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  • novela de la tierra (literature)

    Latin American literature: The modern novel: …and dramatic contradiction made the novela de la tierra the literary tradition within which and counter to which new novelistic projects were measured.

  • Novelas amorosas y ejemplares (work by Zayas y Sotomayor)

    María de Zayas y Sotomayor: Novelas amorosas y ejemplares (1637; “Novels of Romance and Exemplary Tales”) is a collection of short novels about the romantic complications of married life, ostensibly told one evening to amuse a sick woman. The stories are mostly about women who are mistreated by husbands or…

  • Novelas ejemplares (work by Cervantes)

    Miguel de Cervantes: Publication of Don Quixote: The next year, the 12 Exemplary Stories were published. The prologue contains the only known verbal portrait of the author:

  • Novelas espa?olas contemporáneas (work by Pérez Galdós)

    Benito Pérez Galdós: Known as the Novelas espa?olas contemporáneas (“Contemporary Spanish Novels”), these books were written at the height of the author’s literary maturity and include some of his finest works, notably La desheredada (1881; The Disinherited Lady) and his masterpiece, the four-volume novel Fortunata y Jacinta (1886–87), a study of…

  • Novelas exemplares (work by Cervantes)

    Miguel de Cervantes: Publication of Don Quixote: The next year, the 12 Exemplary Stories were published. The prologue contains the only known verbal portrait of the author:

  • novelette (literature)

    Novella, short and well-structured narrative, often realistic and satiric in tone, that influenced the development of the short story and the novel throughout Europe. Originating in Italy during the Middle Ages, the novella was based on local events that were humorous, political, or amorous in

  • novelist (literature)

    Novel, an invented prose narrative of considerable length and a certain complexity that deals imaginatively with human experience, usually through a connected sequence of events involving a group of persons in a specific setting. Within its broad framework, the genre of the novel has encompassed an

  • novella (literature)

    Novella, short and well-structured narrative, often realistic and satiric in tone, that influenced the development of the short story and the novel throughout Europe. Originating in Italy during the Middle Ages, the novella was based on local events that were humorous, political, or amorous in

  • Novellae Constitutiones Post Codicem (Roman law)

    Code of Justinian: The Novellae Constitutiones Post Codicem (or simply, in English, the Novels) comprised several collections of new ordinances issued by Justinian himself between 534 and 565, after publication of the revised Codex.

  • Novellas do Minho (work by Castelo Branco)

    Camilo Castelo Branco: …Minho rural life in his Novellas do Minho (1875–77) approach naturalism, he engaged in a literary quarrel with the emergent naturalist school and parodied their style and subjects in Eusébio Macário (1879) and A corja (1880; “The Rabble”). Nevertheless, while continuing to express vehement opposition to naturalism, he more and…

  • Novelle (work by Bandello)

    Matteo Bandello: …Agen, France), Italian writer whose Novelle (stories) started a new trend in 16th-century narrative literature and had a wide influence in England, France, and Spain.

  • Novelle (work by De Amicis)

    Edmondo De Amicis: …in Italy, 1882), followed by Novelle (1872; “Short Stories”), which some critics have thought his best work. He also wrote poetry (collected in Poesie, 1880), novels, travelogues, and essays. But his most important work is the sentimental children’s story Cuore (1886; 1st Eng. trans., 1887; best trans., The Heart of…

  • Novelle (German literature)

    novella: …it is known as the Novelle, in the 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries in the works of writers such as Heinrich von Kleist, Gerhart Hauptmann, J.W. von Goethe, Thomas Mann, and Franz Kafka. As in Boccaccio’s Decameron, the prototype of the form, German Novellen are often encompassed within a…

  • Novelle galanti (work by Casti)

    Giovanni Battista Casti: …wrote his witty society verse Novelle galanti (“Amatory Tales”), first published in a critical edition in 1925. In 1778 Casti visited the court of Catherine the Great in St. Petersburg; though he was treated well, his Poema tartaro mocked the adulation shown the Empress. Returning to Vienna, he was named…

  • novellino, Il (collection of tales)

    Italian literature: Prose: …until 1525, with the title Le ciento novelle antike [“A Hundred Old Tales”; Eng. trans. Il Novellino: The Hundred Old Tales]). The masterpiece of 13th-century prose is Dante’s Vita nuova. Though not yet completely at ease in vernacular prose, Dante combined simplicity with great delicacy and a poetic power that…

  • Novellino, the Hundred Old Tales, Il (collection of tales)

    Italian literature: Prose: …until 1525, with the title Le ciento novelle antike [“A Hundred Old Tales”; Eng. trans. Il Novellino: The Hundred Old Tales]). The masterpiece of 13th-century prose is Dante’s Vita nuova. Though not yet completely at ease in vernacular prose, Dante combined simplicity with great delicacy and a poetic power that…

  • Novello, Antonia (American physician)

    Antonia Novello, Puerto Rican-born physician and public official, the first woman and the first Hispanic to serve as surgeon general of the United States (1990–93). Antonia Coello suffered from a painful colon condition from birth until she underwent corrective surgery at age 18. This experience

  • Novello, Ivor (British composer and playwright)

    Ivor Novello, Welsh actor-manager, composer, and playwright, best known for his lush, sentimental, romantic musicals. Novello, the son of the celebrated Welsh singing teacher, Dame Clara Novello Davies, was educated at Magdalen College, Oxford, and served with the Royal Naval Air Service during

  • Novello, Mary (English author)

    Charles Cowden Clarke: …Charles Dickens, and Felix Mendelssohn, Clarke became a partner in music publishing with Alfred Novello, whose sister, Mary, he married in 1828. Six years later Clarke began his public lectures on Shakespeare and other dramatists and poets. Those published include Shakespeare Characters; Chiefly Those Subordinate (1863) and Molière Characters (1865).…

  • Novello, Vincent (British composer)

    Vincent Novello, English composer, conductor, and founder of the Novello music publishing house. From 1797 to 1822 Novello was organist at the Portuguese embassy chapel, where he directed the first English performances of masses by Joseph Haydn and W.A. Mozart. In 1812 he became pianist and

  • Novels (Roman law)

    Code of Justinian: The Novellae Constitutiones Post Codicem (or simply, in English, the Novels) comprised several collections of new ordinances issued by Justinian himself between 534 and 565, after publication of the revised Codex.

  • novelty period (film history)

    history of the motion picture: Edison and the Lumière brothers: …been characterized as the “novelty period,” emphasis fell on the projection device itself, and films achieved their main popularity as self-contained vaudeville attractions. Vaudeville houses, locked in intense competition at the turn of the century, headlined the name of the machines rather than the films (e.g., “The Vitascope—Edison’s Latest…

  • novelty song (music)

    Novelty song, popular song that is either written and performed as a novelty or that becomes a novelty when removed from its original context. Regardless of which of these two categories applies, the assumption is that the song is popular because of its novelty, because it sounds different from

  • novelty yarn

    textile: Novelty yarns: Novelty yarns include a wide variety of yarns made with such special effects as slubs, produced by intentionally including small lumps in the yarn structure, and man-made yarns with varying thickness introduced during production. Natural fibres, including some linens, wools to be woven…

  • November (submarine class)

    submarine: Nuclear propulsion: …first nuclear submarines, of the November class, entered service in 1958. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russia has continued the policy of maintaining a mixed nuclear-conventional submarine force. In 1968 the Chinese began to build nuclear submarines while continuing to build and purchase large numbers of…

  • November (play by Mamet)

    David Mamet: Mamet’s later plays included November (produced 2008), a farcical portrait of a U.S. president running for reelection; Race (produced 2009), a legal drama that explores racial attitudes and tensions; The Anarchist (produced 2012), which depicts a charged meeting between a women’s prison official and an inmate seeking parole; China…

  • November (month)

    November, 11th month of the Gregorian calendar. Its name is derived from novem, Latin for “nine,” an indication of its position in the early Roman

  • November 2015 Paris attacks (terrorist attacks, Paris, France)

    Paris attacks of 2015, coordinated terrorist attacks that took place in Paris on the evening of November 13, 2015. At least 130 people were killed and more than 350 were injured. France was shaken on January 7, 2015, by a deadly assault on the offices of satiric magazine Charlie Hebdo. A pair of

  • November Group (German art group)

    Novembergruppe, (German: November Group) group of artists from many media formed in Berlin in December 1918 by Max Pechstein and César Klein. Taking its name from the month of the Weimar Revolution, which occurred in Germany immediately after World War I, the Novembergruppe hoped to bring about a

  • November Insurrection (Polish history)

    November Insurrection, (1830–31), Polish rebellion that unsuccessfully tried to overthrow Russian rule in the Congress Kingdom of Poland as well as in the Polish provinces of western Russia and parts of Lithuania, Belorussia, (now Belarus), and Ukraine. When a revolution broke out in Paris (July

  • November Man, The (film by Donaldson [2014])

    Pierce Brosnan: …people, and in the thriller The November Man, in which he portrayed a retired CIA agent who is pulled onto a high-stakes mission. The next year Brosnan appeared in No Escape as an undercover British agent who assists a family in escaping from a fictional Asian country in the midst…

  • November Night (work by Crapsey)

    cinquain: An example is her poem “November Night”:

  • November Pogroms (German history)

    Kristallnacht, (German: “Crystal Night”) the night of November 9–10, 1938, when German Nazis attacked Jewish persons and property. The name Kristallnacht refers ironically to the litter of broken glass left in the streets after these pogroms. The violence continued during the day of November 10,

  • November Revolution (Russian history)

    October Revolution, (Oct. 24–25 [Nov. 6–7, New Style], 1917), the second and last major phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, in which the Bolshevik Party seized power in Russia, inaugurating the Soviet regime. See Russian Revolution of

  • November Treaty (Swedish history)

    Sweden: Change in alliance policy: …this intention, he signed the November Treaty with the Western powers in 1855. The peace treaty that was concluded in Paris shortly afterward, however, ended the hopes cherished in Sweden of winning Finland, or at least ?land, back again. All that was gained was the ?land Convention, which forbade Russia…

  • Novembergruppe (German art group)

    Novembergruppe, (German: November Group) group of artists from many media formed in Berlin in December 1918 by Max Pechstein and César Klein. Taking its name from the month of the Weimar Revolution, which occurred in Germany immediately after World War I, the Novembergruppe hoped to bring about a

  • Novempopulana (historical region, France)

    France: The shrinking of the frontiers and peripheral areas: …in 578 and settled in Novempopulana; in spite of several Frankish expeditions, this area was not subdued. In the south the Franks were unable to gain control of Septimania; they tried to accomplish this by means of diplomatic agreements, which were buttressed by dynastic intermarriage, and by military campaigns occasioned…

  • Novempopulani (France)

    Auch, town, capital of Gers département, Occitanie région, southwestern France. Auch is built on and around a hill on the west bank of the Gers River, west of Toulouse. The capital of the Celtiberian tribe of Ausci, it became important in Roman Gaul as Elimberris and, after Christianity was

  • novena (Christianity)

    Novena, in Christianity, a term designating a spiritual devotion consisting of the recitation of a set form of prayer for nine consecutive days, in petition for a divine favour or in preparation for a liturgical feast or as participation in an important event such as a Year of Jubilee. The nine

  • Noventa y ocho, Generación del (Spanish literature)

    Generation of 1898, in Spain, the novelists, poets, essayists, and thinkers active at the time of the Spanish-American War (1898), who reinvigorated Spanish letters and restored Spain to a position of intellectual and literary prominence that it had not held for centuries. The shock of Spain’s

  • N?vérek (work by E?tv?s)

    József, Baron E?tv?s: …poetry and only one novel, N?vérek (1857; “The Sisters”), which explained his ideas on education. Yet his literary work is of great importance. His short stories mark the beginning of a new portrayal of the peasant in Hungarian literature, and at a time when the Romantic novel was in fashion…

  • Noverre, Jean-Georges (French choreographer and dancer)

    Jean-Georges Noverre, distinguished French choreographer whose revolutionary treatise, Lettres sur la danse et sur les ballets (1760), still valid, brought about major reforms in ballet production, stressing the importance of dramatic motivation, which he called ballet d’action, and decrying

  • Novgorod (oblast, Russia)

    Novgorod, oblast (region), northwestern Russia, extending across the morainic Valdai Hills, which rise to 971 feet (296 metres); the lowland basins of Lake Ilmen lie to the west and of the upper Volga River to the east. Much of the oblast’s terrain is in swamp of peat bog or reed and grass marsh,

  • Novgorod (Russia)

    Veliky Novgorod, (Russian: Novgorod the Great) city and administrative centre of Novgorod oblast (region), northwestern Russia, on the Volkhov River just below its outflow from Lake Ilmen. Veliky Novgorod (commonly shortened to Novgorod) is one of the oldest Russian cities, first mentioned in

  • Novgorod school (art)

    Novgorod school, important school of Russian medieval icon and mural painting that flourished around the northwestern city of Novgorod from the 12th through the 16th century. A thriving merchant city, Novgorod was the cultural centre of Russia during the Mongol occupation of most of the rest of

  • Novgorod State Museum Preserve (museum, Novgorod, Russia)

    museum: History museums: ; and the Novgorod State Museum Preserve in Russia.

  • Novgorod, Treaty of (Europe [1326])

    Treaty of Novgorod, (June 3, 1326), the peace treaty ending decades of hostilities between the principality of Novgorod (now in Russia) and Norway. The conflicts took place in what was then generally known as Finnmark (including the present Norwegian province of Finnmark and Russia’s Kola

  • Novgorod-Severskiy (Ukraine)

    Novhorod-Siverskyy, city, northern Ukraine. The city emerged probably in the late 10th century. In the 11th century it was the centre of the Siversk principality in Kievan Rus. It was under Lithuanian (1356–1503), Russian (1503–1618), and Polish (1618–54) rule before becoming a part of the

  • Novgorod-Seversky (Ukraine)

    Novhorod-Siverskyy, city, northern Ukraine. The city emerged probably in the late 10th century. In the 11th century it was the centre of the Siversk principality in Kievan Rus. It was under Lithuanian (1356–1503), Russian (1503–1618), and Polish (1618–54) rule before becoming a part of the

  • Novhorod-Siverskyy (Ukraine)

    Novhorod-Siverskyy, city, northern Ukraine. The city emerged probably in the late 10th century. In the 11th century it was the centre of the Siversk principality in Kievan Rus. It was under Lithuanian (1356–1503), Russian (1503–1618), and Polish (1618–54) rule before becoming a part of the

  • Novi Bar (Montenegro)

    Bar, port in Montenegro, on the Adriatic Sea. It is the country’s principal port. The current city is known as Novi (“New”) Bar. Stari (“Old”) Bar’s ruins lie farther inland at the base of Mount Rumija. Stari Bar was first mentioned in the 9th century, when it came under the control of the

  • Novi Beograd (district, Serbia)

    Belgrade: A new district called New Belgrade (Novi Beograd) has been built on the plain west of the old city, between the Sava and Danube rivers. The old fortress of Kalemegdan is now a historical monument; its former glacis has been rebuilt as a garden, from which is seen a…

  • Novi Film (Yugoslavian motion-picture style)

    history of the motion picture: Russia, eastern Europe, and Central Asia: …late 1960s movement known as Novi Film (New Film), which also included such directors as Puri?a Djordjevi?, Aleksandar Petrovi?, and ?ivojin Pavlovi?, all of whom were temporarily purged from the film industry during a reactionary period in the early 1970s. This dark period came to an end in 1976 when…

  • Novi Ligure (Italy)

    Novi Ligure, town, Piedmont regione (region), northwestern Italy, north of Genoa. A free commune until 1192, it then fell successively to Tortona and Milan before passing to Genoa in 1447. It was the scene of an Austro-Russian army’s defeat of the French in 1799. Novi Ligure is now an important

  • Novi Pazar (Serbia)

    Novi Pazar, town, southwestern Serbia. It lies in the Ra?ka River valley, in rough and hilly country near the site of Ras, which was the capital city of the medieval Serbian state in the 12th–14th century. Roman baths are in the vicinity of the town, as is the Church of St. Peter (7th or 8th

  • Novi Sad (Serbia)

    Novi Sad, city and administrative capital of the ethnically mixed autonomous region of Vojvodina in northern Serbia. It is a transit port on the heavily trafficked Danube River northwest of Belgrade and is also situated on the Belgrade-Budapest rail line. Before the 18th century Novi Sad was a

  • Novial (language)

    Novial, artificial language constructed in 1928 by the Danish philologist Otto Jespersen, intended for use as an international auxiliary language, but little used today. Its grammar is similar in type to that of Esperanto or Ido. Novial has one definite article, no gender for nouns except those

  • novice thinking (psychology)

    thought: Expert thinking and novice thinking: Research by the American psychologists Herbert A. Simon, Robert Glaser, and Micheline Chi, among others, has shown that experts and novices think and solve problems in somewhat different ways. These differences explain why experts are more effective than novices in a variety of…

  • Novice, The (work by Arpino)

    Italian literature: Other writings: …boundaries (La suora giovane [1959; The Novice] and Il fratello italiano [1980; “The Italian Brother”]). Fulvio Tomizza also tackled this theme in L’amicizia (1980; “The Friendship”).

  • Novichok (nerve agent)

    Boris Johnson: Tenure as foreign secretary: …been exposed to a “novichok,” a complex nerve agent that had been developed by the Soviets, but Johnson was accused of misleading the public by saying that Britain’s top military laboratory had determined with certainty that the novichok used in the attack had come from Russia; the Defense Science…

  • Novikov, Igor (Russian scientist)

    quasar: Discovery of quasars: …Russian astronomers Yakov Zel’dovich and Igor Novikov and Austrian American astronomer Edwin Salpeter. The combination of high luminosities and small sizes was sufficiently unpalatable to some astronomers that alternative explanations were posited that did not require the quasars to be at the large distances implied by their redshifts. These alternative…

  • Novikov, Nikolay Ivanovich (Russian writer)

    Nikolay Ivanovich Novikov, Russian writer, philanthropist, and Freemason whose activities were intended to raise the educational and cultural level of the Russian people and included the production of social satires as well as the founding of schools and libraries. Influenced by Freemasonry,

  • Novikov, Sergei (Russian mathematician)

    Sergei Novikov, Russian mathematician who was awarded the Fields Medal in 1970 for his work in topology. Novikov graduated from Moscow State University in 1960 and received Ph.D. (1964) and Doctor of Science (1965) degrees from the V.A. Steklov Institute of Mathematics in Moscow. He joined the

  • Novikov, Sergei Petrovich (Russian mathematician)

    Sergei Novikov, Russian mathematician who was awarded the Fields Medal in 1970 for his work in topology. Novikov graduated from Moscow State University in 1960 and received Ph.D. (1964) and Doctor of Science (1965) degrees from the V.A. Steklov Institute of Mathematics in Moscow. He joined the

  • Novine Srbske (Serbian newspaper)

    Kragujevac: The first newspaper in Serbia, Novine Srbske, was published there. In 1941 German military authorities executed 7,000 males between the ages of 14 and 70 from the area of Kragujevac and Kraljevo; a monument recalls the massacre.

  • Noviomagus (Germany)

    Speyer, city, Rhineland-Palatinate Land (state), southwestern Germany. Speyer is a port on the left bank of the Rhine River at the mouth of the Speyer River, south of Ludwigshafen. An ancient Celtic settlement, about 100 bce it became a Roman military and trading town, Noviomagus, and later became

  • Noviomagus Lexoviorum (France)

    Lisieux, town, formerly capital of the district known as the Pays d’Auge, Calvados département, Normandy région, northwestern France. Lisieux has become a world centre of pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Thérèse, a Carmelite nun who died there in 1897 and was canonized in 1925. Lisieux was also

  • Noviomagus Regnensium (England, United Kingdom)

    Chichester, city, Chichester district, administrative county of West Sussex, historic county of Sussex, southern England. It lies on the coastal plain of the English Channel at the foot of the chalk South Downs about 1 mile (1.6 km) from the head of Chichester Harbour, with which it is connected by

  • Novissimi: poesie per gli anni ’60, I (anthology by Giuliani)

    Italian literature: Experimentalism and the new avant-garde: …there appeared the important anthology-manifesto I Novissimi: poesie per gli anni ’60 (“The Newest Poets: Poems for the ’60s”), edited by Alfredo Giuliani. In addition to the editor, the poets represented were Elio Pagliarani, author of La ragazza Carla (1960; “The Girl Carla”), a longish poem incorporating found materials and…

  • Novla (Italy)

    Nola, town and episcopal see, Campania regione, southern Italy. It lies in the fertile and highly cultivated Campanian plain, just east-northeast of Naples. It originated as a city of the Aurunci, Oscans, Etruscans, and Samnites (ancient Italic peoples) and was known as Novla (“New Town”) before it

  • Novo Arkhangelsk (Alaska, United States)

    Sitka, city and borough, southeastern Alaska, historically the most notable Alaskan settlement. U.S. Situated 95 miles (150 km) southwest of Juneau, on the western coast of Baranof Island in the Alexander Archipelago, it is the only city in southeastern Alaska that lies on the Pacific Ocean. The

  • Novo Hamburgo (Brazil)

    Novo Hamburgo, city, eastern Rio Grande do Sul estado (state), southern Brazil. It lies 115 feet (35 metres) above sea level. Novo Hamburgo was founded by Germans in 1927 and named for Hamburg, Germany. An industrial city, it manufactures shoes, hides, and leather from the cattle and hogs raised in

  • Novo Mesto (Slovenia)

    Novo Mesto, city, southern Slovenia, on the Krka River. Novo Mesto was founded in 1365 by Rudolf IV of Austria and became an important military base on the Ottoman frontier in the 15th century. Though ravaged twice by fire (1576 and 1664) and once by plague (1599), Novo Mesto developed into an

  • Novo-Mariinsk (Russia)

    Anadyr, town and administrative centre, Chukchi autonomous okrug (district), far northeastern Russia. It lies on the southern shore of the estuary of the Anadyr River, which empties into the Bering Sea. Incorporated as a town in 1965, it is a port on the Northern Sea Route and has a meteorologic

  • novobulgarski (language)

    Bulgarian literature: …this was the formation of novobulgarski, the new (or modern) literary Bulgarian language based on the vernacular of its eastern dialects, as opposed to the medieval Church Slavonic, which until then had always been used for literary purposes. Pioneers in this were Bishop Sophrony, whose Nedelnik (1806; “Sunday-Book”) is the…

  • Novocain (drug)

    Procaine hydrochloride, synthetic organic compound used in medicine as a local anesthetic. Introduced in 1905 under the trade name Novocaine, it became the first and best-known substitute for cocaine in local anesthesia. Generally used in a 1 to 10 percent saline solution, procaine hydrochloride

  • Novocaine (drug)

    Procaine hydrochloride, synthetic organic compound used in medicine as a local anesthetic. Introduced in 1905 under the trade name Novocaine, it became the first and best-known substitute for cocaine in local anesthesia. Generally used in a 1 to 10 percent saline solution, procaine hydrochloride

  • Novo?erkassk (Russia)

    Novocherkassk, city, Rostov oblast (region), southwestern Russia. It lies at the confluence of the Tuzlov and the Aksay rivers. The original 16th-century town of Starocherkasskaya stood along the Don River, but it was frequently inundated and was moved to its present site in 1805. Novocherkassk

  • Novocheboksarsk (Russia)

    Cheboksary: Its satellite town, Novocheboksarsk, the site of a large hydroelectric station, is a chemical centre. Chuvash University (1967) and teacher-training and agricultural institutes are located within the city. Pop. (2006 est.) 442,387.

  • Novocherkassk (Russia)

    Novocherkassk, city, Rostov oblast (region), southwestern Russia. It lies at the confluence of the Tuzlov and the Aksay rivers. The original 16th-century town of Starocherkasskaya stood along the Don River, but it was frequently inundated and was moved to its present site in 1805. Novocherkassk

  • Novodevichy Convent (convent, Moscow, Russia)

    Moscow: The middle zone: …the fortified monasteries, the 16th-century Novodevichy Convent, with its beautiful Smolensk Cathedral, whose tall bell tower (1690) dominates the churches and buildings within the crenellated walls and towers of the convent. The cathedral now houses the Novodevichy Convent Museum, and the complex includes a cemetery where Khrushchev and other prominent…

  • Novograd-Volynsky (Ukraine)

    Novohrad-Volynskyy, city, western Ukraine. It lies at the confluence of the Sluch and Smilka rivers. Documents first record the existence of the town in 1257. It was incorporated in 1795, before which it was known as Zvyahel. It contains the ruins of a 14th-century castle. The city’s industries

  • Novohrad-Volynskyy (Ukraine)

    Novohrad-Volynskyy, city, western Ukraine. It lies at the confluence of the Sluch and Smilka rivers. Documents first record the existence of the town in 1257. It was incorporated in 1795, before which it was known as Zvyahel. It contains the ruins of a 14th-century castle. The city’s industries

  • Novokuibyshevsk (Russia)

    Novokuybyshevsk, city, Samara oblast (region), western Russia, near the Volga River. It was founded in 1948 in connection with the development of the oil industry and received city status in 1952. Novokuybyshevsk is situated amid the Volga-Urals oil field and has oil refining, petrochemicals, and

  • Novokujby?evsk (Russia)

    Novokuybyshevsk, city, Samara oblast (region), western Russia, near the Volga River. It was founded in 1948 in connection with the development of the oil industry and received city status in 1952. Novokuybyshevsk is situated amid the Volga-Urals oil field and has oil refining, petrochemicals, and

  • Novokuybyshevsk (Russia)

    Novokuybyshevsk, city, Samara oblast (region), western Russia, near the Volga River. It was founded in 1948 in connection with the development of the oil industry and received city status in 1952. Novokuybyshevsk is situated amid the Volga-Urals oil field and has oil refining, petrochemicals, and

  • Novokuzneck (Russia)

    Novokuznetsk, city, Kemerovo oblast (region), south-central Russia. The city lies along the Tom River just below its confluence with the Kondoma, in the Kuznetsk Coal Basin. Originally the small village of Kuznetsk, founded in 1617, stood on the river’s right bank; it had about 4,000 inhabitants in

  • Novokuznetsk (Russia)

    Novokuznetsk, city, Kemerovo oblast (region), south-central Russia. The city lies along the Tom River just below its confluence with the Kondoma, in the Kuznetsk Coal Basin. Originally the small village of Kuznetsk, founded in 1617, stood on the river’s right bank; it had about 4,000 inhabitants in

  • novolac (chemistry)

    major industrial polymers: Phenol formaldehyde: …catalyst to produce prepolymers called novolacs. Novolacs resemble the polymer except that they are of much lower molecular weight and are still thermoplastic. Curing to network polymer is accomplished by the addition of more formaldehyde or, more commonly, of compounds that decompose to formaldehyde on heating.

  • Novomoskovsk (Russia)

    Novomoskovsk, city, Tula oblast (region), western Russia, situated on the upper Don River. Founded in 1930 as Bobriki, the town developed as a major chemical centre, making fertilizers and plastics and mining lignite (brown coal). Pop. (2006 est.)

  • Novomoskovsk (Ukraine)

    Novomoskovsk, city, east-central Ukraine. The city lies along the Samara River a few miles above its confluence with the Dnieper River, and on the Kharkiv-Dnipropetrovsk railway and the Moscow-Crimea highway. The settlement of Samarchyk, or Novoselytsia, dating from 1650, was resited there in 1784

  • Novonikolayevsky (Russia)

    Novosibirsk, city, administrative centre of Novosibirsk oblast (region) and the chief city of western Siberia, in south-central Russia. It lies along the Ob River where the latter is crossed by the Trans-Siberian Railroad. It developed after the village of Krivoshchekovo on the left bank was chosen

  • Novopolotsk (town, Belarus)

    Polatsk: …Polatsk and its satellite town, Navapolatsk (Novopolotsk), are railway junctions and industrial centres, with oil-refining, petrochemical, glass-fibre, woodworking, and food-processing industries, as well as a teacher-training institute. Pop. (2006 est.) 82,400.

  • Novorosiysk (Ukraine)

    Dnipro, city, south-central Ukraine. It lies along the Dnieper River, near its confluence with the Samara. The river was considerably widened by the construction of a dam about 50 miles (80 km) downstream. Founded in 1783 as Katerynoslav on the river’s north bank, the settlement was moved to its

  • Novorossiisk (Russia)

    Novorossiysk, city, Krasnodar kray (territory), southwestern Russia. It lies at the head of Tsemes Bay on the northeastern coast of the Black Sea. Founded as a fortress in 1838, it developed as a seaport, especially after the coming of the railway in 1888. In pre-Revolutionary days Novorossiysk was

  • Novorossijsk (Russia)

    Novorossiysk, city, Krasnodar kray (territory), southwestern Russia. It lies at the head of Tsemes Bay on the northeastern coast of the Black Sea. Founded as a fortress in 1838, it developed as a seaport, especially after the coming of the railway in 1888. In pre-Revolutionary days Novorossiysk was

  • Novorossiya (historical region, Ukraine)

    Ukraine: Ukraine under direct imperial Russian rule: …sparsely settled southern lands (named Novorossiya, or New Russia) were colonized by migrants from other parts of Ukraine, as well as smaller numbers from Russia, the Balkans, and Germany. This colonization movement greatly expanded Ukrainian ethnic territory. The new Black Sea port of Odessa (Odesa) grew into a large and…

  • Novorossiysk (Russia)

    Novorossiysk, city, Krasnodar kray (territory), southwestern Russia. It lies at the head of Tsemes Bay on the northeastern coast of the Black Sea. Founded as a fortress in 1838, it developed as a seaport, especially after the coming of the railway in 1888. In pre-Revolutionary days Novorossiysk was

  • Novo?achtinsk (Russia)

    Novoshakhtinsk, city, Rostov oblast (region), southwestern Russia, on the Maly Nesvetay River. It developed as a major anthracite coal-mining centre, achieving city status in 1939. The city’s dependence on the coal industry, which suffered as oil and natural gas increased in importance as fuels in

  • Novoselic, Krist (American musician)

    Nirvana: April 5, 1994, Seattle, Washington), Krist Novoselic (b. May 16, 1965, Compton, California), and Dave Grohl (b. January 14, 1969, Warren, Ohio).

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