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  • Niem?ller, Martin (German theologian and pastor)

    Martin Niem?ller, prominent German anti-Nazi theologian and pastor, founder of the Confessing Church (Bekennende Kirche) and a president of the World Council of Churches. The son of a pastor, Niem?ller was a naval officer and commander of a German U-boat in World War I before beginning theological

  • Niem?ller, Martin Friedrich Gustav Emil (German theologian and pastor)

    Martin Niem?ller, prominent German anti-Nazi theologian and pastor, founder of the Confessing Church (Bekennende Kirche) and a president of the World Council of Churches. The son of a pastor, Niem?ller was a naval officer and commander of a German U-boat in World War I before beginning theological

  • Nien Rebellion (Chinese history)

    Nian Rebellion, (c. 1853–68), major revolt in the eastern and central Chinese provinces of Shandong, Henan, Jiangsu, and Anhui; it occurred when the Qing dynasty was preoccupied with the great Taiping Rebellion (1850–64) in southern and central China. An offshoot of the Buddhist-inspired White

  • Nien-ch’ing-t’ang-ku-la Shan (mountains, China)

    Nyainqêntanglha Mountains, mountain range forming the eastern section of a mountain system in the southern part of the Tibet Autonomous Region, southwestern China. In the west the system comprises a northern range, the Nganglong (A-ling) Mountains, and a southern range, the Kailas Range, which is

  • nien-fo (Buddhist belief)

    Buddhism: Pure Land: …of invoking the name Amitabha—called nembutsu in Japanese and nianfo in Chinese—became popular in China and Japan, where it was believed that the world had reached the decadent age, the so-called “latter days of the law” in which Buddhist doctrines were unclear and humans lacked the purity of heart or…

  • nien-hao (Chinese chronology)

    Nianhao, system of dating that was adopted by the Chinese in 140 bce (retroactive to 841 bce). The nianhao system was introduced by the emperor Wudi (reigned 141–87 bce) of the Xi (Western) Han, and every emperor thereafter gave his reign a nianhao at the beginning of his accession (sometimes a new

  • Nienhuys, Jacobus (Dutch businessman)

    Jacobus Nienhuys, Dutch businessman and planter who was responsible for establishing the tobacco industry in Sumatra (now part of Indonesia). Nienhuys went to Sumatra in 1863 in hopes of purchasing tobacco as a middleman but found production there insufficient for commercial exploitation. To

  • Niépce, Joseph-Nicéphore (French inventor)

    Nicéphore Niépce, French inventor who was the first to make a permanent photographic image. The son of a wealthy family suspected of royalist sympathies, Niépce fled the French Revolution but returned to serve in the French army under Napoleon Bonaparte. Dismissed because of ill health, he settled

  • Niépce, Nicéphore (French inventor)

    Nicéphore Niépce, French inventor who was the first to make a permanent photographic image. The son of a wealthy family suspected of royalist sympathies, Niépce fled the French Revolution but returned to serve in the French army under Napoleon Bonaparte. Dismissed because of ill health, he settled

  • Nier double-focusing mass spectrometer (instrument)
  • Nier, Alfred Otto Carl (American physicist)

    John R. Dunning: With Alfred Nier and other colleagues, he then showed in 1940 that it was mostly the uranium-235 isotope that was involved in the fission of the uranium nucleus. Dunning went on to direct the research team at Columbia that developed the gaseous-diffusion method of separating uranium-235…

  • Nieszawa, Privilege of (Polish history)

    Casimir IV: …nobility substantial concessions by the Privilege (statute) of Nieszawa (November 1454); these, however, became important only after his death, and royal power was not greatly diminished during his lifetime.

  • Nietoperek Bat Nature Reserve (nature reserve, Poland)

    Lubuskie: Geography: …network is designated as the Nietoperek Bat Nature Reserve, central Europe’s most important bat hibernation site, which provides shelter to some 30,000 bats of 12 different species. Major festivals held in the region are the Summer Film Festival in ?agów, the International Folk Festival in Zielona Góra, and the International…

  • Nietota. Ksiega tajemna Tatr (work by Miciński)

    Tadeusz Miciński: The novel Nietota: Ksi?ga tajemna Tatr (1910; “Nietota: The Secret Book of the Tatra Mountains”) is an imaginary re-creation of Polish life at the beginning of the 20th century. In the apocalyptic visions of his novel Xi?dz Faust (1913; “Father Faust”), Miciński predicted that Polish-Russian brotherhood would…

  • Nietzsche, Friedrich (German philosopher)

    Friedrich Nietzsche, German classical scholar, philosopher, and critic of culture, who became one of the most influential of all modern thinkers. His attempts to unmask the motives that underlie traditional Western religion, morality, and philosophy deeply affected generations of theologians,

  • Nietzsche, Genealogy, History (essay by Foucault)

    Western philosophy: Recent trends: …argued in the essay “Nietzsche, Genealogy, History” (1977), an examination of the notion of truth reveals that

  • Nieuport (Belgium)

    Nieuwpoort, municipality, Flanders Region, western Belgium, on the Yser (IJzer) River. It was established in the 12th century as a new port for Ypres (replacing Lombardsijde). Nieuwpoort was besieged 10 times after it was first fortified in 1163. It was the scene of a Dutch victory over the Spanish

  • Nieuw Nickerie (Suriname)

    Nieuw Nickerie, port, northwestern Suriname. It lies on the Nickerie River, near the mouth of the Courantyne (Dutch Corantijn) River, 3 miles (5 km) from the Atlantic Ocean coast. Rice is the principal crop grown in the area, and cocoa, baboen lumber, and balata, used in making golf balls, are

  • Nieuw Zeeland (island and Dutch special municipality, West Indies)

    Sint Eustatius, island and special municipality within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is in the Lesser Antilles, in the northeastern Caribbean Sea, about 16 miles (26 km) southeast of Saba and 5 miles (8 km) northwest of the island of Saint Kitts. Its capital is Oranjestad. Sint Eustatius

  • Nieuwe gedichten (poetry by Nijhoff)

    Martinus Nijhoff: Nijhoff’s best volume, Nieuwe gedichten (1934; “New Poems”), shows a spiritual rebirth, an affirmation of the richness of earthly existence, which is most apparent in the optimism of the magnificent “Awater.” This tale of a mythical, biblical character set in a sober modern townscape combines a sensitive use…

  • Nieuwe Gids, De (Dutch literary periodical)

    Frederik Willem van Eeden: …and Albert Verwey, founded (1885) De nieuwe gids, a literary periodical devoted to modern authors and new social ideas. Later he practiced medicine at Bussum, near Hilversum, where he started a clinic for physical therapy. In 1898 he founded Walden, an agricultural colony based on the ideas of Thoreau. Van…

  • Nieuwe Maas River (river, Netherlands)

    Rotterdam: …along both banks of the New Meuse (Nieuwe Maas) River, which is a northern distributary of the Rhine River.

  • Nieuwe Waterweg (canal, Netherlands)

    harbours and sea works: The Delta Plan: …the channel known as the New Waterway from the Hook of Holland.

  • Nieuwland, Julius Arthur (American chemist)

    Julius Arthur Nieuwland, Belgian-born American chemist whose studies of acetylene culminated in the discovery of lewisite, a chemical-warfare agent, and neoprene, the first commercially successful synthetic rubber. Nieuwland, emigrating with his parents to the United States in 1880, graduated in

  • Nieuwpoort (Belgium)

    Nieuwpoort, municipality, Flanders Region, western Belgium, on the Yser (IJzer) River. It was established in the 12th century as a new port for Ypres (replacing Lombardsijde). Nieuwpoort was besieged 10 times after it was first fortified in 1163. It was the scene of a Dutch victory over the Spanish

  • nieve penitente (geology)

    Hindu Kush: Climate: …snow hummocks—called nieves penitentes or Büsserschnee (literally, “penitent snow”)—that give the illusion of kneeling human figures, sometimes two or three feet high; especially noticeable in the early morning, they are formed by the alternation of strong sunlight and rapid evaporation during the day and severe cold at night.

  • Nievo, Ippolito (Italian author)

    Italian literature: The Risorgimento and after: …of Risorgimento narrative literature is Ippolito Nievo’s Confessioni di un italiano (published posthumously in 1867; “Confessions of an Italian”; Eng. trans. The Castle of Fratta), which marks Nievo as the most important novelist to emerge in the interval between Manzoni and Giovanni Verga. Giuseppe Mazzini’s letters can still be studied…

  • Nièvre (department, France)

    Burgundy: of C?te-d’Or, Sa?ne-et-Loire, Nièvre, and Yonne. In 2016 the Burgundy région was joined with the région of Franche-Comté to form the new administrative entity of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté.

  • Niezale?ny Samorz?d Zwi?zków Zawodowych Solidarno?? (Polish organization)

    Solidarity, Polish trade union that in the early 1980s became the first independent labour union in a country belonging to the Soviet bloc. Solidarity was founded in September 1980, was forcibly suppressed by the Polish government in December 1981, and reemerged in 1989 to become the first

  • NiF (chemical compound)

    coordination compound: Characteristics of coordination compounds: … (NaCl) or nickel(+2) fluoride (nickel difluoride; NiF2) are not considered coordination compounds, because they consist of continuous ionic lattices rather than discrete molecules. Nevertheless, the arrangement (and bonding) of the anions surrounding the metal ions in these salts is similar to that in coordination compounds. Coordination compounds generally display…

  • NIF (political party, The Sudan)

    Sudan: The rise of Muslim fundamentalism: …of the party, renamed the Islamic National Front (NIF). Turābī methodically charted the Brotherhood and the NIF on a course of action designed to seize control of the Sudanese government despite the Muslim fundamentalists’ lack of popularity with the majority of the Sudanese people. Tightly disciplined, superbly organized, and inspired…

  • NIF (research device, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, United States)

    National Ignition Facility (NIF), laser-based fusion research device, located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, Calif., U.S. A major goal for the device is to create a self-renewing, or energy-producing, fusion reaction for the first time. If successful, it may demonstrate the

  • Niffer (ancient city, Iraq)

    Nippur, ancient city of Mesopotamia, now in southeastern Iraq. It lies northeast of the town of Ad-Dīwānīyah. Although never a political capital, Nippur played a dominant role in the religious life of Mesopotamia. In Sumerian mythology Nippur was the home of Enlil, the storm god and representation

  • Niflheim (Norse mythology)

    Niflheim, in Norse mythology, the cold, dark, misty world of the dead, ruled by the goddess Hel. In some accounts it was the last of nine worlds, a place into which evil men passed after reaching the region of death (Hel). Situated below one of the roots of the world tree, Yggdrasill, Niflheim

  • Niflheimr (Norse mythology)

    Niflheim, in Norse mythology, the cold, dark, misty world of the dead, ruled by the goddess Hel. In some accounts it was the last of nine worlds, a place into which evil men passed after reaching the region of death (Hel). Situated below one of the roots of the world tree, Yggdrasill, Niflheim

  • Nifo, Agostino (Italian philosopher)

    Agostino Nifo, Renaissance philosopher noted for his development from an anti-Christian interpreter of Aristotelian philosophy into an influential Christian apologist for the immortality of the individual soul. While attending the University of Padua about 1490, Nifo studied the Averroist

  • NIFTY Corporation (Japanese electronics company)

    Fujitsu Limited: …telecommunications activities by launching the NIFTY Corporation in equal partnership with the Nissho Iwai Corporation. In 1999 Fujitsu acquired all of Nissho Iwai’s shares in NIFTY, which by then had expanded from corporate communications and information services to Internet-related services for the public. Today NIFTY SERVE is Japan’s largest comprehensive…

  • nifurtimox (drug)

    eflornithine: …the combination of eflornithine with nifurtimox, a nitrofuran compound that is used in the treatment of Chagas disease, which is caused by T. cruzi, an organism closely related to T. brucei.

  • Nigantha Nataputta (Indian philosopher)

    Indian philosophy: Background: Protests were also voiced by Nigantha Nataputta, who believed in salvation by an ascetic life of self-discipline and hence in the efficacy of deeds and the possibility of omniscience, and, finally, Sanjaya Belathiputta, the skeptic, who, in reply to the question “Is there an afterlife?” would not say “It is…

  • Ni?bolu, Battle of (Europe-Turkey)

    Battle of Nicopolis, (Sept. 25, 1396), a catastrophic military defeat for Christian knights at the hands of the Ottoman Turks that brought an end to massive international efforts to halt Turkish expansion into the Balkans and central Europe. After their victory at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, the

  • Ni?de (Turkey)

    Ni?de, city, south-central Turkey. It lies at an elevation of 4,100 feet (1,250 metres) below a hill crowned by a ruined 11th-century Seljuq fortress on the road between Kayseri and the Cilician Gates, north-northwest of Adana. The city is thought by some historians to be on the site of Nakida,

  • Nigella damascena (plant)

    Love-in-a-mist, (Nigella damascena), an annual herbaceous plant of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae). Native to Europe, North Africa, and Asia, it is now grown in gardens throughout temperate regions of the world. It grows 45 to 60 cm (18 to 24 inches) tall and has lacelike leaves. The delicate

  • Nigella sativa (plant and seed)

    Black cumin, (Nigella sativa), annual plant of the ranunculus family (Ranunculaceae), grown for its pungent seeds, which are used as a spice and in herbal medicine. The black cumin plant is found in southwestern Asia and parts of the Mediterranean and Africa, where it has a long history of use in

  • Niger (state, Nigeria)

    Niger, state, west-central Nigeria, bounded to the south by the Niger River. It is also bounded by the states of Kebbi and Zamfara to the north, Kaduna to the north and northeast, Kogi to the southeast, and Kwara to the south. The Abuja Federal Capital Territory is on Niger state’s eastern border,

  • Niger

    Niger, landlocked western African country. It is bounded on the northwest by Algeria, on the northeast by Libya, on the east by Chad, on the south by Nigeria and Benin, and on the west by Burkina Faso and Mali. The capital is Niamey. The country takes its name from the Niger River, which flows

  • Niger basin (basin, Africa)

    Africa: Niger basin: The Niger basin is the largest river basin of western Africa. The Niger River, which rises in the mountains of Guinea and enters the sea through its delta in southern Nigeria, is about 2,600 miles in length. Rapids interrupt its course at several…

  • Niger Bend (geographical region, Mali)

    Mali: Drainage and soils: …the southeast, known as the Niger Bend, and flows past Gao and Ansongo to the Niger border at Labbezanga.

  • Niger Coast Protectorate (region, Nigeria)

    Oil Rivers, area comprising the delta of the Niger River in modern Nigeria, West Africa. The Oil Rivers Protectorate was established by the British in 1885. It was renamed the Niger Coast Protectorate in 1893 and in 1900 was joined to the Nigerian territories administered by the British

  • Niger Dams Project (dams and reservoirs, Nigeria)

    Niger Dams Project, series of three dams and reservoirs built in the second half of the 20th century in Kwara, Niger, and Kebbi states, northwestern Nigeria, on the Niger and Kaduna rivers. The first of the dams was built at Kainji in 1969. Its reservoir, Kainji Lake, supports irrigation and

  • Niger Delta (geographical region, Africa)

    western Africa: Pre-European slave trading: …exported—as has been seen—from the Niger delta region. The communities of Ijo (Ijaw), Ibibio, and Efik fishermen and salt makers, who controlled the waterways to the interior, developed city-states whose whole fortunes came to be bound up with the slave trade. Most of their slaves were brought from their immediate…

  • Niger ebony (wood)

    ebony: …and hard heartwood known as black ebony, as billetwood, or as Gabon, Lagos, Calabar, or Niger ebony.

  • Niger plains (plains, Africa)

    Benin: Relief: The Niger plains, in the northeast of Benin, slope down to the Niger River valley. They consist of clayey sandstones.

  • Niger Province

    Niger, landlocked western African country. It is bounded on the northwest by Algeria, on the northeast by Libya, on the east by Chad, on the south by Nigeria and Benin, and on the west by Burkina Faso and Mali. The capital is Niamey. The country takes its name from the Niger River, which flows

  • Niger River (river, Africa)

    Niger River, principal river of western Africa. With a length of 2,600 miles (4,200 km), it is the third longest river in Africa, after the Nile and the Congo. The Niger is believed to have been named by the Greeks. Along its course it is known by several names. These include the Joliba (Malinke:

  • Niger River Commission (African agency)

    Niger River: Transportation: …is the responsibility of the Niger River Commission, formed in 1963. The Commission has sponsored a study of the navigational possibilities of the middle Niger from Gao (Mali) to Yelwa (Nigeria). Moreover, in Nigeria several river basin development authorities have been established to develop more irrigation and fishing projects.

  • Niger, flag of

    horizontally striped orange-white-green national flag with an orange sun on the centre stripe. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is approximately 6 to 7.Modern political development was hindered in Niger by conflict between the French military and guerrilla resistance, the lack of political parties

  • Niger, history of

    Niger: History: This discussion focuses on Niger from the 14th century. For a treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see western Africa, history of.

  • Niger, Office du (French agency)

    Ségou: …is the headquarters of the Office du Niger, an extensive irrigation system begun in 1932. The region in which Ségou is situated is important agriculturally because of the efforts of the Office du Niger. Irrigated rice cultivation in the region has been expanded, and other crops include cotton, sugar, millet,…

  • Niger, Pescennius (Roman emperor)

    Pescennius Niger, rival Roman emperor from 193 to 194. An equestrian army officer from Italy, Niger was promoted to senatorial rank about 180. Most of his earlier service had been in the eastern provinces, but in 185–186 he commanded an expeditionary force against deserters who had seized control

  • Niger, Republic of

    Niger, landlocked western African country. It is bounded on the northwest by Algeria, on the northeast by Libya, on the east by Chad, on the south by Nigeria and Benin, and on the west by Burkina Faso and Mali. The capital is Niamey. The country takes its name from the Niger River, which flows

  • Niger, République du

    Niger, landlocked western African country. It is bounded on the northwest by Algeria, on the northeast by Libya, on the east by Chad, on the south by Nigeria and Benin, and on the west by Burkina Faso and Mali. The capital is Niamey. The country takes its name from the Niger River, which flows

  • Niger-Congo languages

    Niger-Congo languages, a family of languages of Africa, which in terms of the number of languages spoken, their geographic extent, and the number of speakers is by far the largest language family in Africa. The area in which these languages are spoken stretches from Dakar, Senegal, at the

  • Niger-Congo Languages, The (language classification reference)

    Niger-Congo languages: Classification of Niger-Congo languages: …classification published in 1989 as The Niger-Congo Languages, which is followed here.

  • Niger-Kordofanian languages

    Africa: Languages: …now considered to be Niger-Congo, Nilo-Saharan, Afro-Asiatic, and Khoisan.

  • Nigeria

    Nigeria, country located on the western coast of Africa. Nigeria has a diverse geography, with climates ranging from arid to humid equatorial. However, Nigeria’s most diverse feature is its people. Hundreds of languages are spoken in the country, including Yoruba, Igbo, Fula, Hausa, Edo, Ibibio,

  • Nigeria, flag of

    vertically striped green-white-green national flag. Its width-to-length ratio is 1 to 2.From the late 17th century in what is today Nigeria, the British carried on slave trade with native states and eventually acquired protectorates over many of them. These states did not have national flags, and

  • Nigeria, history of

    Nigeria: History: Evidence of human occupation in Nigeria dates back thousands of years. The oldest fossil remains found by archaeologists in the southwestern area of Iwo Eleru, near Akure, have been dated to about 9000 bce. There are isolated collections…

  • Nigeria, University of (university, Nigeria)

    Enugu: …a branch campus of the University of Nigeria, the Enugu State University of Science and Technology, and the Institute of Management and Technology. Enugu state’s central library and several radio stations are also located there. Pop. (2016 est.) urban agglom., 895,000.

  • Nigerian literature

    Mbari Mbayo Club: …by a group of young writers with the help of Ulli Beier, a teacher at the University of Ibadan. Mbari, an Igbo (Ibo) word for “creation,” refers to the traditional painted mud houses of the area, which must be renewed periodically. The Ibadan club operated an art gallery and theatre…

  • Nigerian scam (crime)

    advance fee fraud: It was sometimes called 419 fraud, after the relevant section of the Nigerian criminal code. The 419 fraud scheme was a variation of the confidence swindle, which preys on peoples’ greed and na?veté.

  • Nigerian theatre

    Nigerian theatre, variety of folk opera of the Yoruba people of southwestern Nigeria that emerged in the early 1940s. It combined a brilliant sense of mime, colourful costumes, and traditional drumming, music, and folklore. Directed toward a local audience, it uses Nigerian themes, ranging from

  • Nigerian Women’s Societies, Federation of (Nigerian organization)

    Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti: …school, she helped organize the Abeokuta Ladies Club (ALC), initially a civic and charitable group of mostly Western-educated Christian women. The organization gradually became more political and feminist in its orientation, and in 1944 it formally admitted market women (women vendors in Abeokuta’s open-air markets), who were generally impoverished, illiterate,…

  • Nigerian Women’s Union (Nigerian organization)

    Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti: …school, she helped organize the Abeokuta Ladies Club (ALC), initially a civic and charitable group of mostly Western-educated Christian women. The organization gradually became more political and feminist in its orientation, and in 1944 it formally admitted market women (women vendors in Abeokuta’s open-air markets), who were generally impoverished, illiterate,…

  • Nigerian-Cameroon chimpanzee (primate)

    chimpanzee: Taxonomy: troglodytes schweinfurthii); and the Nigerian-Cameroon chimpanzee (P. troglodytes ellioti, which was formerly classified as P. troglodytes vellerosus).

  • Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism–Tarayya (political party, Nigeria)

    Niger: Military coup and return to civilian rule: The Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism–Tarayya (Parti Nigérien pour la Démocratie et le Socialisme–Tarayya; PNDS), an established opposition party, won the greatest representation in the National Assembly by a single party with 39 seats; they were followed by the MNSD with 26 seats. No one…

  • Nigetti, Matteo (Italian architect)

    Cosimo II: Under Cosimo also the architect Matteo Nigetti worked on the funeral chapel of the Medici (according to designs by Cosimo I’s brilliant natural son, the younger Giovanni, who also won fame as a soldier and as a diplomat); and the sculptor Pietro Tacca began his bronzes for the monument to…

  • Nigg (Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Nigg, village, Highland council area, historic county of Ross-shire, historic region of Ross and Cromarty, northeast coast of Scotland. It is closely associated with and heavily dependent on the offshore petroleum industry. Construction of a huge dry dock began at Nigg in 1972, utilizing a

  • Niggaz Wit Attitudes (American hip-hop group)

    N.W.A, American hip-hop group from Compton, California, whose popular, controversial music included explicit references to gang life, drugs, sex, and distaste for authority, especially the police. Its five core members were Eazy-E (byname of Eric Wright; b. September 7, 1964, Compton, California,

  • Nigger of the ‘Narcissus,’ The (novel by Conrad)

    The Nigger of the “Narcissus”, novel by Joseph Conrad, published in 1897. The work was based on Conrad’s experiences while serving in the British merchant navy. All life on board the Narcissus revolves around James Wait, a dying black sailor. Other members of the crew include the strong Captain

  • Niggli, Paul (Swiss mineralogist)

    Paul Niggli, Swiss mineralogist who originated the idea of a systematic deduction of the space group (one of 230 possible three-dimensional patterns) of crystals by means of X-ray data and supplied a complete outline of methods that have since been used to determine the space groups. Niggli studied

  • Night (novel by Wiesel)

    Elie Wiesel: …Wiesel’s first book, in Yiddish, Un di velt hot geshvign (1956; “And the World Has Remained Silent”), abridged as La Nuit (1958; Night), a memoir of a young boy’s spiritual reaction to Auschwitz. It is considered by some critics to be the most powerful literary expression of the Holocaust. His…

  • Night (work by Michelangelo)

    Michelangelo: The Medici Chapel: …trying to emerge into life; Night is asleep, but in a posture suggesting stressful dreams.

  • night adder (snake)

    adder: Night adders (Causus) are small relatively slender vipers found south of the Sahara and are typically less than 1 metre (3 feet) long. They are active at night and feed nearly exclusively on frogs and toads.

  • Night After Night (film by Mayo [1932])

    Archie Mayo: Films of the 1930s: …West in her film debut, Night After Night. The romantic drama featured one of West’s most famous lines: a hatcheck girl exclaims, “Goodness!” after seeing the jewelry of West’s character, who responds, “Goodness had nothing to do with it, dearie.”

  • Night and Day (novel by Woolf)

    Virginia Woolf: Early fiction: Night and Day (1919) answers Leonard’s The Wise Virgins, in which he had his Leonard-like protagonist lose the Virginia-like beloved and end up in a conventional marriage. In Night and Day, the Leonard-like Ralph learns to value Katharine for herself, not as some superior being.…

  • Night and Day (play by Stoppard)

    Tom Stoppard: …Good Boy Deserves Favour (1978), Night and Day (1978), Undiscovered Country (1980, adapted from a play by Arthur Schnitzler), and On the Razzle (1981, adapted from a play by Johann Nestroy). The Tony-winning The Real Thing (1982), Stoppard’s first romantic comedy, deals with art and reality and features a playwright…

  • Night and Fog (film by Resnais [1956])

    Alain Resnais: …his documentary about concentration camps, Nuit et brouillard (1956; Night and Fog), with a commentary by a former inmate, the contemporary poet Jean Cayrol, stressed “the concentrationary beast slumbering within us all.” Le Chant du styrène (1959; “The Song of Styrene”), written by author and critic Raymond Queneau, nominally publicizing…

  • Night and Fog Decree (European history)

    Night and Fog Decree, secret order issued by Adolf Hitler on December 7, 1941, under which “persons endangering German security” in the German-occupied territories of western Europe were to be arrested and either shot or spirited away under cover of “night and fog” (that is, clandestinely) to

  • Night and the City (film by Dassin [1950])

    Jules Dassin: Blacklist and exile: …one of his best movies, Night and the City (1950). A dark film noir, it starred Richard Widmark as an American hustler involved in London’s wrestling racket, Gene Tierney as his singer girlfriend, and Mike Mazurki as a wrestler who eventually seals Widmark’s doom.

  • Night at the Museum (film by Levy [2006])

    Ricky Gervais: …For Your Consideration (2006) and Night at the Museum (2006). With Ghost Town (2008), he starred in his first leading role in a feature film, playing a man who emerges from a near-death experience with an ability to see ghosts. Gervais also wrote and directed (with Matthew Robinson) The Invention…

  • Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian (film by Levy [2009])

    Amy Adams: …appearing as Amelia Earhart in Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian (2009), Adams starred in Julie &amp; Julia (2010), portraying a frustrated secretary who turns to Julia Child (played by Meryl Streep) for inspiration. She then appeared in the romantic comedy Leap Year (2010) and in The Fighter…

  • Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb (film by Levy [2014])

    Ricky Gervais: …Muppets Most Wanted (2014), and Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb (2014). He also lent his voice to the animated comedies Escape from Planet Earth (2013) and The Willoughbys (2020). In addition, Gervais was a frequent host of the Golden Globes ceremony (2010, 2011, 2012, 2016, and 2020),…

  • Night at the Opera, A (film by Wood [1935])

    A Night at the Opera, American screwball comedy film, released in 1935, that is widely considered the Marx Brothers’ greatest production. It was their first film after leaving Paramount Pictures for MGM and the first Marx Brothers’ movie not to include Zeppo Marx. The madcap film takes aim at

  • Night at the Opera, A (album by Queen)

    Queen: A Night at the Opera (1975), one of pop music’s most expensive productions, sold even better. Defiantly eschewing the use of synthesizers, the band constructed a sound that was part English music hall, part Led Zeppelin, epitomized by the mock-operatic “Bohemian Rhapsody,” Britain’s top single…

  • night baseball (sports)

    baseball: Survival and growth: Night baseball, which had already been used by barnstorming and minor league teams, began in the major leagues at Cincinnati in 1935. Initially caution and tradition slowed the interest in night baseball, but the obvious commercial benefits of playing when fans were not at work…

  • Night Before Christmas, The (narrative poem)

    A Visit from St. Nicholas, narrative poem first published anonymously in the Troy (New York) Sentinel on December 23, 1823. It became an enduring part of Christmas tradition, and, because of its wide popularity, both Nicholas, the patron saint of Christmas, and the legendary figure Santa Claus were

  • Night Before, The (film by Levine [2015])

    Seth Rogen: …comic wheelhouse in the amusement The Night Before (2015), about a group of friends gathering for one last Christmas Eve debauch. Rogen cowrote the animated comedy Sausage Party (2016), about a foulmouthed wiener, which he also voiced. The next year he reteamed with Franco in The Disaster Artist, which followed…

  • night blindness (physiology)

    Night blindness, failure of the eye to adapt promptly from light to darkness that is characterized by a reduced ability to see in dim light or at night. It occurs as a symptom of numerous congenital and inherited retinal diseases or as a result of vitamin A deficiency. Congenital night blindness

  • night club

    tap dance: Nightclubs: From the 1920s to the ’40s, fans of tap could find their favourite dancers in a new venue, nightclubs, where—together with singers and bands—dancers became regular features. A single evening’s show could involve as many as 20 tap dancers—a featured solo dancer, a featured…

  • Night Club (album by Barber)

    Patricia Barber: For her sixth album, Night Club (2000), Barber returned to interpreting familiar standard songs in her intimate yet dramatic style. The compact disc became a jazz best seller, spending eight weeks among Billboard’s top five jazz albums in 2001. Barber expanded her fame with months of touring clubs, concerts,…

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