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  • Niven, David (British actor)

    David Niven, British stage and motion-picture actor who personified dapper charm. Born to a longtime military family, Niven attended Sandhurst Military Academy. He made his way to Hollywood in the mid-1930s and began performing as an extra. His first major roles were in Dawn Patrol (1938) and

  • Niven, Frederick John (Canadian author)

    Frederick John Niven, regional novelist who wrote more than 30 novels, many of them historical romances, set in Scotland and Canada. Three of his best-known novels—The Flying Years (1935), Mine Inheritance (1940), and The Transplanted (1944)—form a trilogy dealing with the settlement of the

  • Niven, James David Graham (British actor)

    David Niven, British stage and motion-picture actor who personified dapper charm. Born to a longtime military family, Niven attended Sandhurst Military Academy. He made his way to Hollywood in the mid-1930s and began performing as an extra. His first major roles were in Dawn Patrol (1938) and

  • Nivernais (region, France)

    Nivernais, in France, the area administered from Nevers during the ancien régime, and until the French Revolution the last great fief still not reunited to the French crown. Bounded southwest by Bourbonnais, west by Berry, north by Orléanais, and east by Burgundy, Nivernais in 1790 became the

  • Nivkh (people)

    Nivkh, east Siberian people who live in the region of the Amur River estuary and on nearby Sakhalin Island. They numbered about 4,600 in the late 20th century. Most speak Russian, though about 10 percent still speak Nivkh, a Paleo-Siberian language unaffiliated apparently with any other language. T

  • Nivkh language

    Nivkh language, isolated language with two main dialects spoken by some 400 Nivkh, roughly 10 percent of the ethnic group. The Nivkh live on Sakhalin Island and along the estuary of the Amur River in eastern Siberia. Nivkh is not known to be related to any other language, and it is usually i

  • nivolumab (drug)

    cancer: Immunotherapy: Anti-PD-1 therapies, such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab, have proven beneficial in patients with melanoma and certain other cancer types.

  • Niwa Fumio (Japanese author)

    Fumio Niwa, Japanese novelist (born Nov. 22, 1904, Yokkaichi, Japan—died April 20, 2005, Tokyo, Japan), was one of Japan’s most prolific authors and a leading Showa literary figure known for his popular and religious novels. Many of Niwa’s early works included the erotic fantasies Ayu (1932; “

  • NIWC (political party, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Northern Ireland Women’s Coalition (NIWC), political party established in Northern Ireland in 1996 to secure the representation of women in peace negotiations. As advocates for peace and human rights, the NIWC was successful in engaging women in politics and campaigning against sectarian violence,

  • nix (German mythology)

    Nix, in Germanic mythology, a water being, half human, half fish, that lives in a beautiful underwater palace and mingles with humans by assuming a variety of physical forms (e.g., that of a fair maiden or an old woman) or by making itself invisible. One of three attributes may betray the disguises

  • Nix (moon of Pluto)

    Pluto: Pluto’s moons: Nix, Kerberos, and Styx—are much smaller than Charon. All four are elongated. They revolve around Pluto outside Charon’s path in nearly circular orbits (like Charon) and in the same orbital plane as Charon. The orbital radius of Hydra is about 64,721 km (40,216 miles); that…

  • Nix v. Williams (law case)

    confession: Confession in contemporary U.S. law: In Nix v. Williams (1984), the court created an “inevitable discovery” exception to the Miranda requirements, under which a confession obtained in violation of Miranda is still admissible in a criminal prosecution if it appears that evidence from the confession would ultimately have been discovered as…

  • nixie (German mythology)

    Nix, in Germanic mythology, a water being, half human, half fish, that lives in a beautiful underwater palace and mingles with humans by assuming a variety of physical forms (e.g., that of a fair maiden or an old woman) or by making itself invisible. One of three attributes may betray the disguises

  • Nixon (film by Stone [1995])

    Oliver Stone: … in the title role of Nixon (1995), a measured take on the life of the U.S. president. He also developed the screenplay for Evita (1996), an adaptation of the Andrew Lloyd Webber musical about Argentine politician Eva Perón (played by Madonna).

  • Nixon Agonistes: The Crisis of the Self-Made Man (work by Wills)

    Garry Wills: president, Nixon Agonistes: The Crisis of the Self-Made Man (1970), Wills proposed that Richard Nixon was a liberal—contrary to the Republican president’s public image—and analyzed the troubled relationship between the president and the country. Many critics saw the book as a criticism not only of Nixon…

  • Nixon Doctrine (United States history)

    Nixon Doctrine, a foreign policy of the U.S. government, announced by U.S. Pres. Richard Nixon in 1969, whereby the United States would thereafter support allies facing military threats with economic and military aid rather than with ground troops. It was announced during the Vietnam War (1954–75),

  • Nixon in China (opera by Adams)

    Nixon in China, opera in three acts by John Adams (with an English libretto by Alice Goodman), which premiered at the Houston Grand Opera in 1987. The first of Adams’s many operas, Nixon in China broke new ground with its effective use of a contemporary event as the subject of an opera. After

  • Nixon McEathron, Margaret (American singer)

    Marni Nixon, (Margaret Nixon McEathron), American singer (born Feb. 22, 1930, Altadena, Calif.—died July 24, 2016, New York, N.Y.), provided the singing voice for actress Deborah Kerr in the film musical The King and I (1956), for Natalie Wood in West Side Story (1961), and for Audrey Hepburn in My

  • Nixon, Agnes (American television writer and developer)

    Agnes Nixon, (Agnes Eckhardt), American television writer and developer (born Dec. 10, 1922, Chicago, Ill.—died Sept. 28, 2016, Haverford, Pa.), created the long-running soap operas One Life to Live (1968–2012) and All My Children (1970–2011) and was admired for injecting such socially relevant

  • Nixon, Cynthia (American actress)

    Sex and the City: …cynical and headstrong Miranda (Cynthia Nixon), and the idealistic and naive Charlotte (Kristin Davis). The dynamics of their relationships are revealed with wit and playful irreverence as the four friends experience love, loss, and betrayal. Carrie’s tumultuous relationship with the charismatic yet emotionally unavailable Mr. Big (Chris Noth) underpins…

  • Nixon, Marni (American singer)

    Marni Nixon, (Margaret Nixon McEathron), American singer (born Feb. 22, 1930, Altadena, Calif.—died July 24, 2016, New York, N.Y.), provided the singing voice for actress Deborah Kerr in the film musical The King and I (1956), for Natalie Wood in West Side Story (1961), and for Audrey Hepburn in My

  • Nixon, Pat (American first lady)

    Pat Nixon, American first lady (1969–74), the wife of Richard Nixon, 37th president of the United States, who espoused the cause of volunteerism during her husband’s term. Nicknamed “Pat” because of her birth on the eve of St. Patrick’s Day, Thelma Catherine Ryan was the daughter of William Ryan, a

  • Nixon, Patricia (American first lady)

    Pat Nixon, American first lady (1969–74), the wife of Richard Nixon, 37th president of the United States, who espoused the cause of volunteerism during her husband’s term. Nicknamed “Pat” because of her birth on the eve of St. Patrick’s Day, Thelma Catherine Ryan was the daughter of William Ryan, a

  • Nixon, Richard (president of United States)

    Richard Nixon, 37th president of the United States (1969–74), who, faced with almost certain impeachment for his role in the Watergate scandal, became the first American president to resign from office. He was also vice president (1953–61) under Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower. Richard Nixon was the

  • Nixon, Richard Milhous (president of United States)

    Richard Nixon, 37th president of the United States (1969–74), who, faced with almost certain impeachment for his role in the Watergate scandal, became the first American president to resign from office. He was also vice president (1953–61) under Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower. Richard Nixon was the

  • nixy (German mythology)

    Nix, in Germanic mythology, a water being, half human, half fish, that lives in a beautiful underwater palace and mingles with humans by assuming a variety of physical forms (e.g., that of a fair maiden or an old woman) or by making itself invisible. One of three attributes may betray the disguises

  • Niyaba (Egyptian law)

    crime: Islamic countries: Egypt also has established the Niyaba, a system of state prosecutors very similar to those of the French unified magistracy. Egyptian judges, unlike their English and Pakistani counterparts, are often career officials.

  • niyama (Yoga)

    yama: The second stage, niyama (Sanskrit: “discipline”), in its ethical intent similar to yama, comprises five categories of observance: cleanliness, contentment with one’s material condition, asceticism, study of the metaphysics relating to salvation, and devotion to God.

  • Niyamananda (Indian philosopher)

    Nimbarka, Telugu-speaking Brahman, yogi, philosopher, and prominent astronomer who founded the devotional sect called Nimbarkas, Nimandi, or Nimavats, who worshipped the deity Krishna and his consort, Radha. Nimbarka has been identified with Bhaskara, a 9th- or 10th-century philosopher and

  • niyati (religious concept)

    Ajivika: …by a cosmic force called niyati (Sanskrit: “rule” or “destiny”) that determined all events, including an individual’s fate, to the last detail and that barred personal efforts to change or accelerate improvement toward one’s spiritual destiny. As a result of this static and melancholy view of the human condition, the…

  • Niyazi M?sri (Turkish poet)

    Islamic arts: Later developments: …the centuries) as those of Niyaz? Misr? (died 1697). The Mevlev? (Mawlawī) poet Galib Dede (died 1799) was already standing at the threshold of what can now be recognized as modern poetical expression in some of the lyrical parts of his mas?navī, called Hüsn ü a?k (“Beauty and Love”), which…

  • Niyaz? Misr? (Turkish poet)

    Islamic arts: Later developments: …the centuries) as those of Niyaz? Misr? (died 1697). The Mevlev? (Mawlawī) poet Galib Dede (died 1799) was already standing at the threshold of what can now be recognized as modern poetical expression in some of the lyrical parts of his mas?navī, called Hüsn ü a?k (“Beauty and Love”), which…

  • Niyazi, Ahmed (Ottoman military leader)

    Young Turks: Ahmed Niyazi of the 3rd Corps led a revolt against the provincial authorities in Resna. Other conspirators soon followed his example, and the rebellion rapidly spread throughout the empire. Unable to rely on government troops, Abdülhamid announced on July 23 the restoration of the 1876…

  • Niyaziy, Hamza Hakim-Zada (Soviet writer)

    Uzbekistan: Cultural life: Hamza Hakim-Zada Niyaziy was also an early 20th-century playwright and poet later much favoured by Soviet authorities for his simplified, class-oriented plots and subjects.

  • Niyazov, Saparmurad (president of Turkmenistan)

    Saparmurad Niyazov, Turkmen politician who ruled Turkmenistan for some 15 years. Niyazov’s rule, which began in 1991 when the former Soviet republic declared independence from the U.S.S.R., was marked by the promotion of an extensive personality cult. When Niyazov was still a youth, his father, a

  • Niyazov, Saparmurad Atayevich (president of Turkmenistan)

    Saparmurad Niyazov, Turkmen politician who ruled Turkmenistan for some 15 years. Niyazov’s rule, which began in 1991 when the former Soviet republic declared independence from the U.S.S.R., was marked by the promotion of an extensive personality cult. When Niyazov was still a youth, his father, a

  • Niyazov, Saparmurat (president of Turkmenistan)

    Saparmurad Niyazov, Turkmen politician who ruled Turkmenistan for some 15 years. Niyazov’s rule, which began in 1991 when the former Soviet republic declared independence from the U.S.S.R., was marked by the promotion of an extensive personality cult. When Niyazov was still a youth, his father, a

  • Niyongabo, Vénuste (Burundian athlete)

    Burundi: Sports and recreation: …and field), none more than Vénuste Niyongabo, who won a gold medal (Burundi’s first medal) in the 5,000-metre race at the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta.

  • Niza, Marcos de (Spanish explorer)

    Marcos de Niza, Franciscan friar who claimed to have sighted the legendary “Seven Golden Cities of Cibola” in what is now western New Mexico. Niza went to the Americas in 1531 and served in Peru, Guatemala, and Mexico. At Culiacán, Mex., he freed Indian slaves from regions to the north. Under

  • Ni?ām ad-Dīn Awliyā? (?ūfī leader)

    Islamic world: Conversion of Mongols to Islam: Its most famous leader, Ni?ām al-Dīn Awliyā?, had been a spiritual adviser to many figures at court before Mu?ammad ibn Tughluq came to the throne, as well as to individual Hindus and Muslims alike. In India, Sufism, which inherently undermined communalism, was bringing members of different religious communities together…

  • Ni?ām al-Mulk (Seljuq vizier)

    Ni?ām al-Mulk, (Arabic: “Order of the Kingdom”) Persian vizier of the Turkish Seljuq sultans (1063–92), best remembered for his large treatise on kingship, Seyāsat-nāmeh (The Book of Government; or, Rules for Kings). Ni?ām al-Mulk was the son of a revenue official for the Ghaznavid dynasty. Through

  • Nizam al-Mulk (Muslim title)

    Nizam al-Mulk, title borne by various Indian Muslim princes. The term is Arabic for “Governor of the Kingdom,” which also has been translated as “Deputy for the Whole Empire.” In 1713 it was conferred on Chīn Qilich Khan (ā?af Jāh) by the Mughal emperor Mu?ammad Shah and was held by his

  • Nizam al-Mulk I (Mughal ruler)

    Nizam al-Mulk: …1713 it was conferred on Chīn Qilich Khan (ā?af Jāh) by the Mughal emperor Mu?ammad Shah and was held by his descendants, the rulers of the princely state of Hyderabad, until the mid-20th century. The head of a ruling family was commonly known as the nizam.

  • Nizam Alī Khān (ruler of Hyderabad)

    India: The government of Lord Wellesley: …to Hyderabad, when the aging Ni?ām ?Alī Khan was in dire fear of the Marathas. In 1800 the subsidy was compounded for the nizam’s share of the Mysore annexations. The same system was applied to Avadh, when the great annexation of 1801 was said to be on account of the…

  • Nizam Mīr Us?mān ?ālī (ruler of Hyderabad)

    Hyderabad: In 1918 Nizam Mīr Us?mān ?ālī was given the title “His Exalted Highness,” though the British government of India retained the right to intervene in his domain in case of misrule. Hyderabad remained a peaceful, but somewhat backward, princely state as the movement for independence gathered strength…

  • Nizam Shāhī dynasty (Indian dynasty)

    Nizam Shāhī dynasty, succession of rulers of the kingdom of Ahmadnagar in the Deccan of India from 1490 to 1633. The founder was Malik A?mad, who in 1490 fixed his capital on a new site called Ahmadnagar after himself. The kingdom lay in the northwestern Deccan, between the states of Gujarat and

  • Nizam ul-Mulk (Muslim title)

    Nizam al-Mulk, title borne by various Indian Muslim princes. The term is Arabic for “Governor of the Kingdom,” which also has been translated as “Deputy for the Whole Empire.” In 1713 it was conferred on Chīn Qilich Khan (ā?af Jāh) by the Mughal emperor Mu?ammad Shah and was held by his

  • nizam-? cedid (Turkish history)

    Nizam-? cedid, (Turkish: “new order”), originally a program of westernizing reforms undertaken by the Ottoman sultan Selim III (reigned 1789–1807). Later the term came to denote exclusively the new, regular troops established under this program. In 1792–93 Selim III, assisted by a committee,

  • Ni?ām-ud-Dīn A?mad III (Bahmanī ruler)

    India: External and internal rivalries: … (reigned 1458–61) and Ni?ām al-Dīn A?mad III (reigned 1461–63) sought the help of Mu?ammad Begarā of Gujarat against Malwa and warded off the invasions.

  • Nizamabad (India)

    Nizamabad, city, northwestern Telangana state, southern India. The city is located on a level upland plain of the Telangana Plateau, north-northwest of Hyderabad. Nizamabad lies on a rail line to Hyderabad, and it is connected to Hyderabad and to Adilabad to the north by a national highway.

  • Nizamat Kila (palace, Murshidabad, India)

    Murshidabad: Of historic interest are Nizamat Kila, also called the Hazaarduari Palace (Palace of a Thousand Doors), built in the Italianate style in 1837; Pearl Lake (Moti Jhil) just to the south, with Muradbagh Palace; and Khushbagh Cemetery, containing the tombs of ?Alī Vardī Khan, the last great nawab, and…

  • Ni?āmī (Persian poet)

    Ne?āmī, greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic. Little is known of Ne?āmī’s life. Orphaned at a young age, he spent his entire life in Ganja, leaving only once to meet the ruling prince. Although he enjoyed the patronage

  • Ni?āmīyah (?ūfī order)

    Chishtīyah: …century at Rudawlī and the Ni?āmīyah, revived in the 18th century in Delhi.

  • Ni?āmīyyah (school, Baghdad, Iraq)

    Iraq: The Seljuqs (1055–1152): The institutions were called Ni?āmiyyahs in his honour. The best-known of them, the Baghdad Ni?āmiyyah, was founded in 1067. Ni?ām al-Mulk argued for the creation of a strong central political authority, focused on the sultan and modeled on the polities of the pre-Islamic Sāsānians of Iran and of certain…

  • Nizan, Paul (French author)

    French literature: Malraux, Gide, and others: The books of Paul Nizan, Jean-Paul Sartre’s tutor and mentor, who had joined the Communist Party, explore in the forms of Socialist Realism the tensions and temptations of changing class loyalties; perhaps the best-known example is Antoine Bloyé (1933; Eng. trans. Antoine Bloyé). Louis Aragon, at loggerheads with…

  • Nizār (Fā?imid caliph)

    Islamic world: Policies of Ni?ām al-Mulk: …contender for the Fā?imid caliphate, Nizār. For that act they were known as the Nizārī Ismā?īlīs. They were led by ?asan-e ?abbā? and were dubbed by their detractors the ?ashīshiyyīn (assassins) because they practiced political murder while they were allegedly under the influence of hashish.

  • Nizārī Ismā?īliyyah (Islamic religio-political movement)

    Nizārī Ismā?īliyyah, religio-political movement that arose between the 11th and the 13th century among the Ismā?īliyyah, a branch of Shī?ite Islam. Dynastic strife among the Fā?imids, who were the heads of the Shī?ite Ismā?īlī movement, resulted in the establishment of a rival caliphate in Egypt in

  • Nizer, Louis (American lawyer)

    Louis Nizer, British-born U.S. lawyer (born Feb. 6, 1902, London, England—died Nov. 10, 1994, New York, N.Y.), was a legal wizard who was an expert on contract, libel, copyright, divorce, plagiarism, and antitrust law. He used his spellbinding oratorical skills to influence juries while defending s

  • Nizhegorod (oblast, Russia)

    Nizhegorod, oblast (region) in western Russia, in the middle of the Volga River basin. Nizhegorod oblast is bisected by the Volga River. The northern half of the oblast is a low plain, mostly in dense coniferous forest of spruce, pine, and fir, while lower parts are often swampy. Its soils are

  • Nizhegorodskaya Oblast (oblast, Russia)

    Nizhegorod, oblast (region) in western Russia, in the middle of the Volga River basin. Nizhegorod oblast is bisected by the Volga River. The northern half of the oblast is a low plain, mostly in dense coniferous forest of spruce, pine, and fir, while lower parts are often swampy. Its soils are

  • Nizhen (Ukraine)

    Nizhyn, city, north-central Ukraine. Nizhyn dates from the 11th century and was incorporated in 1781. It served as a regimental centre in the Cossack-controlled state known as the Hetmanate. It contains several buildings from the 17th and 18th centuries, including the cathedrals of St. Nicholas and

  • Nizhin (Ukraine)

    Nizhyn, city, north-central Ukraine. Nizhyn dates from the 11th century and was incorporated in 1781. It served as a regimental centre in the Cossack-controlled state known as the Hetmanate. It contains several buildings from the 17th and 18th centuries, including the cathedrals of St. Nicholas and

  • Nizhinskaya, Bronislava Fominitshna (American dancer, choreographer, and teacher)

    Bronislava Nijinska, Russian-born U.S. dancer, choreographer, and teacher. She trained at the Imperial Ballet School in St. Petersburg and joined the Mariinsky Theatre company in 1908. She danced with the Ballets Russes in Paris from 1909, as did her brother, Vaslav Nijinsky. She choreographed

  • Nizhnekamsk (Russia)

    Nizhnekamsk, city, Tatarstan, western Russia. It lies along the left bank of the Kama River, just southwest of Naberezhnye Chelny. It is an important petrochemical centre. A synthetic-rubber plant began operation there in 1970, and an oil refinery opened in 1979. It also has tire and plastics

  • Nizhnevartovsk (Russia)

    Nizhnevartovsk, city and port, Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug (district), west-central Russia. It lies along the right bank of the Ob River. The city grew rapidly in the 20th century, especially in the 1970s, as a result of the discovery of large oil fields nearby. Along with Surgut, Nizhnevartovsk

  • Nizhny Novgorod (oblast, Russia)

    Nizhegorod, oblast (region) in western Russia, in the middle of the Volga River basin. Nizhegorod oblast is bisected by the Volga River. The northern half of the oblast is a low plain, mostly in dense coniferous forest of spruce, pine, and fir, while lower parts are often swampy. Its soils are

  • Nizhny Novgorod (Russia)

    Nizhny Novgorod, city and administrative centre of Nizhegorod oblast (region), western Russia. The city lies at the confluence of the Volga and Oka rivers, 260 miles (420 km) east of Moscow. Although some authorities give an earlier date, the city was founded, according to a major chronicle, in

  • Nizhny Tagil (Russia)

    Nizhny Tagil, city, Sverdlovsk oblast (region), western Russia. Nizhny Tagil lies along the Tagil River. One of the oldest smelting centres of the Ural Mountains region, it was founded in 1725 in connection with the construction of a metallurgical factory that used the iron ore of Vysokaya Gora. It

  • Nizhnyaya Tunguska River (river, Russia)

    Nizhnyaya Tunguska River, river in western Siberia that is a right-bank tributary of the Yenisey River, flowing through Irkutsk oblast (province) and Krasnoyarsk kray (region) of Russia. Its length is 1,857 miles (2,989 km), and the area of its basin is 187,900 square miles (471,300 square km). The

  • Nizhyn (Ukraine)

    Nizhyn, city, north-central Ukraine. Nizhyn dates from the 11th century and was incorporated in 1781. It served as a regimental centre in the Cossack-controlled state known as the Hetmanate. It contains several buildings from the 17th and 18th centuries, including the cathedrals of St. Nicholas and

  • Nizina Podlaska (region, Poland)

    Poland: The lake region and central lowlands: …and the Mazovian (Mazowiecka) and Podlasian (Podlaska) lowlands, which lie in the middle Vistula basin. Lower Silesia and Great Poland are important agricultural areas, but many parts of the central lowlands also have large industrial centres. Warsaw, the capital, situated on the middle Vistula, is the most prominent.

  • Nizip, Battle of (Turkish history)

    Battle of Nizip, (June 24, 1839), battle between forces of the Ottoman Empire and those of Mu?ammad ?Alī, viceroy of Egypt, at Nizip (now in southeastern Turkey), in which the Ottomans were defeated. Their empire was spared only by the intervention of Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia.

  • Nízke Tatry (mountain range, Slovakia)

    Carpathian Mountains: Physiography: …Spi? basins, run the parallel Lower Tatras, similar in geologic structure but lower (?umbier Peak, 6,703 feet) and with a less conspicuous glacial relief. Along the boundary line between the Outer and the Central Western Carpathians extends a narrow strip of klippen (limestone) rocks, which, north of the Tatras, has…

  • Ni?n’aja Tunguska River (river, Russia)

    Nizhnyaya Tunguska River, river in western Siberia that is a right-bank tributary of the Yenisey River, flowing through Irkutsk oblast (province) and Krasnoyarsk kray (region) of Russia. Its length is 1,857 miles (2,989 km), and the area of its basin is 187,900 square miles (471,300 square km). The

  • Ni?nij Tagil (Russia)

    Nizhny Tagil, city, Sverdlovsk oblast (region), western Russia. Nizhny Tagil lies along the Tagil River. One of the oldest smelting centres of the Ural Mountains region, it was founded in 1725 in connection with the construction of a metallurgical factory that used the iron ore of Vysokaya Gora. It

  • Nizolio, Mario (Italian educator)

    humanism: Things and words: …the intensive linguistic-philosophical researches of Mario Nizolio. Though anticipated by Petrarch, the radical emphasis on the primacy of the word constituted a break with the teaching of other early humanists, such as Bruni and Vittorino, who had strongly maintained that the word was of value only through its relationship to…

  • Njála (Icelandic literature)

    Njáls saga, one of the longest and generally considered the finest of the 13th-century Icelanders’ sagas. It presents the most comprehensive picture of Icelandic life in the heroic age and has a wide range of complex characters. The work has two heroes—Gunnar (Gunther) and Njáll. Gunnar is a

  • Njáll (Icelandic hero)

    Icelandic literature: The Icelanders’ sagas: …has in fact two heroes, Njáll, who is wise, prudent, and endowed with prophetic gifts, and Gunnar, who is young and inexperienced. Njáll embodies traditional Norse ideals of loyalty and bravery yet faces his death by burning with the resignation of a Christian martyr.

  • Njáls saga (Icelandic literature)

    Njáls saga, one of the longest and generally considered the finest of the 13th-century Icelanders’ sagas. It presents the most comprehensive picture of Icelandic life in the heroic age and has a wide range of complex characters. The work has two heroes—Gunnar (Gunther) and Njáll. Gunnar is a

  • Njawé, Pius Noumeni (Cameroonian journalist)

    Pius Noumeni Njawé , Cameroonian journalist (born March 4, 1957, Babouantou, French Cameroun—died July 12, 2010, near Norfolk, Va.), championed a free press as the founder (1979) and editor of the first independent newspaper in Cameroon, Le Messager, in which he criticized the government despite

  • Njego?, Danilo Petrovi? (prince of Montenegro)

    Danilo II, prince-bishop (1851–52) and then prince (1852–60) of Montenegro, who elevated Montenegro to a hereditary principality. He became ruler of Montenegro upon the death of his uncle, Peter II Petrovi? Njego?, the elective prince-bishop, and assumed the title of prince the following year

  • Njego?, Petar Petrovi? (prince-bishop of Montenegro)

    Peter I, the great vladika, or prince-bishop, of Montenegro from 1782 to 1830, who won full independence of his country from the Turks. As successor to his saintly but inept uncle Sava, Peter became the reigning prince in theocratic Montenegro in 1782 and was consecrated bishop two years later. To

  • Njego?, Petar Petrovi? (prince-bishop of Montenegro)

    Peter II, the vladika, or prince-bishop, of Montenegro from 1830 to 1851, renowned as an enlightened ruler and intrepid warrior and especially as a poet. His principal works were “The Ray of the Microcosm,” “The False Tsar Stephen the Small,” and “The Mountain Wreath.” On succeeding his uncle Peter

  • Njemen River (river, Europe)

    Neman River, river in Belarus and Lithuania. The Neman River is 582 miles (937 km) long and drains about 38,000 square miles (98,000 square km). It rises near Minsk in the Minsk Upland and flows west through a broad, swampy basin; it then turns north into Lithuania, cutting through terminal

  • Njesuthi (mountain, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa)

    South Africa: Relief: …that the country’s highest point, Njesuthi (11,181 feet [3,408 metres]), is found. Farther south the escarpment forms the boundary first between KwaZulu-Natal and Free State provinces and then between KwaZulu-Natal and Lesotho. There it reaches elevations of nearly 11,000 feet (3,300 metres), including some of the country’s highest peaks, such…

  • Njinga (African queen)

    Matamba: …1630–32 it was conquered by Njinga Mbande (often referred to simply as Njinga, also spelled Nzinga, Jinga, or Ginga; also known by her Christian name, Ana de Sousa), ruler of the neighbouring Ndongo kingdom, when she was expelled from some of her domains by rivals and their Portuguese allies. Matamba…

  • NJM (political organization, Grenada)

    20th-century international relations: Nicaragua and El Salvador: …was overthrown by the leftist New Jewel Movement led by the charismatic Maurice Bishop. Over the next several years the Bishop regime socialized the country, signed mutual-assistance agreements with Soviet-bloc states, and hastened construction of a large airstrip that the United States feared would ultimately be used by Soviet aircraft.…

  • Njonjo, Charles (Kenyan official)

    Kenya: Kenyatta’s rule: The attorney general, Charles Njonjo, though himself a Kikuyu, opposed such a plan, as did another Kikuyu, the minister of finance, Mwai Kibaki. Together the two ensured that, upon Kenyatta’s death in August 1978, he was succeeded by his deputy, Daniel arap Moi, a member of the minority…

  • Nj?rd (Norse mythology)

    Nj?rd, in Norse mythology, the god of the wind and of the sea and its riches. His aid was invoked in seafaring and in hunting, and he was considered the god of “wealth-bestowal,” or prosperity. He was the father of Freyr and Freyja by his own sister. Traditionally, Nj?rd’s native tribe, the Vanir,

  • Nj?rd (Norse mythology)

    Nj?rd, in Norse mythology, the god of the wind and of the sea and its riches. His aid was invoked in seafaring and in hunting, and he was considered the god of “wealth-bestowal,” or prosperity. He was the father of Freyr and Freyja by his own sister. Traditionally, Nj?rd’s native tribe, the Vanir,

  • Nj?ror (Norse mythology)

    Nj?rd, in Norse mythology, the god of the wind and of the sea and its riches. His aid was invoked in seafaring and in hunting, and he was considered the god of “wealth-bestowal,” or prosperity. He was the father of Freyr and Freyja by his own sister. Traditionally, Nj?rd’s native tribe, the Vanir,

  • Nj?ror (Norse mythology)

    Nj?rd, in Norse mythology, the god of the wind and of the sea and its riches. His aid was invoked in seafaring and in hunting, and he was considered the god of “wealth-bestowal,” or prosperity. He was the father of Freyr and Freyja by his own sister. Traditionally, Nj?rd’s native tribe, the Vanir,

  • Njoya (West African king)

    Bamum: The 16th mfon, Njoya (reigned c. 1895–1923), became the most celebrated of all the Bamum kings. Familiar with writing in Arabic script from his contact with the Fulani and Hausa peoples, Njoya in about 1895 invented a system of writing with 510 pictographic characters. This he revised six…

  • NJPAC (building, Newark, New Jersey, United States)

    Newark: The contemporary city: The New Jersey Performing Arts Center (NJPAC; 1997), across from Military Park, is a multipurpose venue with fine acoustics and a mix of small and large performance spaces; it is home to the New Jersey Symphony Orchestra. Several blocks away, near City Hall (1908) and the…

  • NK cell (biology)

    immune system: Activation of killer cells: …either cytotoxic T cells or natural killer cells, have receptors that bind to the tail portion of the IgG antibody molecule (the part that does not bind to antigen). Once bound, killer cells insert a protein called perforin into the target cell, causing it to swell and burst. Killer cells…

  • Nkabinde, Simon (South African singer)

    Simon Nkabinde, (“Mahlathini”), South African Zulu singer who was an accomplished proponent of the deep-voiced “groaning” style of black South African singing and the lead vocalist for the Zulu music group Mahlathini and the Mahotella Queens from 1964 to the late 1970s and again after the group

  • Nkansi (African state)

    Fipa: Around 1700 two states at Nkansi and Lyangalile replaced Milansi as the foci of political organization; led by the Twa lineage, new methods of production and exchange allowed these two states to grow in complexity. Although shaken by the Ngoni occupation in the mid-19th century, the people of Nkansi in…

  • Nkayi (Congo)

    Nkayi, town (commune), southwestern Congo. It lies west of the capital, Brazzaville, and northeast of the port of Pointe-Noire, on the Brazzaville–Pointe-Noire railway; its airport has scheduled flights to both cities. Nkayi is the major sugar-producing centre in the Niari River valley agricultural

  • NKF (Dutch company)

    graphic design: Modernist experiments between the world wars: …in his dynamic advertisement for NKF cable factory (1924), which proclaims, “Normaal cable is the best cable for the price.” Zwart believed the fast pace of 20th-century life meant viewers had little time for lengthy advertising copy. He used brief telegraphic text, bold typefaces placed at an angle, and bright…

  • NKGB (Soviet history)

    KGB: Pre-KGB Soviet security services: …from the NKVD to the NKGB (People’s Commissariat for State Security). Both agencies became ministries—the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) and the Ministry of State Security (MGB)—in 1946. Beria, as a member of the ruling Central Committee, continued to supervise the two ministries while serving as head of the MVD.…

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