) is a satire on various aspects of Bath life.

  • New Bauhaus (school, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    industrial design: American hegemony and challenges from abroad: …(1937) and subsequently developed the Institute of Design at Illinois Institute of Technology (1944). It and similar schools began to train the next generation of American industrial designers.

  • New Bearings in English Poetry (work by Leavis)

    F.R. Leavis: In New Bearings in English Poetry (1932) he attacked English late Victorian poetry and proclaimed the importance of the work of T.S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, and Gerard Manley Hopkins, emphasizing wit and the play of intellect rather than late-Romantic sensuousness. In Revaluation: Tradition and Development in…

  • New Bedford (Massachusetts, United States)

    New Bedford, city, Bristol county, southeastern Massachusetts, U.S. It lies at the mouth of the Acushnet River on Buzzards Bay, 54 miles (87 km) south of Boston. The site, settled by Plymouth colonists in 1652, was originally part of Dartmouth. A fishing community was established there in 1760. By

  • New Belgrade (district, Serbia)

    Belgrade: A new district called New Belgrade (Novi Beograd) has been built on the plain west of the old city, between the Sava and Danube rivers. The old fortress of Kalemegdan is now a historical monument; its former glacis has been rebuilt as a garden, from which is seen a…

  • New Bern (North Carolina, United States)

    New Bern, city, seat (1722) of Craven county, eastern North Carolina, U.S. It lies at the confluence of the Neuse and Trent rivers, about 35 miles (55 km) northeast of Jacksonville. The second oldest town in North Carolina, New Bern was settled in 1710 by Freiherr (baron) Christophe von Graffenried

  • New Beverly (New Jersey, United States)

    Burlington, city, Burlington county, western New Jersey, U.S. It lies along the Delaware River (bridged), opposite Bristol, Pennsylvania. Settled (1677) by Quakers, it was known as New Beverly, then Bridlington (for a village in Yorkshire, England), and later Burlington (an alternate spelling of

  • New Bian Canal (canal, China [605])

    Bian Canal: … (581–618) began construction of the New Bian Canal in 605. It followed the old canal as far as Shangqiu but then flowed southeastward through Yongcheng (Henan) and Suxian (Anhui) to Sihong (Jiangsu), where it joined the Huai above Hongze Lake in Jiangsu, which was considerably smaller in the 7th century.…

  • New Bian Canal (canal, China, 1966)

    Bian Canal: …another waterway, also called the New Bian Canal, was built as part of the water conservancy project for the Huai River basin. Construction of the New Bian Canal began in 1966 and was completed in 1970 and engaged the efforts of some 450,000 labourers. About 155 miles (250 km) long,…

  • New Biography, The (essay by Woolf)

    Virginia Woolf: Major period: …Art of Fiction” and “The New Biography,” she wrote that fiction writers should be less concerned with naive notions of reality and more with language and design. However restricted by fact, she argued, biographers should yoke truth with imagination, “granite-like solidity” with “rainbow-like intangibility.” Their relationship having cooled by…

  • New Black Panther Party (American organization)

    Black Panther Party: Legacy: …chapters and eventually became the New Black Panther Party, under the leadership of community activist Aaron Michaels. By 1998, Khallid Abdul Muhammad, the former national spokesperson for the Chicago-based Nation of Islam, had assumed the de facto leadership of the organization when he led a group of shotgun- and rifle-toting…

  • New Bombay (urban area, India)

    Charles Correa: …planner, creating New Bombay (now Navi Mumbai), an urban area that provided housing and job opportunities for many who lived across the harbour from the original city. When designing in the midst of overpopulated cities, he tried to create quasi-rural housing environments, as is evident in his low-cost Belapur housing…

  • New Braunfels (Texas, United States)

    New Braunfels, city, seat (1846) of Comal county and also partly in Guadalupe county, south-central Texas, U.S. It lies on the Balcones Escarpment at a point where the Comal River (3 miles [5 km] long and within city limits) flows into the Guadalupe River, 30 miles (50 km) northeast of San Antonio.

  • New Bremen Glassmanufactory (factory, Maryland, United States)

    Amelung glass: …American promoters, Amelung founded the New Bremen Glassmanufactory near Frederick, Md., U.S., and attempted to establish a self-sufficient community, importing glassworkers and other craftsmen from Germany. The enterprise was encouraged by such men as George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin, and in 1789 a duty on window and other…

  • New Britain (Connecticut, United States)

    New Britain, city, coextensive with the town (township) of New Britain, Hartford county, central Connecticut, U.S. Settled as the Stanley Quarter to the north in 1686 and followed later by the Great Swamp settlement to the south, the area became the New Britain parish of Farmington in 1754. In 1785

  • New Britain (island, Papua New Guinea)

    New Britain, largest island of the Bismarck Archipelago, in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, in Papua New Guinea. It is situated 55 miles (88 km) east of the Huon Peninsula of eastern mainland New Guinea. Measuring about 370 miles (600 km) long by 50 miles (80 km) at its widest, the crescent-shaped

  • New Britain Normal School (university, New Britain, Connecticut, United States)

    Central Connecticut State University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in New Britain, Conn., U.S. It is one of four universities in the Connecticut State University system. The university includes schools of business, technology, arts and sciences, and education and

  • New Britannia, A (book by McQueen)

    Australia: Strains of modern radicalism: …(notably Humphrey McQueen in his A New Britannia, first published in 1970) saw the nation as ever dominated by petty bourgeois standards—mean, acquisitive, racist, and authoritarian. Many earlier commentators had perceived such traits, but now they were attacked with more fundamental repugnance. The dismissal of Whitlam in 1975 encouraged the…

  • New British Science Fiction (literary movement)

    science fiction: Space travel: …is the signature of the New British Science Fiction, the first SF literary movement of the 21st century. Introverted postimperial insularity had long characterized British science fiction, but in the 21st century a cluster of writers—including Iain M. Banks, Stephen Baxter, Justina Robson, Peter F. Hamilton, Charles Stross, and Ken…

  • New Brunswick (province, Canada)

    New Brunswick, Canadian province located on the eastern seaboard of the North American continent. It is Canada’s only officially bilingual province, French and English having equal status. It was one of the four original provinces making up the national confederation in 1867. Together with Nova

  • New Brunswick (New Jersey, United States)

    New Brunswick, city, seat of Middlesex county, eastern New Jersey, U.S. It lies on the Raritan River, at the terminus of the old Delaware and Raritan Canal, 21 miles (33 km) south-southwest of Newark. The site, first known as Prigmore’s Swamp, was settled in 1681 by John Inian. Called Inian’s Ferry

  • New Brunswick cedar (plant)

    American arborvitae, (Thuja occidentalis), ornamental and timber evergreen conifer of the cypress family (Cupressaceae), native to eastern North America. In the lumber trade it is called, among other names, white cedar, eastern white cedar, and New Brunswick cedar. Often 20 m (65 feet) tall, the

  • New Brunswick, flag of (Canadian provincial flag)

    Canadian provincial flag that is horizontally divided and bears a golden lion on an upper red stripe and a lymphad (ancient galley) on a central golden stripe; the bottom edge of the flag has narrow, wavy stripes of blue-white-blue.Following the establishment of the Dominion of Canada, Queen

  • New Brunswick, University of (university, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada)

    University of New Brunswick, Canadian public university in Fredericton, founded in 1785. It has faculties of administration, arts, computer science, education, engineering, forestry, graduate studies, law, nursing, physical education, science, and business and additional programs in business,

  • New Brutalism (architectural style)

    New Brutalism, one aspect of the International Style of architecture that was created by Le Corbusier and his leading fellow architects Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Frank Lloyd Wright and that demanded a functional approach toward architectural design. The name was first applied in 1954 by the

  • New Caledonia (island, New Caledonia)

    New Caledonia, largest island of the French overseas country of New Caledonia, in the southwestern Pacific Ocean 750 miles (1,200 km) east of Australia. Also known as Grande Terre (Mainland), it is approximately 250 miles (400 km) long and 25 miles (40 km) wide. From its coast, encircled by one of

  • New Caledonia (French unique collectivity, Pacific Ocean)

    New Caledonia, French unique collectivity in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, about 900 miles (1,500 km) east of Australia. It includes the island of New Caledonia (the Grande Terre [Mainland]), where the capital, Nouméa, is located; the Loyalty Islands; the Bélep Islands; and the ?le des Pins.

  • New Caledonian crow (bird)

    crow: Two species—the New Caledonian crow (C. moneduloides) and the ‘alalā, or Hawaiian crow (C. hawaiiensis)—use stick-type foraging tools to obtain food from small holes and crevices. Such sophisticated tool use is only practiced by a handful of animal species.

  • New Carthage (Spain)

    Cartagena, port city, in the provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Murcia, southeastern Spain. It is the site of Spain’s chief Mediterranean naval base. Its harbour, the finest on the east coast, is a deep spacious bay dominated to seaward by four hills crowned with

  • New Carthage, The (work by Eekhoud)

    Georges Eekhoud: …novel, La nouvelle Carthage (1888; The New Carthage), set in Antwerp, is saved only by the brilliance of its various episodes.

  • New Castile (region, Spain)

    New Castile, historic provincial region, central upland Spain. It generally includes the area of the Moorish kingdom of Toledo annexed to the former kingdom of Castile in the 11th century ad. In modern Spanish geographic usage, New Castile as an administrative region included the provinces of C

  • New Castle (Indiana, United States)

    New Castle, city, seat (1821) of Henry county, eastern Indiana, U.S. It lies along the Blue River, 50 miles (80 km) east of Indianapolis. It was founded in 1820 and named by Ezekiel Leavell for his hometown in Kentucky, and it was incorporated in 1839. In 1900 a decade of expansion began when

  • New Castle (county, Delaware, United States)

    Delaware: …three counties—from north to south, New Castle, Kent, and Sussex—all established by 1682. Its population, like its industry, is concentrated in the north, around Wilmington, where the major coastal highways and railways pass through from Pennsylvania and New Jersey on the north and east into Maryland on the

  • New Castle (Delaware, United States)

    New Castle, city, New Castle county, northern Delaware, U.S. It is just south of Wilmington on the Delaware River, there linked to New Jersey by the twin spans of the Delaware Memorial Bridge. The original settlement, called Santhoeck, was established in 1651, when Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch

  • New Castle (locomotive)

    railroad: Source in inland water transport: …the high-pressure engine on a car with wheels set to operate on the rails of a cast-iron tramroad located at Pen-y-Darren, Wales.

  • New Castle (Pennsylvania, United States)

    New Castle, city, seat (1849) of Lawrence county, western Pennsylvania, U.S. It lies at the juncture of the Shenango and Mahoning rivers and Neshannock Creek and in the foothills of the Allegheny Mountains, 20 miles (32 km) southeast of Youngstown, Ohio. Originally the site of a Delaware Indian

  • New Catholic Association (Irish history)

    Robert Peel: Early political career: …with the formation of the Catholic Association. Its growing strength culminated in the victory of Daniel O’Connell, the Irish “Liberator,” at a by-election for County Clare in 1828. Convinced that further resistance was useless, Peel proffered his resignation and urged the prime minister to make a final settlement of the…

  • New Caxton Encyclopedia, The

    encyclopaedia: The 20th century and beyond: …major instances of coproduction involved The New Caxton Encyclopedia, which originated in Italy with Istituto Geografico de Agostini and subsequently appeared in Great Britain, first sold in serial parts as Purnell’s New English Encyclopedia (1966) and then in a bound set of 18 volumes (1966); in France there appeared a…

  • New Centre Right (political party, Italy)

    Silvio Berlusconi: Prosecutions, political ban, and continued influence: …Angelino Alfano to become the New Centre Right (Nuovo Centrodestra; NCD) party.

  • New Century, The (Chinese newspaper)

    anarchism: Anarchism in China: …World Association published a journal, The New Century, that was a major source of information in Chinese on anarchist theory and the European anarchist movement. The journal promoted an individualistic and “futuristic” anarchism and was among the first Chinese-language publications to openly attack native traditions, in particular Confucianism. The Society…

  • New Chaobai River (river, China)

    Chaobai River, river in Hebei province and Beijing and Tianjin municipalities, northern China. The Chaobai originates in metropolitan Beijing at the confluence of its two main tributaries, the Chao and Bai ("White") rivers, about 2 miles (3 km) south of the town of Miyun and 10 miles (16 km) south

  • New China News Agency (Chinese news agency)

    Xinhua News Agency, news agency of China, founded in 1931 as the press outlet of the Chinese Communist Party. It was first set up in the Red Army-controlled area in Jiangxi province and in the mid-1930s was moved to Yan’an. The agency is now headquartered in Beijing and has offices around the

  • New Christian (people)

    Marrano, in Spanish history, a Jew who converted to the Christian faith to escape persecution but who continued to practice Judaism secretly. It was a term of abuse and also applies to any descendants of Marranos. The origin of the word marrano is uncertain. In the late 14th century, Spanish Jewry

  • New Christy Minstrels, the (American musical group)

    Kenny Rogers: In 1966 he joined the New Christy Minstrels, a folk group started by Randy Sparks in 1961. After a year Rogers and a few other Minstrels left to form their own ensemble, the First Edition. Rogers found his way into the spotlight, and the band was soon referred to…

  • New Church (association of churches)

    New Church, church organized in the General Conference of the New Church, the General Convention of the New Jerusalem in the U.S.A., and the General Church of the New Jerusalem. Its members are followers of the theology of Emanuel Swedenborg, the 18th-century Swedish scientist, philosopher, and t

  • New Church, General Conference of the (church conference)

    New Church: …Swedenborgians, church organized in the General Conference of the New Church, the General Convention of the New Jerusalem in the U.S.A., and the General Church of the New Jerusalem. Its members are followers of the theology of Emanuel Swedenborg, the 18th-century Swedish scientist, philosopher, and theologian. Swedenborg did not himself…

  • New Class of Faults and Their Bearing on Continental Drift, A (work by Wilson)

    J. Tuzo Wilson: His paper entitled A New Class of Faults and Their Bearing on Continental Drift (1965) introduced the concept of the transform fault. Whereas previous theories of continental drift had conceived of plates as either moving closer together (convergent plates) or further apart (divergent), Wilson asserted that a third…

  • New Class, The (work by Djilas)

    Milovan Djilas: In 1957 Djilas’ book The New Class was published in the West from a smuggled manuscript. It asserted that the typical governing Communists in eastern Europe were little different from the capitalists and landowners whom they had replaced; he later renounced this theory in The Unperfect Society (1969). Rearrested…

  • New Clean Government Party (political party, Japan)

    New Kōmeitō, Japanese political party that was founded in 1964 as the political wing of the Buddhist lay movement Sōka-gakkai. It advocates “humanitarian socialism,” an open, independent foreign policy, and, among other things, the gradual abolition of the Japan-U.S. security treaty. After the 1962

  • New Coastal Plain (region, Suriname)

    Suriname: Relief: …of the mudbanks begins the New Coastal Plain, also formed from sand and clay from the mouth of the Amazon. The region, covering some 6,600 square miles (17,000 square km), consists of swampland. The soil of the swamps is clay, in which a great deal of peat has formed. The…

  • New Code of 581 (Chinese history)

    China: Wendi’s institutional reforms: …promulgate a penal code, the New Code of 581. In 583 his ministers compiled a revised code, the Kaihuang Code, and administrative statutes. These were far simpler than the laws of the Bei Zhou and were more lenient. Considerable pains were taken to ensure that local officials studied and enforced…

  • New Coke (beverage)

    New Coke, reformulated soft drink that the Coca-Cola Company introduced on April 23, 1985, to replace its flagship drink in the hope of revitalizing the brand and gaining market share in the beverage industry. The announcement sparked a furour, and within a few days the decision to discontinue the

  • New Colossus, The (sonnet by Lazarus)

    Emma Lazarus: ” Her sonnet “The New Colossus” was chosen to be inscribed on the base of the Statue of Liberty, the monument it celebrates, and it remains a most moving and eloquent expression of an American ideal: “Give me your tired, your poor,” the sonnet concludes, “Your huddled masses…

  • New Columbia Encyclopedia, The

    Columbia Encyclopedia, highly regarded one-volume encyclopaedia, international in scope and useful for quick location of accurate information. The encyclopaedia was first published in 1935 and underwent major revisions in 1950 and 1963. The fourth edition, published in 1975 under the title The New

  • New Comedy (Greek drama)

    New Comedy, Greek drama from about 320 bc to the mid-3rd century bc that offers a mildly satiric view of contemporary Athenian society, especially in its familiar and domestic aspects. Unlike Old Comedy, which parodied public figures and events, New Comedy features fictional average citizens and

  • New Complete Hoyle, The (work by Hoyle)

    Edmond Hoyle: …memorialized in such books as The New Complete Hoyle, edited by Richard L. Frey, Albert H. Morehead, and Geoffrey Mott-Smith (1956), comprising the rules, methods of play, and history of more than 600 games of skill and chance, and According to Hoyle, edited by Frey (1965; rev. ed. 1970), concerning…

  • New Course, The (letter by Trotsky)

    Leon Trotsky: The struggle for the succession: …easily won, and the “New Course” controversy was terminated at the 13th Party Conference in January 1924 (the first substantially stage-managed party assembly) with the condemnation of the Trotskyist opposition as a Menshevik-like illegal factional deviation. Lenin’s death a week later only confirmed Trotsky’s isolation. Convalescing on the Black…

  • New Covenant (Judaism and Christianity)

    Jeremiah: Prophetic vocation and message: …future is one regarding the New Covenant (Jer. 31:31–34). While the present literary form of the passage is probably not Jeremiah’s, the thought is essentially his. He prophesied of a time when Yahweh would make a covenant with Israel, superseding the old Mosaic Covenant; Yahweh would write his law upon…

  • New Covenanters (Jewish sect)

    Judaism: New parties and sects: The Damascus sect (New Covenanters) was a group of Pharisees who went beyond the letter of the Pharisaic Halakha. Like the Essenes and the Dead Sea sects, they adopted a monastic lifestyle and opposed the way in which sacrifices were offered in the Temple.

  • New Criticism (Anglo-American literary criticism)

    New Criticism, post-World War I school of Anglo-American literary critical theory that insisted on the intrinsic value of a work of art and focused attention on the individual work alone as an independent unit of meaning. It was opposed to the critical practice of bringing historical or

  • New Criticism (French literature)

    French literature: La Nouvelle Critique (French New Criticism): ” The new and subversive critical tendencies of the 1960s demanded more of the reader, who was to become an active participant in decoding the text, not a passive recipient. The term New Criticism (not to be confused with the Anglo-American New Criticism, developed…

  • New Criticism, The (work by Ransom)

    John Crowe Ransom: Ransom’s The New Criticism (1941) provided the name of the influential mid-20th-century school of criticism (see New Criticism).

  • New Culture Movement (Chinese history)

    May Fourth Movement: As part of this New Culture Movement, they attacked traditional Confucian ideas and exalted Western ideas, particularly science and democracy. Their inquiry into liberalism, pragmatism, nationalism, anarchism, and socialism provided a basis from which to criticize traditional Chinese ethics, philosophy, religion, and social and political

  • New Cyclopaedia, The (work compiled by Rees)

    encyclopaedia: The contemporary world: Similarly, The New Cyclopaedia, in the early 19th century, incorporated articles on subjects such as candle making and coach building.

  • New Dance (dance by Humphrey and Weidman)

    Doris Humphrey: Her trilogy known as New Dance, after the title of the third section, was completed in 1936 but never performed as a whole. The work, often considered her masterpiece, explored human relationships through the so-called symphonic form of dance. With My Red Fires, the second section, portrayed romantic love,…

  • New Day Rising (album by Hüsker Dü)

    Hüsker Dü: …of critically acclaimed albums including New Day Rising (1985), Flip Your Wig (1985), and Warehouse: Songs and Stories (1987). Mould later had success with solo projects and as a member of the band Sugar.

  • New Deal (United States history)

    New Deal, domestic program of the administration of U.S. Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt between 1933 and 1939, which took action to bring about immediate economic relief as well as reforms in industry, agriculture, finance, waterpower, labour, and housing, vastly increasing the scope of the federal

  • New Deal for Coal (work by Wilson)

    Harold Wilson: His book New Deal for Coal (1945) was the basis of the Labour Party’s plans for nationalizing the coal mines.

  • New Delhi (film [1956])

    Kishore Kumar: …comic actor with the film New Delhi (1956), in which he played a North Indian Punjabi pretending to be a South Indian Tamil so that he would be able rent a room in New Delhi, and in the self-produced film Chalti ka naam gaadi (1958; “That Which Runs Is a…

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