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  • Northern Michigan University (university, Marquette, Michigan, United States)

    Northern Michigan University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Marquette, Upper Peninsula of Michigan, U.S. It comprises the Walter L. Cisler College of Business and colleges of arts and sciences; graduate studies; and professional studies, including education, nursing, and

  • northern midshipman (fish)

    paracanthopterygian: Life cycle and reproduction: The northern midshipman (P. notatus), a common species on the eastern Pacific coast, spawns in shallow water, attaching its eggs to a rocky surface. The male guards the eggs. Like other batrachoidiforms, the midshipman lives and grows on the ocean bottom.

  • Northern Min language (Chinese language)

    China: Sino-Tibetan: …to the south, by the Fuzhou, or Northern Min, language of northern and central Fujian and by the Xiamen-Shantou (Amoy-Swatow), or Southern Min, language of southern Fujian and easternmost Guangdong. The Hakka language of southernmost Jiangxi and northeastern Guangdong has a rather scattered pattern of distribution. Probably the best known…

  • northern mockingbird (bird)

    mockingbird: …common, or northern, mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) is well known as a mimic; it has been known to imitate the songs of 20 or more species within 10 minutes. It is 27 cm (10.5 inches) long and gray with darker wings and tail both marked with white. It ranges from…

  • Northern Mountains (mountains, Hungary)

    Hungary: Resources and power: …coal) is mined in the Northern Mountains and in Transdanubia. Coal once satisfied half of Hungary’s energy requirements, but it now represents less than one-fifth of energy production.

  • Northern Mountains of Chiapas (mountain range, Mexico)

    Chiapas Highlands: The Northern Mountains of Chiapas, block mountains capped with volcanic materials and reaching elevations above 12,000 feet (3,650 metres), compose the eastern section. The Tacaná Volcano, located on the southern extreme of the highlands at the Mexico–Guatemala border, rises to 13,484 feet (4,110 metres).

  • northern muriqui (primate)

    woolly spider monkey: In the northern muriqui (B. hypoxanthus), from Bahia, Minas Gerais, and Espiritu Santo, the face is mottled pink and black, there is a rudimentary thumb, and the two sexes have canines of the same size.

  • northern native cat (marsupial)

    native cat: The northern native cat (D. hallucatus) of tropical regions is generally smaller, as is the New Guinea native cat (D. albopunctatus), which occupies a variety of habitats on its native island. The largest species, the spotted-tailed native cat (D. maculatus, also called the tiger cat), has…

  • Northern Norway (region, Norway)

    Nord-Norge, geographic region of Norway. It reaches from Nordland about 575 miles (925 km) northward to the North Cape (Nordkapp), the northernmost point in Europe. An arm of the Gulf Stream, the North Atlantic Current, which flows past its coast, provides a relatively mild maritime climate.

  • Northern Numbers (Scottish publication)

    Hugh MacDiarmid: …first postwar Scottish verse anthology, Northern Numbers (1921–23). In 1922 he founded the monthly Scottish Chapbook, in which he advocated a Scottish literary revival and published the lyrics of “Hugh MacDiarmid,” later collected as Sangschaw (1925) and Penny Wheep (1926). Rejecting English as a medium for Scottish poetry, MacDiarmid scrutinized…

  • Northern Ontario (region, Ontario, Canada)

    Ontario: Relief: Northern Ontario, as usually defined, lies north of a line drawn from the confluence of the Mattawa and Ottawa rivers (at the Quebec border, east of Lake Nipissing) southwest to the mouth of the French River, on Georgian Bay. Most of the region, which covers…

  • Northern Ossetia (republic, Russia)

    North Ossetia–Alania, respublika (republic) in southwestern Russia, on the northern flank of the Greater Caucasus range. It is bordered on the south by Georgia and on the north by the Sunzha and Terek ranges. The capital and largest city is Vladikavkaz. North Ossetia is mountainous, with the Glavny

  • Northern Pacific Railway Company (American railway)

    Northern Pacific Railway Company, one of the northern transcontinental railroads of the United States, operating between St. Paul, Minn., and Seattle, Wash., and merged into the Burlington Northern in 1970. The Northern Pacific was chartered by Congress in 1864 to build a line from Lake Superior

  • Northern Paiute (people)

    Paiute: The Northern Paiute (called Paviotso in Nevada) are related to the Mono of California. Like a number of other California and Southwest Indians, the Northern Paiute have been known derogatorily as “Diggers” because some of the wild foods they collected required digging. They occupied east-central California,…

  • northern parula warbler (bird)

    wood warbler: …or American, parula warbler (Parula americana), which breeds in eastern North America, is pale blue with white wing bars, a partial white eye ring, and a yellow breast crossed by a narrow dark band. The black-and-white warbler (Mniotilta varia), common east of the Rockies, is streaked and has creeperlike…

  • northern pearly-eye butterfly (insect)

    satyr butterfly: Northern pearly-eyes (E. anthedon) are similar in appearance to their southern counterparts and are found mainly in the northeastern region of the United States and in Canada, from central Saskatchewan to Nova Scotia.

  • Northern Peninsula (region, Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada)

    Newfoundland and Labrador: Northern Peninsula: The Northern Peninsula (locally called the Great Northern Peninsula) stretches northward toward the Labrador coast between Bonne Bay on the west and White Bay on the east. In the west the Long Range Mountains, rising abruptly from a narrow coastal plain dissected by…

  • Northern Penner River (river, India)

    Penneru River, river of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh states, southern India. It has a total length of about 350 miles (560 km). The Penneru rises in an upland region on the Deccan plateau, 7 miles (11 km) west-southwest of Chik Ballapur in southeastern Karnataka. It flows north into Andhra Pradesh

  • Northern People’s Congress (political party, Nigeria)

    Nigeria: Political process: …Action Group (AG) and the Northern People’s Congress (NPC) were the major Nigerian parties when the country became independent in 1960. However, their regional rather than national focus—the AG represented the west, the NPC the north, and the National Council for Nigeria and the Cameroons the east—ultimately contributed to the…

  • northern phalarope (bird)

    phalarope: …phalarope in Britain, and the northern phalarope (P. lobatus), called red-necked phalarope in Britain. Both species winter on tropical oceans, where they are known as sea snipe. Wilson’s phalarope (P. tricolor) breeds primarily in interior western North America and migrates chiefly to the Argentine pampas.

  • northern pika (mammal)

    pika: …with the largest distribution, the northern pika (O. hyperborea), ranges from the Ural Mountains to the east coast of Russia and Hokkaido Island of northern Japan. Although the northern pika is considered a typical talus-dwelling species, it also is known to inhabit rocky terrain in coniferous forests, where it makes…

  • northern pike (fish)

    pike: The northern pike (Esox lucius; see photograph) of North America, Europe, and northern Asia has pale, bean-shaped spots on the body and lacks scales on the lower parts of the gill covers. It is a fairly common and prized game fish with a maximum size and…

  • northern pin oak (tree)

    pin oak: The northern pin oak, or jack oak (Q. ellipsoidalis), also has pinlike branchlets but usually occurs on upland sites that are dry. Its ellipse-shaped acorns are nearly half enclosed in a scaly cup. The leaves become yellow or pale brown in autumn, often with purple blotches.

  • northern pintail (bird)

    pintail: The common, or northern, pintail (Anas acuta), widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, is a long-distance flier; some Alaskan birds winter as far away as Hawaii. Pairs form at the wintering ground, and the males follow the females back to their summer range.

  • Northern Plains (region, Afghanistan)

    Afghanistan: Physiographic regions: The northern plains region, north of the central highlands, extends eastward from the Iranian border to the foothills of the Pamirs, near the border with Tajikistan. It comprises some 40,000 square miles (103,000 square km) of plains and fertile foothills sloping gently toward the Amu Darya…

  • Northern Plateau (plateau, India)

    Odisha: Relief, soils, and drainage: …into four natural divisions: the northern plateau, the Eastern Ghats, the central tract, and the coastal plains. The northern plateau (in the northern part of the state) is an extension of the forest-covered and mineral-rich Chota Nagpur plateau centred in Jharkhand. The Eastern Ghats, extending roughly parallel to the coast…

  • Northern Plateau (plateau, Mexico)

    Mesa del Norte, the northern section of the Mexican Plateau, sloping gently upward to the south for more than 700 miles (1,100 km) from the U.S.–Mexico border to the Zacatecas Mountains. Mesa del Norte largely spans the country from coast to coast and is bordered by the Sierra Madre Oriental on the

  • Northern pocket gopher (rodent)

    evolution: Quantum speciation: …gophers of the species group Thomomys talpoides in the northern Rocky Mountains are well-studied examples.

  • northern porgy (fish)

    porgy: …are such species as the scup, or northern porgy (Stenotomus chrysops), a small fish, brownish above and silvery below, and the sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus), a black-banded grayish fish growing to about 75 cm and 9 kg, both valued for food and sport.

  • Northern Portuguese

    Galician language, Romance language with many similarities to the Portuguese language, of which it was historically a dialect. It is now much influenced by standard Castilian Spanish. Galician is spoken by some four million people as a home language, mostly in the autonomous community of Galicia,

  • Northern Pursuit (film by Walsh [1943])

    Raoul Walsh: At Warner Brothers: The Roaring Twenties, High Sierra, and White Heat: …with more patriotic derring-do in Northern Pursuit (1943), as a Mountie going undercover in a ring of Nazi saboteurs. Walsh and Flynn reteamed for Uncertain Glory (1944), in which a French criminal must make the supreme sacrifice to save 100 hostages held by the Nazis. Their next collaboration, Objective, Burma!…

  • northern quahog (mollusk)

    clam: The northern quahog (Mercenaria mercenaria), also known as the cherrystone clam, littleneck clam, or hard-shell clam, and the southern quahog (M. campechiensis) belong to the family of venus clams (Veneridae). M. mercenaria is about 7.5 to 12.5 cm (3 to 5 inches) long. The dingy white…

  • Northern Range (hills, Trinidad and Tobago)

    Trinidad and Tobago: Relief and drainage: …island of Trinidad is its Northern Range, a continuation of the coastal ranges of the Andes Mountains in Venezuela. The range runs east-west at an average elevation of about 1,500 feet (460 metres), rising to 3,084 feet (940 metres) at Mount Aripo (El Cerro del Aripo), the country’s highest peak.…

  • northern red oak (plant)

    red oak: …two important timber trees, the northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and the southern red oak, or Spanish oak (Q. falcata). The northern red oak is often cultivated as an ornamental; it grows rapidly into a round-headed, wide-spreading tree about 25 m (80 feet) tall, occasionally to 45 m (150 feet).…

  • northern redbelly dace (fish)

    dace: erythrogaster) and northern (P. eos) species. The southern redbelly dace, found in clear creeks from Alabama to Pennsylvania and the Great Lakes region, is an attractive fish sometimes kept in home aquariums. It is 5–7.5 cm (2–3 inches) long and is marked with two longitudinal black stripes.…

  • Northern Region (region, Tanzania)

    Arusha, administrative region, northern Tanzania, East Africa. It is bordered on the northeast by Kenya. The Serengeti Plain lies in the northwest, and the Masai Steppe, broken only by isolated gneiss hills, lies in the south. In the central area of the region are the Crater Highlands, bordering

  • Northern Renaissance (European history)

    Renaissance: Artistic developments and the emergence of Florence: Early Northern Renaissance painters were more concerned with the detailed reproduction of objects and their symbolic meaning than with the study of scientific perspective and anatomy even after these achievements became widely known. On the other hand, central Italian painters began to adopt the oil medium…

  • Northern Rhodesia

    Zambia, landlocked country in Africa. It is situated on a high plateau in south-central Africa and takes its name from the Zambezi River, which drains all but a small northern part of the country. Large parts of the country are thinly populated. Much of population is concentrated in the country’s

  • Northern Rhodesia Congress (African organization)

    Zambia: Colonial rule: …these gave rise to the Northern Rhodesia Congress. Some of its members sat on the African Representative Council set up by the government in 1946. This body had no power, but it criticized political and social conditions, especially the informal colour bar, and from 1948 it elected two Africans to…

  • northern right whale (Atlantic sea mammal)

    right whale: …classified into three different species: E. glacialis of the North Atlantic and E. japonica of the North Pacific, both commonly called northern right whales, and E. australis of the Southern Hemisphere, referred to as the southern right whale. Whether found in northern or southern latitudes, these right whales are estimated…

  • northern right whale (Pacific sea mammal)

    right whale: … of the North Atlantic and E. japonica of the North Pacific, both commonly called northern right whales, and E. australis of the Southern Hemisphere, referred to as the southern right whale. Whether found in northern or southern latitudes, these right whales are estimated to reach a maximum length of about…

  • northern rockhopper penguin (bird)

    penguin: Locomotion and orientation: Some, such as the northern rockhopper (Eudyptes moseleyi), the southern rockhopper (E. chrysocome), and Adélie penguins, move among rocks with agility, using the flippers for balance. On snow or ice, many penguins “toboggan,” sliding on the belly as they propel themselves with the feet and

  • Northern Rocky Mountains (mountains, United States)

    Idaho: Relief and drainage: …are included within Idaho: the Northern Rocky Mountains, the Middle Rocky Mountains, the Columbia Basin, and the Basin and Range Province. The Northern Rockies extend from the Canadian border to south-central Idaho and occupy nearly half the state’s area. Peaks reaching elevations between 10,000 and 12,000 feet (3,000 and 3,700…

  • northern root-knot nematode (species of nematode)

    plant disease: Nematode diseases: …species, however, such as the northern root-knot nematode (M. hapla), are found where soil may freeze to depths of nearly a metre. Vegetables, cotton, strawberry, and orchard trees are commonly attacked. Garden plants and ornamentals frequently become infested through nursery stock.

  • Northern Rugby Football Union (British sports organization)

    Rugby Football League, governing body of rugby league football (professional rugby) in England, founded in 1895. Originally called the Northern Rugby Football Union (popularly Northern Union), it was formed when 22 clubs from Yorkshire, Lancashire, and Cheshire left the Rugby Football Union over

  • Northern San languages

    Khoisan languages: Classification of the Khoisan languages: …into three effectively unrelated groups: Northern, Central, and Southern. Sandawe of Tanzania has a distant relationship to the Central group, but the place of Hadza even in relation to Sandawe has always been unclear; and the status of Kwadi, an extinct language of Namibe (formerly Mo?amedes) in southwestern Angola, remains…

  • Northern Sarkārs (historical district, India)

    Northern Sarkārs, group of four, later five or six, sarkārs (districts) into which the Afghan emperor Shēr Shah of Sūr (ruled 1540–45) divided his empire. They corresponded roughly to the several districts of present-day northeastern Andhra Pradesh state, India, along the coast of the Bay of

  • Northern school (Chinese art)

    Dai Jin: …was later placed within the lineage of “professional” painters and held in lesser regard in contrast to the school of literary “amateurs,” who were more concerned with personal expression and who were then represented in the Wu school in which Shen Zhou held an equivalent place of leadership.

  • northern sea lion (mammal)

    sea lion: The northern, or Steller, sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) is a pale- to golden-brown sea lion of the Bering Sea and both sides of the North Pacific Ocean. It is the largest member of the eared seals. Males are about 3.3 metres in length and weigh 1,000…

  • Northern Sea Route (sea route, Eurasia)

    Northeast Passage, maritime route through the Arctic along the northern coast of the Eurasian landmass, principally situated off the coast of northern Siberia (Russia). Historically, the European concept of the Northeast Passage was of a channel that traversed the entire distance between the

  • Northern Securities Company (American company)

    Great Northern Railway Company: …year, Hill set up the Northern Securities Company, a holding company to control the three railroads, with himself as president. The U.S. Supreme Court declared it in violation of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act in 1904 and ordered the company dissolved. The Burlington continued under control of the Great Northern and…

  • Northern Senoic language

    Senoic languages: The main languages, Semai and Temiar, are spoken in the Main Range of the Malay Peninsula. Together their speakers number some 33,000.

  • northern shorewort (plant)

    Mertensia: Northern shorewort, oyster plant, or sea-lungwort (M. maritima), a fleshy, grayish-leaved plant, is about the same height as Virginia bluebell but has smaller flowers that bloom in summer. It grows along pebbly coasts of northern North America and northern Europe. Languid ladies (M. paniculata), from…

  • northern short-tailed shrew (mammal)

    short-tailed shrew: …the genus Blarina are the northern (B. brevicauda), the southern (B. carolinensis), and Elliot’s (B. hylophaga) short-tailed shrew. Blarina is one of many genera classified with “true shrews” of the family Soricidae in the order Soricimorpha, which belongs to a larger group of mammals referred to as insectivores. Their evolutionary…

  • northern shoveler (bird)

    shoveler: The northern shoveler (A. clypeata) nests in North America, Europe, and northern Asia, migrating to South America, North Africa, and southern Asia in winter. The male has a green head, a white breast, a chestnut belly and chestnut sides, and a blue patch on the forewing.…

  • northern shrike (bird)

    shrike: …most widespread species is the great gray shrike (L. excubitor), called northern shrike in Canada and the United States, a 24-cm (9.5-inch) black-masked bird. The only other New World species is the similar but smaller loggerhead shrike (L. ludovicianus) of North America. Several Eurasian species have reddish or brown markings.

  • northern snake-necked turtle (reptile)

    turtle: Egg development and hatching: … and South America and the northern snake-necked turtle (Chelodina rugosa) of Australia, have embryonic diapause, in which development stops soon after an egg is deposited. Diapause is usually triggered by an environmental stimulus, and development resumes when a contrasting stimulus (temperature and moisture) occurs. Incubation with diapause can be as…

  • Northern Society, The (Russian revolutionary group)

    Decembrist: …the Union of Welfare (1818), the Northern Society (1821), and the Southern Society (1821).

  • Northern Song dynasty (Chinese history)

    Song dynasty: The last of the Northern Song emperors was himself perhaps the most noteworthy artist and art collector in the country. His capital at Kaifeng was a city of beauty, abounding in palaces, temples, and tall pagodas when, in 1126, the Juchen burned it. The architecture of the Song era…

  • Northern Sosva (river, Russia)

    Ob River: Physiography: …(Malaya) Ob, which receives the Northern (Severnaya) Sosva, the Vogulka, and the Synya rivers from the left. These main channels are reunited below Shuryshkary into a single stream that is up to 12 miles (19 km) wide and 130 feet (40 metres) deep; but after the confluence of the Poluy…

  • Northern Sotho (people)

    Pedi, a Bantu-speaking people inhabiting Limpopo province, South Africa, and constituting the major group of the Northern Sotho ethnolinguistic cluster of peoples, who numbered about 3,700,000 in the late 20th century. Their traditional territory, which is known as Bopedi, is located between the

  • Northern Sporades (islands, Greece)

    Aegean Sea: Ikaría, and Sámos; (3) the Northern Sporades, including Skyros, a group lying off Thessaly; (4) the Cyclades, including Melos, Páros, Náxos, Thera, and ándros (Euboea, although technically an island, is considered a part of the Greek mainland and is connected to Boeotia by a bridge at Chalcís); (5) the Saronic…

  • northern spotted owl (bird)

    minimum viable population: MVP and species management: …MVP is that for the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina), which is found in the coniferous and mixed-hardwood forests of the northwestern United States and of British Columbia. The owl depends on old-growth trees with hollows for nesting sites, but heavy logging in the region during the 1970s and…

  • Northern State Normal School (university, Marquette, Michigan, United States)

    Northern Michigan University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Marquette, Upper Peninsula of Michigan, U.S. It comprises the Walter L. Cisler College of Business and colleges of arts and sciences; graduate studies; and professional studies, including education, nursing, and

  • Northern Sung dynasty (Chinese history)

    Song dynasty: The last of the Northern Song emperors was himself perhaps the most noteworthy artist and art collector in the country. His capital at Kaifeng was a city of beauty, abounding in palaces, temples, and tall pagodas when, in 1126, the Juchen burned it. The architecture of the Song era…

  • Northern Tableland (mountains, New South Wales, Australia)

    New England Range, section of the Eastern Highlands, or Great Dividing Range, northeastern New South Wales, Australia. The range extends 200 mi (320 km) north from the Moonbi Range (near Tamworth) to the Queensland border and 80 mi from east to west (10–50 mi inland from the coast). It is

  • Northern Tai languages

    Tai languages: The distribution and classification of Tai languages: Southwestern, the Central, and the Northern. Thai and Lao, the official languages of Thailand and Laos, respectively, are the best known of the languages.

  • Northern Tell (mountains, Tunisia)

    Tunisia: Relief: …and the mountains of the Northern Tell—which include the sandstone ridges of the Kroumirie Mountains in the northwest that reach elevations of 3,000 feet (900 metres)—and the Mogods, a mountain range running along the deeply indented coastline to the north, lies the Majardah (Medjerda) River valley, formed by a series…

  • Northern Tepehuan (people)

    Tepehuan: …Tepehuan are divided into the Northern Tepehuan, of Chihuahua, and the Southern Tepehuan, of Durango. Both speak dialects of the same language, Tepehuan, a Uto-Aztecan language that is most closely related to Piman.

  • Northern Territory (territory, Australia)

    Northern Territory, self-governing territory of Australia, occupying the central section of the northern part of the continent. The Northern Territory is bounded by the Timor and Arafura seas to the north and by Western Australia to the west, Queensland and the Gulf of Carpentaria to the east, and

  • Northern Territory (Self-Government) Act (Australia [1978])

    Northern Territory: Administrative framework: The Northern Territory (Self-Government) Act of 1978 established the Northern Territory as a self-governing entity. Under this act the Commonwealth of Australia transferred most of its governing powers to the territory. The government of the territory, which is seated in Darwin, is similar to that of…

  • Northern Territory Representation Act (Australia [1922])

    Northern Territory: The Northern Territory under Commonwealth administration: In 1922 the Northern Territory Representation Act provided for a single representative, bereft of voting powers, in the federal parliament. The Great Depression of the 1930s hit the territory severely. In 1933 the federal government, desperate to find some means of developing the area, offered much of it…

  • Northern Territory, flag of the (Australian flag)

    Australian flag consisting of an ochre-red field (background) with a vertical black stripe at the hoist. A white Southern Cross constellation is on the stripe, and the field bears a stylized Sturt’s desert rose with seven white petals around a black centre.Local symbols developed somewhat slowly in

  • northern three-toed woodpecker (bird)

    woodpecker: …up the genus Picoides: the northern three-toe (P. tridactylus), which ranges across the subarctic Northern Hemisphere and south in some mountains, and the black-backed three-toe (P. arcticus), found across forested central Canada.

  • Northern Union (British sports organization)

    Rugby Football League, governing body of rugby league football (professional rugby) in England, founded in 1895. Originally called the Northern Rugby Football Union (popularly Northern Union), it was formed when 22 clubs from Yorkshire, Lancashire, and Cheshire left the Rugby Football Union over

  • Northern Urals (mountains, Russia)

    Ural Mountains: Physiography: Farther south come the Northern Urals, which stretch for more than 340 miles (550 km) to thein the south; most mountains top 3,300 feet (1,000 metres), and the highest peak, Mount Telpos-Iz, rises to 5,305 feet (1,617 metres). Many of the summits are flattened, the remnants of ancient peneplains…

  • Northern Uvaly (hills, Russia)

    Severnye Uvaly, (Russian: “Northern Uvaly”, ) range of hills on the Russian Plain, western Russia. The hills form the watershed between the left-bank tributaries of the Volga River and of the Sukhona, Yug, Vychegda, and Pechora rivers. The hills run east-west for 375 miles (600 km), reach a maximum

  • northern variant (Mandarin dialect)

    China: Sino-Tibetan: …first of these is the northern variant, of which the Beijing dialect, or Beijing hua, is typical and which is spoken to the north of the Qin Mountains–Huai River line; as the most widespread Chinese tongue, it has officially been adopted as the basis for a national language. The second…

  • Northern Vietnamese language

    Viet-Muong languages: Northern Vietnamese, centred in Hanoi, is the basis for the official form of Vietnamese. Central Vietnamese, centred in Hue, and Southern Vietnamese, centred in Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), differ from the Northern norm in having fewer tones and in modifying certain consonants. All three…

  • Northern Virginia, Army of (American history)

    Robert E. Lee: Role in Civil War: …into what became the famed Army of Northern Virginia; he tightened command and discipline, improved morale, and convinced the soldiers that headquarters was in full command. McClellan, waiting vainly for McDowell to join the wing of his army on the north side of the Chickahominy River, was moving heavy siege…

  • northern walkingstick (insect)

    walkingstick: The North American species Diapheromera femorata may defoliate oak trees during heavy infestations.

  • Northern War, First (Europe [1655–1660])

    First Northern War, (1655–60), final stage of the struggle over the Polish-Swedish succession. In 1655 the Swedish king Charles X Gustav declared war on Poland on the pretext that Poland’s John II Casimir Vasa had refused to acknowledge him; the real reason was Charles’s desire to aggrandize more

  • Northern War, Second (Europe [1700–1721])

    Second Northern War, (1700–21), military conflict in which Russia, Denmark-Norway, and Saxony-Poland challenged the supremacy of Sweden in the Baltic area. The war resulted in the decline of Swedish influence and the emergence of Russia as a major power in that region. Sweden’s expansion in the

  • northern water hemlock (plant)

    water hemlock: …Europe northern water hemlock (Cicuta virosa) is the commonly known species; it is a tall perennial herb. The best-known species in North America is the common water hemlock (C. maculata), also known as cowbane or musquash root, which grows to about 2.5 metres (8 feet) tall. It has divided…

  • northern water snake (reptile)

    water snake: The northern water snake (N. sipedon), the most common species, inhabits the eastern half of the United States, southern Ontario, and southern Quebec. It is a moderately large snake that can reach lengths of 1 to 1.4 metres (3 to 4.5 feet). The body is coloured…

  • Northern Wei (Chinese history [386-534/535])

    Wei dynasty, (386–534/535 ce), the longest-lived and most powerful of the northern Chinese dynasties that existed before the reunification of China under the Sui and Tang dynasties. The Wei dynasty was founded by Tabgatch (Tuoba) tribesmen who, like many of the nomads inhabiting the frontiers of

  • Northern Wei sculpture (Chinese art)

    Northern Wei sculpture, Chinese sculpture, dating from the Northern Wei dynasty (386–534/535 ce) of the Six Dynasties, that represents the first major Buddhist influence on Chinese art. Produced in the northern territory that was occupied and ruled by foreign invaders and that was quick to respond

  • northern whelk (marine snail)

    whelk: The common northern whelk (Buccinum undatum) has a stout pale shell about 8 cm (3 inches) long and is abundant in North Atlantic waters. For fulgur whelks, see conch; for rock whelks, see murex.

  • northern white cedar (plant)

    American arborvitae, (Thuja occidentalis), ornamental and timber evergreen conifer of the cypress family (Cupressaceae), native to eastern North America. In the lumber trade it is called, among other names, white cedar, eastern white cedar, and New Brunswick cedar. Often 20 m (65 feet) tall, the

  • northern white rhinoceros (mammal)

    white rhinoceros: …been divided into two subspecies—the northern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) and the southern white rhinoceros (C. simum simum)—but comparative anatomy and DNA analysis suggest that the two groups are in fact different species.

  • northern wild rice (plant)

    wild rice: …wild rice (Zizania aquatica) and northern wild rice (Z. palustris), are grown in constructed paddies in Minnesota, Wisconsin, California, and parts of Canada, where the plants are planted and harvested on a large scale by mechanical means. The single Asian species, Manchurian wild rice (Z. latifolia), is cultivated as a…

  • Northern Yukaghir language

    Paleo-Siberian languages: Yukaghir: …about equally into two enclaves: Tundra Yukaghir (also called Northern Yukaghir) in the Sakha republic (Yakutia), near the estuary of the Indigirka River; and Kolyma, or Forest, Yukaghir (also called Southern Yukaghir) along the bend of the Kolyma River. Extinct earlier dialects or languages related to Yukaghir are Omok and…

  • Northern Zhou dynasty (Chinese history)

    China: The Shiliuguo (Sixteen Kingdoms) in the north (303–439): The Bei (Northern) Zhou (557–581), strategically based in the rich basin of the Wei River, reunified the north (577). Four years later Yang Jian (better known by his posthumous name, Wendi), a general of mixed Chinese and barbarian descent (but claiming to be a pure-blooded Chinese),…

  • Northfield (Minnesota, United States)

    Northfield, city, Rice county, southeastern Minnesota, U.S. It lies along the Cannon River, in a mixed-farming area, 35 miles (55 km) south of St. Paul. Founded in 1855 by New England lawyer John W. North, it became the home of Carleton (1866) and St. Olaf (1874) colleges. Flour milling was the

  • Northfield College (college, Northfield, Minnesota, United States)

    Carleton College, private coeducational, nonsectarian institution of higher learning in Northfield, Minnesota, U.S., about 40 miles (65 km) south of Minneapolis. In 1866 the Minnesota Conference of Congregational Churches founded Northfield College, and in 1870 the first college class was held. The

  • Northfield raid (American history)

    Jesse James and Frank James: …the First National Bank at Northfield, Minnesota. Of the eight bandits, only the James brothers escaped death or capture. After gathering a new gang in 1879, the James brothers resumed robbing, and in 1881 Missouri Gov. Thomas T. Crittenden offered a $10,000 reward for their capture, dead or alive. Reputedly,…

  • Northgrippian stage (geologic time)

    Holocene Epoch: The Pleistocene–Holocene boundary: The onset of the Northgrippian stage (8,300 to 4,200 years ago), also determined using ice cores from Greenland, coincided with a period of cooling that occurred in the North Atlantic about 8,300 years ago. In contrast, the Meghalayan stage (4,200 years ago to the present) was determined using a…

  • Northland (Canadian railway system)

    railroad: Canadian railroads: …in the fall, and the Northland, which cuts through the mineral-rich Canadian Shield to Moosonee, close to an old fur-trading post on James Bay. In Quebec the line running north from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the iron-ore deposits of Ungava and Labrador is used to take canoeists, fishermen,…

  • Northland (regional council, New Zealand)

    Northland, regional council, the northernmost of North Island, New Zealand. It is coextensive with most of the North Auckland Peninsula. Northland extends about 96 miles (250 km) northwest from Kaipara Harbour to Cape Reinga and North Cape and is bounded to the west by the Tasman Sea and to the

  • Northman (people)

    Viking, member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century and whose disruptive influence profoundly affected European history. These pagan Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish warriors were probably prompted to undertake their

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