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  • New Poets movement (classical literature)

    Neōteros, (Greek: “newer one”) any of a group of poets who sought to break away from the didactic-patriotic tradition of Latin poetry by consciously emulating the forms and content of Alexandrian Greek models. The neōteroi deplored the excesses of alliteration and onomatopoeia and the ponderous

  • New Policies (Chinese history)

    Wang Anshi: …unconventional idealism through the “New Laws,” or “New Policies,” of 1069–76. The academic controversy sparked by his reforms continued for centuries.

  • New Principles of Gunnery (work by Robins)

    Benjamin Robins: …theory and practice with his New Principles of Gunnery (1742), which invalidated old suppositions about the nature and action of gunpowder and the flight of projectiles and formed the basis of all later scientific studies in these fields. His invention of the ballistic pendulum, a device allowing the determination of…

  • New Procurators Offices (building, Venice, Italy)

    Venice: The Piazza San Marco: …Old Procurators’ Offices and the New Procurators’ Offices. The buildings now house fashionable shops and elegant cafés, whose string ensembles compete with each other in summer months to attract customers to their open-air tables. At the basilica end of the Old Procurators’ building stands the Clock Tower, a late 14th-century…

  • New Progressive Party (political party, Puerto Rico)

    Puerto Rico: Government: …of commonwealth status, and the New Progressive Party, which favours U.S. statehood. Together these two parties have commanded virtually all the vote in elections since the late 20th century. The Puerto Rican Independence Party, which won one-fifth of the vote in 1952, is supported by about 5 percent of the…

  • New Prophecy (religion)

    Montanism, a heretical movement founded by the prophet Montanus that arose in the Christian church in Phrygia, Asia Minor, in the 2nd century. Subsequently it flourished in the West, principally in Carthage under the leadership of Tertullian in the 3rd century. It had almost died out in the 5th and

  • New Providence Island (island, The Bahamas)

    New Providence Island, principal island of The Bahamas, West Indies. It is located between Andros Island (west) and Eleuthera Island (east). The island has a length of 21 miles (34 km) and a width of 7 miles (11 km) and is mostly flat, with swamps and several shallow lakes. Nassau is the island’s

  • new public management (government)

    governance: The new governance: …first wave consisted of the new public management (NPM), as advocated by neoliberals; these reforms were attempts to increase the role of markets and of corporate management techniques in the public sector. The second wave of reforms consisted of attempts to develop and manage a joined-up series of networks informed…

  • New Quebec (administrative region, Quebec, Canada)

    Nord-du-Québec, administrative region constituting the northern half of Quebec province, Canada. The name Nouveau-Québec (“New Quebec”) once was used synonymously with Ungava for that part of the Labrador-Ungava peninsula between Hudson Bay and the Labrador Sea, north of the Eastmain and Churchill

  • New Quebec Crater (crater, Quebec, Canada)

    Ungava-Quebec Crater, geologically young crater of meteoritic origin located in the northwestern part of the Ungava Peninsula, northern Quebec province, Canada. First recognized as an impact structure in 1950, the crater is 3.4 km (2.1 miles) in diameter and has a rim standing as much as 160 metres

  • New Rajagrha (ancient city, India)

    Rajgir Hills: The remains of New Rajagriha, the reputed capital of King Bimbisara (c. 520–491 bce), lie north of the valley.

  • New Realism (art)

    Arman: …a founding member of the Nouveau Réalisme movement in 1960s Paris and a master of found-object sculptures, into which he incorporated everyday machine-made objects—ranging from buttons and spoons to automobiles and boxes filled with trash. Arman, who signed his work with his first name (the spelling originated from a printer’s…

  • new realism (philosophy)

    New realism, early 20th-century movement in metaphysics and epistemology that opposed the idealism dominant in British and U.S. universities. Early leaders included William James, Bertrand Russell, and G.E. Moore, who adopted the term realism to signal their opposition to idealism. In 1910 William

  • new regionalism

    New regionalism, shift in national systems of administration and cultural, economic, and political organization following the Cold War. New regionalist projects, which began about the mid-1980s, differed in substance from the earlier rise in regionalist developments, which had begun about the 1950s

  • new religious movement

    New religious movement (NRM), the generally accepted term for what is sometimes called, often with pejorative connotations, a “cult.” The term new religious movement has been applied to all new faiths that have arisen worldwide over the past several centuries. NRMs are characterized by a number of

  • New Republic Party (political party, South Africa)

    New Republic Party, former South African political party founded in 1977 as the direct successor to the United Party. The majority faction of the United Party, seeing its party disintegrating by defections to other new parties and to the ruling National Party, decided formally to disband the party

  • New Republic, The (American magazine)

    The New Republic, journal of opinion edited in Washington, D.C., that remained one of the most influential liberal magazines in the United States from its founding in 1914. The magazine was begun by Willard Straight with Herbert David Croly as its editor. The New Republic reflected the progressive

  • New Review, The (American magazine)

    Samuel Putnam: …and edited a critical magazine, The New Review (1931–32), which had an eclectic mix of contributors ranging from Ezra Pound to James T. Farrell.

  • New Right (political movement)

    New Right, grassroots coalition of American conservatives that collectively led what scholars often refer to as the “conservative ascendancy” or “Republican ascendancy” of the late 20th century. Dubbed the New Right partly in contrast to the New Left counterculture of the 1960s, the New Right

  • New River (river, England, United Kingdom)

    Enfield: The New River, an early 17th-century canal, constructed to supply water from Hertfordshire to Clerkenwell, London, remains a scenic element in the district, and landscaping, footpaths, and recreation sites have transformed the Lea valley into a green corridor extending deep into the East End of London.…

  • New River (river, Central America)

    Belize: Drainage and soils: …which stands Belize City), the New River, and the Hondo River (which forms the northern frontier with Mexico). Both the New and the Hondo rivers drain into Chetumal Bay to the north. South of Belize City the coastal plain is crossed by short river valleys. Along the coast is the…

  • New River (river, United States)

    New River, river formed by the junction of North and South forks in Ashe county, northwestern North Carolina, U.S. It flows north across Virginia into West Virginia and joins the Gauley River, there dammed for hydropower, after a course of 255 miles (410 km), to form the Kanawha River in

  • New River Gorge Bridge (bridge, Fayetteville, West Virginia, United States)

    bridge: Truss bridges: In 1977 the New River Gorge Bridge, the world’s longest-spanning steel arch, was completed in Fayette county, West Virginia, U.S. Designed by Michael Baker, the two-hinged arch truss carries four lanes of traffic 263 metres (876 feet) above the river and has a span of 510 metres (1,700…

  • New Rochelle (New York, United States)

    New Rochelle, city, Westchester county, southeastern New York, U.S. It lies along Long Island Sound, just northeast of New York City. Founded in 1688 by a group of Huguenot refugees, it was named for La Rochelle, a seaport on the Atlantic coast of France. Its modern suburban-residential character

  • New Rome (Turkey)

    Istanbul, largest city and principal seaport of Turkey. It was the capital of both the Byzantine Empire and the Ottoman Empire. The old walled city of Istanbul stands on a triangular peninsula between Europe and Asia. Sometimes as a bridge, sometimes as a barrier, Istanbul for more than 2,500 years

  • New Romney (England, United Kingdom)

    New Romney, town (parish), Shepway district, administrative and historic county of Kent, southeastern England. It was formerly one of the medieval Cinque Ports of the English Channel coast but is now more than 1 mile (1.6 km) from the sea. The town is surrounded by Romney Marsh, a level tract built

  • New Ross (Ireland)

    New Ross, port town, County Wexford, Ireland. It lies along the River Barrow, just below the latter’s junction with the Nore. In the 6th century St. Abban founded the abbey of Rossmactreoin, which gave rise to the ancient city Rossglas, or Rossponte. By 1269 the town, which stands on a steep hill

  • New Russia (historical region, Ukraine)

    Ukraine: Ukraine under direct imperial Russian rule: …sparsely settled southern lands (named Novorossiya, or New Russia) were colonized by migrants from other parts of Ukraine, as well as smaller numbers from Russia, the Balkans, and Germany. This colonization movement greatly expanded Ukrainian ethnic territory. The new Black Sea port of Odessa (Odesa) grew into a large and…

  • New Saint Peter’s Basilica (church, Vatican City)

    St. Peter’s Basilica, present basilica of St. Peter in Vatican City (an enclave in Rome), begun by Pope Julius II in 1506 and completed in 1615 under Paul V. It is designed as a three-aisled Latin cross with a dome at the crossing, directly above the high altar, which covers the shrine of St. Peter

  • New Sarai (Russia)

    Russia: Tatar rule: (It was moved to New Sarai, near the site of Tsaritsyn, modern Volgograd, about 1260.) These towns became the commercial and administrative centres of what was later to be called the “Golden Horde” (the term is probably a Western invention). Its East Slavic territories were tributaries of an extensive…

  • New Sarum (England, United Kingdom)

    Salisbury, city in the administrative and historic county of Wiltshire, southern England. It is situated at the confluence of the Rivers Avon (East, or Hampshire, Avon) and Wiley. It functioned historically as the principal town of Wiltshire and is the seat of an Anglican bishop. The origins of

  • New School for Social Research (university, New York City, New York, United States)

    The New School, private coeducational institution of higher learning in New York, New York, U.S. The New School for Social Research was established in 1919 as an informal centre for adult education by a group of independent-minded scholars that included economist Thorstein Veblen, historian Charles

  • New School of Poetry (Greek literary school)

    Kóstas Kariotákis: …show the influence of the New School of Poetry of Athens, founded in about 1880 by Kostís Palamás, which revolted against Katharevusa, the stilted and archaic official language of Greece, and against the emotionalism of the Romantics. His poetry also reveals the Symbolist influence in addition to the loneliness and…

  • New School Presbyterian Church

    Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.): History: …in the North, added “New School” and the other added “Old School.” Both groups continued to grow, but, during the Civil War, the Old School Presbyterians in the South seceded and formed the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States of America. After the war the North-South groups of the…

  • New School, The (university, New York City, New York, United States)

    The New School, private coeducational institution of higher learning in New York, New York, U.S. The New School for Social Research was established in 1919 as an informal centre for adult education by a group of independent-minded scholars that included economist Thorstein Veblen, historian Charles

  • New Science, The (work by Vico)

    Giambattista Vico: Period of the Scienza nuova: The outline of the work that he planned to call Scienza nuova first appeared in 1720–21 in a two-volume legal treatise on the “Universal Law.” The outline was written in Latin and appeared in a chapter entitled “Nova Scientia Tentatur” (“The New Science…

  • New Scotland Yard (British police)

    Scotland Yard, the headquarters of the London Metropolitan Police and, by association, a name often used to denote that force. It is located on the River Thames at Victoria Embankment just north of Westminster Bridge in the City of Westminster. The London police force was created in 1829 by an act

  • New Sculpture (art movement)

    Sir Thomas Brock: He is associated with the New Sculpture movement that reinvigorated the classicizing British sculpture with a new elegance and vitality drawn from Renaissance and Baroque models.

  • New Sensationalist school (Japanese literature)

    Yokomitsu Riichi: …of the mainstays of the New Sensationalist school (Shinkankaku-ha) of Japanese writers, influenced by the avant-garde trends in European literature of the 1920s.

  • New Service Roles for Animals

    In 2013 Americans remain divided on the broadening concept of “service animals.” Traditionally, the term has been restricted to specialized Guide dogs, primarily Seeing Eye dogs that are professionally trained to escort, protect, or aid their blind or visually impaired owners. Other guide dogs have

  • New Severn River (river, Canada)

    Severn River, river, northwestern Ontario, Canada. It rises in the Finger Lake region of western Ontario and flows northeast for about 610 miles (980 km) through Severn Lake to Hudson Bay. Discovered in 1631, it was originally named New Severn (after the Severn in England) by Captain Thomas James.

  • New Shepard (spacecraft)

    space tourism: Suborbital space tourism: …Jeff Bezos, has developed its New Shepard spacecraft (named for American astronaut Alan Shepard). With its bullet-shaped fuselage, New Shepard is designed to take off and land vertically, in contrast to the mother-ship deployment of SpaceShipTwo.

  • New Shoreham (Rhode Island, United States)

    New Shoreham, town, Rhode Island, U.S., coextensive with Block Island

  • New Siberian Islands (islands, Russia)

    New Siberian Islands, archipelago, northeastern Russia, lying north of eastern Siberia in the Arctic Ocean and dividing the Laptev Sea to the west from the East Siberian Sea to the east. Dmitry Laptev Strait separates the New Siberian Islands from the Siberian mainland. The archipelago is

  • New Site (Alabama, United States)

    Andalusia, city, seat (1841) of Covington county, southern Alabama, U.S., near the Conecuh River, about 85 miles (135 km) south of Montgomery. It originated in 1841 as New Site, when the county seat of Montezuma relocated to higher ground because of floods, at a point along the Three Notch Trail

  • New Slovenia–Christian People’s Party (political party, Slovenia)

    Slovenia: Political process: …formed a coalition with the New Slovenia–Christian People’s Party, the Slovenian Democratic Party of Pensioners, and the Slovenian People’s Party. In the 2008 parliamentary elections the centre-left Social Democrats narrowly edged out the Slovenian Democratic Party.

  • New Smyrna (Florida, United States)

    New Smyrna Beach, city, Volusia county, northeastern Florida, U.S. It lies 15 miles (25 km) south of Daytona Beach, on the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian River (a lagoon separated from the Atlantic by barrier islands). Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León landed at an inlet just north of the city

  • New Smyrna Beach (Florida, United States)

    New Smyrna Beach, city, Volusia county, northeastern Florida, U.S. It lies 15 miles (25 km) south of Daytona Beach, on the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian River (a lagoon separated from the Atlantic by barrier islands). Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León landed at an inlet just north of the city

  • new social movement theory (sociology)

    social movement: Other theories: The second theory is the new social movement theory. It derives from an intellectual dissatisfaction with the predominantly Marxist view that treats social movements as reflecting a fundamental struggle among classes organized around economic production. That theory, it is argued, has become less relevant as these classes have been drawn…

  • New Society Movement (political organization, Philippines)

    Philippines: Political process: …Nacionalista and Liberal parties, Marcos’s New Society Movement (Kilusan Bagong Lipunan; KBL), an organization created from elements of the Nacionalista Party and other supporters, emerged as predominant. Organized political opposition was revived for legislative elections held in 1978, and, since the downfall of Marcos, partisan politics has returned to its…

  • New Song movement (folk music)

    Nicaragua: The arts: In the 1970s the “New Song movement,” a form of traditional Latin American folk music mixed with political and social commentary, was led by Nicaraguan brothers Luis Enríque Mejía Godoy and Carlos Mejía Godoy, who continued to perform into the 1990s, often with other artists, including Katia Cardenal and…

  • New South Wales (state, Australia)

    New South Wales, state of southeastern Australia, occupying both coastal mountains and interior tablelands. It is bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the east and the states of Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, and Queensland to the north. New South Wales also includes Lord Howe

  • New South Wales Corps (British military)

    New South Wales Corps, (1789–1818), British military force formed for service in the convict colony of New South Wales. It figured prominently in the early history of Australia. With the arrival of the corps in 1790–92, the colony gained a new dynamic force: officers and soldiers received land

  • New South Wales Rugby League (sports organization)

    rugby: Australia: …and players to form the New South Wales Rugby League (NSWRL) on August 8, 1907. The NSWRL adopted the rules of the Northern Union and organized an Australian team to play against the All Golds before they left for England. In 1908 a rugby league competition began in Sydney with…

  • New South Wales, Art Gallery of (museum, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia)

    Art Gallery of New South Wales, art museum founded in Sydney in 1874 with a grant from the government. The original resolution establishing the gallery authorized buying in London and in Sydney, and English 19th-century paintings and contemporary British art are particularly well represented. The

  • New South Wales, flag of (Australian flag)

    Australian flag consisting of a dark blue field (background) bearing the Union Jack in the canton and, at the fly end, a white disk with a red cross, a yellow lion, and four yellow stars. The flag is sometimes described as a defaced Blue Ensign.A number of unofficial flags existed in the early days

  • New Spain, Viceroyalty of (historical territory, Mexico)

    Viceroyalty of New Spain, the first of the four viceroyalties that Spain created to govern its conquered lands in the New World. Established in 1535, it initially included all land north of the Isthmus of Panama under Spanish control. This later came to include upper and lower California, the area

  • New Species of 2012

    Nature continued to amaze in 2012. Each year dozens of new species are discovered, a testament to Earth’s vast biodiversity. The annual search for the top 10 new species for 2012 began after a list of more than 200 nominees was compiled in 2011. The final 10 species, which are shown in the

  • New Species of 2013

    A few more secrets of the natural world were revealed in 2013. The International Institute for Species Exploration at Arizona State University (ASU) announced its list of the top 10 new species of 2013, which were first described the previous year. The list was made public in May to coincide with

  • New Species of 2014

    Taxonomists cataloged an estimated 18,000 new species in 2014. Among those thousands of candidates, 10 were selected by the International Institute for Species Exploration (IISE), which was based at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry at the State University of New York, for their

  • New Species of 2015

    On May 21, 2015, the International Institute for Species Exploration (IISE), located at the College of Environmental Science and Forestry at the State University of New York in Syracuse, released its annual list of the top 10 new species named in the previous year. The list was released every year

  • New Species of 2016

    In May 2016 the International Institute for Species Exploration (IISE), part of the College of Environmental Science and Forestry at the State University of New York in Syracuse, unveiled its list of the top 10 new species named in the previous year. The list was released every year on or about May

  • New Sporting Magazine (British periodical)

    Robert Smith Surtees: …as publisher, he launched the New Sporting Magazine (N.S.M.), editing it until 1836. His novels appeared as serials in the N.S.M. or elsewhere or in monthly parts before final publication in book form, and these first and last dates are given after their titles. Jorrocks’ Jaunts and Jollities (1831, 1838),…

  • New START (United States-Russian treaty)

    Strategic Arms Reduction Talks: New START: By early 2009, however, agreement between the two sides was possible, with a new administration in Washington under Pres. Barack Obama. Negotiations continued through the formal expiration of START I in December, and Obama and Russian Pres. Dmitry Medvedev agreed to work out…

  • New State (Brazilian history)

    Estado Novo, (Portuguese: “New State”), dictatorial period (1937–45) in Brazil during the rule of President Getúlio Vargas, initiated by a new constitution issued in November 1937. Vargas himself wrote it with the assistance of his minister of justice, Francisco Campos. In the election campaign of

  • New State (Portuguese history)

    Angola: From colonial conquest to independence, 1910–75: …the authoritarian New State (Estado Novo), marked the advent of modern Portuguese colonialism. The authorities stamped out slavery and undertook the systematic conquest of Angola. By 1920 all but the remote southeast of the colony was firmly under Portuguese control. Kingdoms were abolished, and the Portuguese worked directly through…

  • New State Art Gallery (gallery, Stuttgart, Germany)

    Sir James Stirling: His New State Gallery, or Neue Staatsgalerie (1977–84), in Stuttgart, Germany, a combination of classicism and geometric abstraction, is considered by many to be his finest achievement. Among his other works are a building for the Fogg Art Museum (1979–84) and the Arthur M. Sackler Museum…

  • New State Gallery (gallery, Stuttgart, Germany)

    Sir James Stirling: His New State Gallery, or Neue Staatsgalerie (1977–84), in Stuttgart, Germany, a combination of classicism and geometric abstraction, is considered by many to be his finest achievement. Among his other works are a building for the Fogg Art Museum (1979–84) and the Arthur M. Sackler Museum…

  • New State, The (work by Follett)

    Mary Parker Follett: In 1918 Follett published The New State, in which she described an organic form of democracy based on spontaneous organization along natural neighbourhood lines. Her next book, Creative Experience (1924), expanded on the social and psychological implications of her earlier work, setting forth an idealistic interpretation of individual responsibility…

  • New Statesman (British magazine)

    New Statesman, political and literary weekly magazine published in London, probably England’s best-known political weekly, and one of the world’s leading journals of opinion. It was founded in 1913 by Sidney and Beatrice Webb. He was a Fabian Socialist and she his political and literary partner,

  • new stone (pottery)

    Ironstone china, type of stoneware introduced in England early in the 19th century by Staffordshire potters who sought to develop a porcelain substitute that could be mass-produced. The result of their experiments was a dense, hard, durable stoneware that came to be known by several names—e.g.,

  • New Stone Age (anthropology)

    Neolithic, final stage of cultural evolution or technological development among prehistoric humans. It was characterized by stone tools shaped by polishing or grinding, dependence on domesticated plants or animals, settlement in permanent villages, and the appearance of such crafts as pottery and

  • New Style calendar

    Gregorian calendar, solar dating system now in general use. It was proclaimed in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII as a reform of the Julian calendar. By the Julian reckoning, the solar year comprised 365 14 days; the intercalation of a “leap day” every four years was intended to maintain correspondence

  • New Subjectivity (German literature)

    German literature: The 1970s and ’80s: …turning that became known as Neue Subjektivit?t (“New Subjectivity”). The dominant genre was lyric poetry. Its authors had formerly been involved in the “student revolution” of 1967–68, which had called for a new politicization of literature in the face of the Vietnam War and the problems of the Third World.…

  • New Sweden (Swedish colony, North America)

    New Sweden, only Swedish colony in America, established by the New Sweden Company in March 1638 and captured by the Dutch in 1655. The first expedition, including both Swedes and Dutchmen, was commanded by Peter Minuit, who purchased land from the Indians and named the settlement Fort Christina

  • New Sweden Company (Swedish trading company)

    Native American: The Netherlands and Sweden: …group of individuals formed the New Sweden Company. They hired Peter Minuit, a former governor of New Amsterdam, to found a new colony to the south, in what is now Delaware, U.S. In 1655 New Sweden fell to the Dutch.

  • New System of Chemical Philosophy (work by Dalton)

    atom: Experimental foundation of atomic chemistry: His book A New System of Chemical Philosophy (Part I, 1808; Part II, 1810) was the first application of atomic theory to chemistry. It provided a physical picture of how elements combine to form compounds and a phenomenological reason for believing that atoms exist. His work, together…

  • New System, The (work by Bjornson)

    Norwegian literature: Toward the modern breakthrough: …dramas Det ny system (The New System), En handske (A Gauntlet), and Over ?vne (Beyond Human Power I) and his novel Det flager i byen og p? havnen (The Heritage of the Kurts); Lie’s novels Gaa paa! (“Go Ahead!”), Livsslaven (“The Life Convict”; Eng. trans. One of Life’s Slaves

  • New Taipei City (county, Taiwan)

    New Taipei City, special municipality (chih-hsia shih, or zhizia shi), northern Taiwan. It was created in 2010 when the former T’ai-pei county was administratively reorganized, and it has the status of a county. New Taipei City is bordered by I-lan (Yilan) county to the southeast, T’ao-yüan

  • New Tappan Zee Bridge (bridge, Hudson River, New York, United States)

    Rockland: …span of its dramatic replacement—the Governor Mario M. Cuomo Bridge—was opened.

  • New Territories (region, Hong Kong, China)

    New Territories, part of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, southeastern China. It comprises the northern portion of the Kowloon Peninsula from Mirs Bay (Dapeng Wan) on the east to Deep Bay (Shenzhen, or Houhai, Wan), an inlet of the Pearl River Delta, on the west and includes Lantau

  • New Testament (biblical literature)

    New Testament, second, later, and smaller of the two major divisions of the Christian Bible, and the portion that is canonical (authoritative) only to Christianity. A brief treatment of the New Testament follows. For full treatment, see biblical literature: Conditions aiding the formation of the

  • New Testament Apocrypha (biblical literature)

    biblical literature: New Testament Apocrypha: The title New Testament Apocrypha may suggest that the books thus classified have or had a status comparable to that of the Old Testament Apocrypha and have been recognized as canonical. In a few instances such has been the…

  • New Testament Greek (ancient Greek language)

    Koine, the fairly uniform Hellenistic Greek spoken and written from the 4th century bc until the time of the Byzantine emperor Justinian (mid-6th century ad) in Greece, Macedonia, and the parts of Africa and the Middle East that had come under the influence or control of Greeks or of Hellenized

  • New Tethys Sea (ancient sea)

    Cenozoic Era: Geologic processes: The equatorially situated east–west Tethyan seaway linking the Atlantic and Pacific oceans was modified significantly in the east during the middle Eocene—about 45 million years ago—by the junction of India with Eurasia, and it was severed into two parts by the confluence of Africa, Arabia, and Eurasia during the…

  • New Theater of Machines and Buildings (work by Zonca)

    Vittorio Zonca: His New Theater of Machines and Buildings (1607) showed designs for numerous practical machines and mechanisms, including a water mill running silk-spinners, a water-powered grain mill operated on a boat moored in a river, and a barbecue spit turned by gears and a windmill.

  • New Theory of the Earth, A (work by Whiston)

    William Whiston: During this period he wrote A New Theory of the Earth (1696), in which he claimed that the biblical stories of the creation, flood, and final conflagration could be explained scientifically as accounts of events with historical bases. After three years as vicar of Lowestoft (1698–1701), he returned to Cambridge,…

  • New Thought (religious movement)

    New Thought, a mind-healing movement that originated in the United States in the 19th century, based on religious and metaphysical (concerning the nature of ultimate reality) presuppositions. The diversity of views and styles of life represented in various New Thought groups are difficult to

  • New Tide (Chinese periodical)

    China: An intellectual revolution: …own reform journal, Xinchao (“New Tide”). A new experimental literature inspired by Western forms became highly popular, and scores of new literary journals were founded.

  • New Tōkaidō Line (railway, Japan)

    New Tōkaidō Line, high-speed rail line between Tokyo and Osaka that comprises the first segment of the Shinkansen Line

  • New Town (Pennsylvania, United States)

    Shamokin, city, Northumberland county, east-central Pennsylvania, U.S. It lies along Shamokin Creek. Founded in 1835 by the coal speculators John C. Boyd and Ziba Bird, it was early known as Boyd’s Stone-coal Quarry, Boydtown, and New Town. The present name, selected by Boyd, is a derivation of one

  • new town (urbanology)

    New town, a form of urban planning designed to relocate populations away from large cities by grouping homes, hospitals, industry and cultural, recreational, and shopping centres to form entirely new, relatively autonomous communities. The first new towns were proposed in Great Britain in the New

  • New Town (district, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Edinburgh: The New Town: In 1767 the town council approved plans for the New Town as a suburban residential district, designed only for people “of a certain rank and fortune.” The architect, James Craig, set out a vision of order and space: a grid five streets deep…

  • New Town Hall (building, Munich, Germany)

    Munich: The contemporary city: The New Town Hall (built 1867–74) was enlarged at the beginning of the 20th century.

  • New Towne (Massachusetts, United States)

    Newton, city, Middlesex county, eastern Massachusetts, U.S. It lies along the Charles River just west of Boston and comprises several villages, including Auburndale, Newton Centre, Newton Upper Falls, Newtonville, Nonantum, Waban, and the northern part of Chestnut Hill (shared with Brookline).

  • New Towns Act (British law)

    Stevenage: …by British planners under the New Towns Act, 1946, with the aim of catering to the needs of London’s overspill population. The old town, with its old coaching inns, 12th-century church, 16th-century grammar school, and market (granted 1281), forms one neighbourhood. The main shopping centre, from which vehicles are excluded,…

  • New Traditionalist (music)

    Ricky Skaggs: …a leading role in the New Traditionalist movement of the 1980s by adapting bluegrass music’s instrumentation and historically conscious sensibility to mainstream country music.

  • new transportation links

    By 1998 the common market concept within Latin America, as exemplified by Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay, with Chile and Bolivia joining as associate members), several bilateral trade agreements, and the rejuvenation of the Andean Community and the Central American Common

  • New Trunk Line (railway, Japan)

    Shinkansen, (Japanese: “New Trunk Line”) pioneer high-speed passenger rail system of Japan, with lines on the islands of Honshu, Kyushu, and Hokkaido. It was originally built and operated by the government-owned Japanese National Railways and has been part of the private Japan Railways Group since

  • New Tuticorin (India)

    Tuticorin: …city’s shipping is handled at New Tuticorin, about 5 miles (8 km) southeast of the original port.

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