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  • Novoselov, Sir Konstantin (physicist)

    Sir Konstantin Novoselov, physicist who was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize for Physics for his experiments with graphene. He shared the prize with his colleague and former teacher Andre Geim. Novoselov held dual citizenship in Russia and Great Britain. Novoselov received a master’s degree from the

  • Novoselov, Sir Konstantin Sergeyevich (physicist)

    Sir Konstantin Novoselov, physicist who was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize for Physics for his experiments with graphene. He shared the prize with his colleague and former teacher Andre Geim. Novoselov held dual citizenship in Russia and Great Britain. Novoselov received a master’s degree from the

  • Novoselytsia (Ukraine)

    Novomoskovsk, city, east-central Ukraine. The city lies along the Samara River a few miles above its confluence with the Dnieper River, and on the Kharkiv-Dnipropetrovsk railway and the Moscow-Crimea highway. The settlement of Samarchyk, or Novoselytsia, dating from 1650, was resited there in 1784

  • Novoshakhtinsk (Russia)

    Novoshakhtinsk, city, Rostov oblast (region), southwestern Russia, on the Maly Nesvetay River. It developed as a major anthracite coal-mining centre, achieving city status in 1939. The city’s dependence on the coal industry, which suffered as oil and natural gas increased in importance as fuels in

  • Novosibirsk (oblast, Russia)

    Novosibirsk, oblast (region), south-central Russia, in western Siberia. It lies across an extremely level plain known as the Baraba Steppe in the north and Kulunda Steppe in the south, most of which is exceptionally swampy, with many lakes. The oblast is drained by the Ob River and by tributaries

  • Novosibirsk (Russia)

    Novosibirsk, city, administrative centre of Novosibirsk oblast (region) and the chief city of western Siberia, in south-central Russia. It lies along the Ob River where the latter is crossed by the Trans-Siberian Railroad. It developed after the village of Krivoshchekovo on the left bank was chosen

  • Novosibirsk Reservoir (reservoir, Russia)

    Ob River: Physiography: …at Novosibirsk forms the huge Novosibirsk Reservoir. Below Novosibirsk, where the river leaves the region of forest steppe to enter a zone of aspen and birch forest, both valley and floodplain broaden notably until, at the confluence with the Tom River, they are, respectively, 12 and 3 or more miles…

  • Novosibirskye Ostrova (islands, Russia)

    New Siberian Islands, archipelago, northeastern Russia, lying north of eastern Siberia in the Arctic Ocean and dividing the Laptev Sea to the west from the East Siberian Sea to the east. Dmitry Laptev Strait separates the New Siberian Islands from the Siberian mainland. The archipelago is

  • Novosiltsev, Nikolay Nikolayevich, Count (Russian statesman)

    Nikolay Nikolayevich, Count Novosiltsev, Russian statesman and confidant of Tsar Alexander I, who made him a member of the Secret Committee (1801–03) for the planning of reforms. Under Alexander and his successor, Nicholas I, Novosiltsev served in the administration of Russian Poland. Novosiltsev

  • Novotny, Antonín (president of Czechoslovakia)

    Antonín Novotny, Czech communist leader of a Stalinist faction who was deposed in the reform movement of 1968. Trained as a locksmith, Novotny became a member of the Communist Party in 1921. He was arrested during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1938 and placed in Mauthasen concentration

  • Novotroick (Russia)

    Novotroitsk, city, Orenburg oblast (region), west-central Russia. It lies along the Ural River, in the Orsk-Khalilovo industrial district of the southern Urals. The centre of ferrous metallurgy in the area, the city has a major integrated iron and steel plant that was developed in the 1950s on the

  • Novotroitsk (Russia)

    Novotroitsk, city, Orenburg oblast (region), west-central Russia. It lies along the Ural River, in the Orsk-Khalilovo industrial district of the southern Urals. The centre of ferrous metallurgy in the area, the city has a major integrated iron and steel plant that was developed in the 1950s on the

  • Novum Castellum (Switzerland)

    Neuchatel, capital (since 1815) of Neuchatel canton, western Switzerland, on the northwestern shore of Lake Neuchatel, at the mouth of the Seyon River, partly on the slopes of the Chaumont (3,566 feet [1,087 metres]) and partly on land reclaimed from the lake. A Burgundian town by the 11th century,

  • Novum Organum (work by Bacon)

    Baconian method: …Bacon’s method, as explained in Novum Organum (1620; “New Instrument”), consisted of three main steps: first, a description of facts; second, a tabulation, or classification, of those facts into three categories—instances of the presence of the characteristic under investigation, instances of its absence, or instances of its presence in varying…

  • novus homo (Roman social class)

    Sallust: …a political career as a novus homo (“new man”); that is, he was not born into the ruling class, which was an accident that influenced both the content and tone of his historical judgments. Nothing is known of his early career, but he probably gained some military experience, perhaps in…

  • Novy Chardzhuy (Turkmenistan)

    Türkmenabat, city and administrative centre, Lebap oblast (province), Turkmenistan, on the Amu Darya (ancient Oxus River). The second largest city in Turkmenistan, it was founded as a Russian military settlement when the Transcaspian Railway reached the Amu Darya in 1886. It is now a rail junction

  • Novy Margelan (Uzbekistan)

    Fergana, city, eastern Uzbekistan. It lies at the foot of the Alay Mountains in the southern part of the Fergana Valley. It was founded by the Russians in 1877 as the military and administrative centre of the province of Fergana, formed from the newly conquered khanate of Kokand (Quq?n). It became

  • Novy Mir (Soviet magazine)

    Novy Mir, (Russian: “New World”), literary journal, a highly influential monthly published in Moscow. Founded in 1925, it was an official organ of the Writers’ Union of the U.S.S.R. Its pages carried the work of many of the Soviet Union’s leading writers, and a good number of them were either

  • Novy Stavropol (Russia)

    Tolyatti, city, Samara oblast (province), western Russia, on the Volga River. Founded as a fortress in 1738 and known as Stavropol, it was given city status in 1780 and again in 1946. Overshadowed by Samara, it remained unimportant until the beginning in 1950 of the huge V.I. Lenin barrage (dam)

  • Novykh, Grigori Yefimovich (Russian mystic)

    Grigori Rasputin, Siberian peasant and mystic whose ability to improve the condition of Aleksey Nikolayevich, the hemophiliac heir to the Russian throne, made him an influential favourite at the court of Emperor Nicholas II and Empress Alexandra. Although he attended school, Grigori Rasputin

  • NOW (American organization)

    National Organization for Women (NOW), American activist organization (founded 1966) that promotes equal rights for women. It is the largest feminist group in the United States, with some 500,000 members in the early 21st century. The National Organization for Women was established by a small group

  • Now (album by Twain)

    Shania Twain: …2017 Twain released the chart-topping Now, her first studio album in 15 years.

  • Now and Forever (film by Hathaway [1934])

    Henry Hathaway: Early work: …to more prominent properties with Now and Forever, which starred Shirley Temple and two of the day’s biggest stars, Gary Cooper and Carole Lombard. Cooper was better suited for Hathaway’s next film, the adventure drama The Lives of a Bengal Lancer (1935), which received seven Academy Award nominations, including best

  • Now Barabbas (work by Douglas-Home)

    William Douglas-Home: Now Barabbas (1947), his first play to show in London’s West End, was based on his prison experiences during World War II after he was court-martialed for refusing to take part in an attack that killed more than 2,000 civilians in the French port of…

  • Now I’ll Tell (film by Burke [1934])

    Shirley Temple: …1934 included Change of Heart; Now I’ll Tell, which starred Spencer Tracy as a gambler; and Now and Forever, a romantic drama featuring Gary Cooper and Carole Lombard. However, it was arguably Bright Eyes (1934) that propelled her to stardom. The musical was specifically made for Temple—who was cast as…

  • Now Inhale (story by Russell)

    Tower of Hanoi: …for comedic effect in “Now Inhale,” a 1959 classic science fiction story by American Eric Frank Russell, in which the protagonist is allowed to play one “game” from Earth before being executed on an alien planet.

  • Now That the Buffalo’s Gone (song by Sainte-Marie)

    Buffy Sainte-Marie: Early life and breakthrough: “Now That the Buffalo’s Gone” addressed Native American land rights and intercultural relationships. The song featured Sainte-Marie’s distinctive tremolo vocal technique, which is often attributed to the influence of Native American powwow singing but which may also reflect Sainte-Marie’s acknowledged identification with the French singer…

  • Now They Sing Again (work by Frisch)

    Max Frisch: …Nun singen sie wieder (1946; Now They Sing Again), in which Surrealistic tableaux reveal the effects caused by hostages being assassinated by German Nazis. His other historical melodramas included Die chinesische Mauer (1947; The Chinese Wall) and the bleak Als der Krieg zu Ende war (1949; When the War Was…

  • Now You See Me (film by Leterrier [2013])

    Michael Caine: …magnate in the heist spectacle Now You See Me (2013) and its 2016 sequel. Caine joined the ensemble cast of Nolan’s space drama Interstellar (2014) as a NASA scientist leading a team in search of a habitable planet in the wake of catastrophic war and famine on Earth. He turned…

  • Now You See Me 2 (film by Chu [2016])

    Michael Caine: …See Me (2013) and its 2016 sequel. Caine joined the ensemble cast of Nolan’s space drama Interstellar (2014) as a NASA scientist leading a team in search of a habitable planet in the wake of catastrophic war and famine on Earth. He turned to lighter fare with an appearance as…

  • Now, Voyager (film by Rapper [1942])

    Now, Voyager, American dramatic film, released in 1942, that was based on Olive Higgins Prouty’s 1941 novel of the same name. The title was derived from Walt Whitman’s poem “The Untold Want”: The story centres on Charlotte Vale (played by Bette Davis), a dowdy spinster driven to near insanity by

  • Nowa Huta (section of Kraków, Poland)

    Nowa Huta, industrial section of Kraków (Cracow), southern Poland. It is situated on the Vistula River. Originally a separate city located just east of Kraków, Nowa Huta was incorporated into Kraków in 1951. Beginning in 1949, Nowa Huta was developed on the site of the medieval village settlements

  • Nowa Sól (Poland)

    Nowa Sól, city, Lubuskie województwo (province), west-central Poland, on the Oder River. A railroad junction and port on the Oder, Nowa Sól has metalworks, paper and textile mills, and chemical and glue plants. A museum houses ethnographic and historical displays of the region. Pop. (2011)

  • Nowak, Martin A. (American biologist)

    inclusive fitness: Wilson, Martin A. Nowak, and Corina E. Tarnita have provided mathematical explanations for eusociality based on population genetics and natural selection; the results of their work have nearly rendered the concept of inclusive fitness obsolete. By analyzing hypothetical populations of organisms in different evolutionary scenarios, the…

  • nowcasting (meteorology)

    weather forecasting: Objective predictions: …been developing a method called nowcasting to meet precisely this sort of challenge. In this method, radar and satellite observations of local atmospheric conditions are processed and displayed rapidly by computers to project weather several hours in advance. The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operates a facility known as…

  • Nowe (ancient city, Egypt)

    Thebes, one of the famed cities of antiquity, the capital of the ancient Egyptian empire at its heyday. Thebes lay on either side of the Nile River at approximately 26° N latitude. The modern town of Luxor, or Al-Uq?ur, which occupies part of the site, is 419 miles (675 km) south of Cairo. Ancient

  • Nowele (work by Orkan)

    W?adys?aw Orkan: In his first volume, Nowele (1898; “Short Stories”), as well as in Komornicy (1900; “Tenant Farmers”), Orkan gives a naturalistic account of highlander-peasant life in his native Tatra region. Later, influenced by the literary and political movement of Young Poland, he wrote the novel W roztokach (1903; “In the…

  • Nowell, Alexander (English priest)

    Alexander Nowell, English scholar, Anglican priest, and dean of St. Paul’s Cathedral in London whose tactless preaching brought him into disfavour with Queen Elizabeth I. He was the author of the catechism still used by the Church of England. Made master of Westminster School, London, in 1543,

  • Nowell-Smith, Patrick (British philosopher)

    utilitarianism: Utilitarianism since the late 19th century: … and a moralist, and by Patrick Nowell-Smith, a moralist of the Oxford linguistic school; by the interpretation of Mill as a “rule” utilitarian by another Oxford philosopher, J.O. Urmson; and by the analysis by John Rawls, a Harvard political philosopher, of the significance for utilitarianism of two different conceptions of…

  • Nowgong (Madhya Pradesh, India)

    Nowgong, town, northern Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It lies just east of the Dhasan River, about 10 miles (16 km) northwest of Chhatarpur. Nowgong is connected by road with other localities and is a major agricultural distribution centre. Chemical and pharmaceutical works and a distillery

  • Nowgong (Assam, India)

    Nagaon, city, central Assam state, northeastern India. It lies on the Kalang River, a tributary of the Brahmaputra River to the north. Nagaon is an agricultural trade centre and has several colleges affiliated with Gauhati University, a technical school, and a nursing school. There is a rail

  • Nowhere in Africa (film by Link [2001])
  • Nowhere Man: The Pronek Fantasies (work by Hemon)

    Aleksandar Hemon: …from his earlier novella, with Nowhere Man: The Pronek Fantasies (2002), the story of a young man growing up in Sarajevo who later attempts to navigate a new life in Chicago while working minimum-wage jobs. The book, like the rest of Hemon’s work, was notable for the author’s inventive use…

  • Nowhere to Go (film by Holt [1958])

    Maggie Smith: …screen debut in 1958 in Nowhere to Go, but she only achieved international fame with her performance in the title role of The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (1969), for which she received an Academy Award for best actress. Her subsequent stage appearances with the National Theatre included roles in…

  • Nowicki, Matthew (American architect)

    Western architecture: After World War II: …structural geometry, best indicated by Matthew Nowicki’s (1910–49) sports arena at Raleigh, North Carolina (1952–53), in which two tilted parabolic arches, supported by columns, and a stretched-skin roof enclose a colossal space devoid of interior supports. In 1949 Nowicki had challenged Louis Sullivan’s precept, form follows function, with another, form…

  • Nowitzki, Dirk (German basketball player)

    Dirk Nowitzki, German professional basketball player who is regarded as one of the greatest foreign-born players in National Basketball Association (NBA) history. Nowitzki took up basketball relatively late in life, at age 13. His immense natural talent (his mother was a member of the West German

  • Nowlan, Philip (American writer)

    Buck Rogers: …1929, was created by writer Philip Nowlan and cartoonist Dick Calkins. Nowlan debuted the character of Anthony (“Buck”) Rogers in Armageddon: 2419 A.D. (1928–29), serialized in Amazing Stories. The comic strip was first titled Buck Rogers in the Year 2429 A.D. Later it was named Buck Rogers in the 25th…

  • Nowra (New South Wales, Australia)

    Nowra-Bomaderry, urban area, southeastern New South Wales, Australia, part of the Shoalhaven local government area. It lies along the Shoalhaven River delta. Nowra was proclaimed a town in 1857. Its name is from the Aboriginal word for “black cockatoo.” Made a municipality in 1871, it was

  • Nowra-Bomaderry (New South Wales, Australia)

    Nowra-Bomaderry, urban area, southeastern New South Wales, Australia, part of the Shoalhaven local government area. It lies along the Shoalhaven River delta. Nowra was proclaimed a town in 1857. Its name is from the Aboriginal word for “black cockatoo.” Made a municipality in 1871, it was

  • Nowras-nāmeh (work by Firishtah)

    Firishtah: , Mahomedan Power in India). It is also known under the title Tārīkh-e Fereshteh (“Firishtah’s Chronicle”). The second of the two versions in which it was written often appears under still another title, the Nowras-nāmeh (“New Book”). The history covers the famous Muslim rulers of India…

  • Nowruz (Zoroastrianism and Parsiism)

    Nowruz, festival celebrating the new year on the Persian calendar, usually beginning on March 21 on the Gregorian calendar. Though it is a largely secular celebration, it is often associated with and influenced by Zoroastrianism and Parsiism, in which Nowruz is a religious holiday. The festival is

  • Nowshāk, Mount (mountain, Afghanistan)

    Hindu Kush: Physiography: …Hindu Kush, which are Mounts Noshaq (Nowshāk; 24,557 feet [7,485 metres]), Istoro Nal (24,242 feet [7,389 metres]), and Tirich Mir. Most major glaciers of the Hindu Kush—among them Kotgaz, Niroghi, Atrak, and Tirich—are in the valleys of this section.

  • Nowshera (Pakistan)

    Nowshera, town, Kyber Pakhtunkhwa province, northern Pakistan. Lying on a sandy plain surrounded by hills, on the banks of the Kābul River (there bridged), Nowshera is a commercial and industrial centre that is connected by rail and road with Dargai (Malakand Pass), Mardan, Peshawar, and

  • Nowy S?cz (Poland)

    Nowy S?cz, city, Ma?opolskie województwo (province), southern Poland. It lies along the Dunajec River, a tributary of the Vistula River. Nowy S?cz is situated in the fertile Kotlina S?decka (S?cz Dale), a plain of the Carpathian Mountains noted for its apples. Nowy S?cz’s scenic surroundings and

  • nowzad (Parsi rite)

    upanayana: …homeland was Iran) is called nowzād (Persian: “new birth”). It invests both six-year-old boys and girls with a thread worn around the waist. Some scholars suggest that this indicates a common and ancient Indo-Iranian origin of the two ceremonies.

  • Nox (novel by Hettche)

    German literature: The turn of the 21st century: Thomas Hettche’s Nox (1995; “Night”) has a strangely omniscient narrator in the form of a young man whose throat has been slit in a sadomasochistic sexual act during the night the Wall came down. Nox draws a rather too obvious equivalence between its narrator’s wound, from which…

  • Nox (poetry by Carson)

    Anne Carson: ” Carson’s work Nox (2010; “Night”) is a sort of art book—containing reflections on the life and death of her older brother. Float, a volume of poetry and essays, was published in 2016.

  • Noyan Hutuqtu (Mongolian lama)

    Central Asian arts: Buddhist morality plays: …to tradition, the Mongolian lama Noyan Hutuqtu (1803–56) studied a-che-lha-mo as performed in the Kokonor (Tsinghai) region of northeastern Tibet and then introduced his own adaptations of it at Tulgatu-yin keyid, his own monastery near the village of Saynshand, in Mongolia. For the first time, in 1832, he produced a…

  • Noyce, Robert (American engineer)

    Robert Noyce, American engineer and coinventor of the integrated circuit, a system of interconnected transistors on a single silicon microchip. In 1939 the Noyce family moved to Grinnell, Iowa, where the father had accepted a position as a Congregational minister and where the son began to

  • Noyce, Robert Norton (American engineer)

    Robert Noyce, American engineer and coinventor of the integrated circuit, a system of interconnected transistors on a single silicon microchip. In 1939 the Noyce family moved to Grinnell, Iowa, where the father had accepted a position as a Congregational minister and where the son began to

  • Noyes, Alfred (British poet)

    Alfred Noyes, English poet, a traditionalist remembered chiefly for his lyrical verse. Noyes’ first volume of poems, The Loom of Years (1902), published while he was still at the University of Oxford, was followed by others that showed patriotic fervour and a love for the sea. He taught modern

  • Noyes, Blanche (aviator)

    Louise McPhetridge Thaden: …1936, Thaden and fellow aviator Blanche Noyes, flying a Beechcraft Staggerwing, a large and powerful biplane designed for business travelers, became the first women to win the Bendix Transcontinental Air Race, flown that year from New York City to Los Angeles. The two collected the winners’ prize money as well…

  • Noyes, Eliot (American industrial designer)

    industrial design: American hegemony and challenges from abroad: …in the postwar era include Eliot Noyes, an employee of Norman Bel Geddes who in the 1950s and ’60s redesigned IBM’s product line, most notably the Selectric typewriter (1961); Richard Ten Eyck, who designed Cessna airplanes and Hesston tractors and is best known for designing the Vornado fan (1945–59, with…

  • Noyes, John Humphrey (American religious leader)

    John Humphrey Noyes, founder of the Oneida Community, the most successful of the utopian socialist communities in the United States. The son of a well-to-do New England businessman, Noyes graduated from Dartmouth College (Hanover, N.H.) in 1830 and seemed bound for a legal career. But, after one

  • Noyon (France)

    Noyon, town, Oise département, Hauts-de-France région, northern France. It lies north-northeast of Paris. The town, on the lower slopes and at the foot of a hill, occupies both banks of the Verse River, which is a tributary of the Oise. Noyon formerly was an important ecclesiastical centre. Its

  • Noyon, Peace of (Europe [1516])

    Italy: French victories in Lombardy: …his mother’s insanity, signed the Peace of Noyon (Aug. 13, 1516), which gave Milan to France and confirmed Naples for Spain. The peace would not endure, however, as local Italian affairs became subordinated to the dynastic struggle between the young heirs to Habsburg and Valois (the ruling French dynasty) fortunes…

  • Noyori Ryōji (Japanese chemist)

    Noyori Ryōji, Japanese chemist who, with K. Barry Sharpless and William S. Knowles, won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2001 for developing the first chiral catalysts. Noyori earned a Ph.D. from Kyōto University in 1967 and the following year joined the faculty at Nagoya University. From 2000 to

  • Nóz w wodzie (film by Polanski [1962])

    Knife in the Water, Polish psychological thriller film, released in 1962, that was director Roman Polanski’s acclaimed first feature-length movie; it was also the first Polish movie to be nominated for an Academy Award for best foreign-language film. Knife in the Water features only three

  • Nozaki Bunzō (Japanese author)

    Kanagaki Robun, Japanese writer of humorous fiction who brought a traditional satirical art to bear on the peculiarities of Japanese society in the process of modernization. Robun began as an apprentice shop boy but became a disciple of Hanagasa Bunkyō, a writer in the gesaku tradition (writing

  • Nozick, Robert (American philosopher)

    Robert Nozick, American philosopher, best known for his rigorous defense of libertarianism in his first major work, Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974). A wide-ranging thinker, Nozick also made important contributions to epistemology, the problem of personal identity, and decision theory. Nozick was

  • Nozomi (Japanese space probe)

    Nozomi, (Japanese: “Hope”) unsuccessful Japanese space probe that was designed to measure the interaction between the solar wind and the Martian upper atmosphere. Nozomi was launched on July 4, 1998, from Kagoshima Space Center, making Japan the third country (after the Soviet Union and the United

  • nozze di Figaro, Le (opera by Mozart)

    The Marriage of Figaro, comic opera in four acts by Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (Italian libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte), which premiered in Vienna at the Burgtheater on May 1, 1786. Based on Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais’s 1784 play Le Mariage de Figaro, Mozart’s work remains a

  • nozzle (mechanics)

    jet engine: Low-bypass turbofans and turbojets: …with an afterburner, the exhaust nozzle must have a variable throat area to accommodate the large variations in volumetric flow rate between the very hot exhaust stream from the operating afterburner and the cooler airstream discharged from the engine when the afterburner is not in use. Engines intended for supersonic…

  • NP (political party, Philippines)

    Sergio Osme?a: …Filipino statesman, founder of the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista) and president of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946.

  • Np (chemical element)

    Neptunium (Np), radioactive chemical element of the actinoid series of the periodic table that was the first transuranium element to be artificially produced, atomic number 93. Though traces of neptunium have subsequently been found in nature, where it is not primeval but produced by

  • NP (medical profession)

    Nurse practitioner (NP), nonphysician clinician who is a nurse with a graduate degree in advanced-practice nursing. The primary function of nurse practitioners is to promote wellness through patient health education. Their role includes taking patients’ comprehensive health histories, performing

  • NP (political party, South Africa)

    National Party (NP), South African political party, founded in 1914, which ruled the country from 1948 to 1994. Its following included most of the Dutch-descended Afrikaners and many English-speaking whites. The National Party was long dedicated to policies of apartheid and white supremacy, but by

  • NP problem (mathematics)

    NP-complete problem: …problem is called NP (nondeterministic polynomial) if its solution can be guessed and verified in polynomial time; nondeterministic means that no particular rule is followed to make the guess. If a problem is NP and all other NP problems are polynomial-time reducible to it, the problem is NP-complete. Thus,…

  • NP-complete problem (mathematics)

    NP-complete problem, any of a class of computational problems for which no efficient solution algorithm has been found. Many significant computer-science problems belong to this class—e.g., the traveling salesman problem, satisfiability problems, and graph-covering problems. So-called easy, or

  • NP-hard problem (mathematics)

    P versus NP problem: A problem is NP-hard if an algorithm for its solution can be modified to solve any NP problem—or any P problem, for that matter, as P problems are a subset of NP problems. (Not all NP-hard problems are members of the class of NP problems, however.) A problem…

  • NPA (political organization, Philippines)

    New People’s Army (NPA), military arm of the Communist Party of the Philippines, Marxist-Leninist (CPP-ML), which is a Communist organization dedicated to achieving power in the Philippines by means of revolutionary insurrection. The CPP-ML was originally a Maoist faction that broke away from the

  • NPC (political party, Nigeria)

    Nigeria: Political process: …Action Group (AG) and the Northern People’s Congress (NPC) were the major Nigerian parties when the country became independent in 1960. However, their regional rather than national focus—the AG represented the west, the NPC the north, and the National Council for Nigeria and the Cameroons the east—ultimately contributed to the…

  • NPC (government organization, China)

    China: Constitutional framework: …in the hands of the National People’s Congress and its Standing Committee. The State Council and its Standing Committee, by contrast, are made responsible for executing rather than enacting the laws. This basic division of power is also specified for each of the territorial divisions—province, county, and so forth—with the…

  • NPC (biology)

    Günter Blobel: …to be known as the nuclear pore complex (NPC). The NPC is one of the largest protein-based components found in cells and provides the main method of transport for proteins between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Blobel was primarily concerned with determining the structure of the NPC and employed various…

  • NPCC (Somalian company)

    Jamaame: The National Plastic and Carton Company was established at Jamaame in collaboration with the Italian government in 1974. This industry was able to promote banana exports when it developed a local packing material to replace imported packing, thus reducing the price of Somali bananas in Europe.…

  • NPDES (United States environmental program)

    Clean Water Act: …CWA’s discharge permit program, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). NPDES requires any wastewater-treatment plant to obtain discharge permits and follow EPA guidelines for water treatment. The permits place limits on the amount of material that can be discharged. Additionally, many wastewater plants participate in the National Pretreatment Program,…

  • NPE (business)

    Patent troll, pejorative term for a company, found most often in the American information technology industry, that uses a portfolio of patents not to produce products but solely to collect licensing fees or settlements on patent infringement from other companies. The term patent troll arose in the

  • NPF (political organization, Iraq)

    Iraq: The revolution of 1968: …willing to participate in the National Progressive Front (NPF). The ICP had also shown interest. A Charter for National Action, prepared by the Ba?ath Party, was published in the press for public discussion and became the basis for cooperation with the ICP and other parties.

  • NPFL (military organization, Liberia)

    Charles Taylor: …Libya, where he formed the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL), a militia group that invaded the country in late 1989.

  • NPI (psychology)

    narcissism: Definition and assessment: …self-report questionnaires such as the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), the most widely used such scale, which can also be used to assess narcissistic personality disorder. The NPI presents respondents with a set of forced-choice items in which they must decide which of two statements is most descriptive of them. For…

  • NPM (government)

    governance: The new governance: …first wave consisted of the new public management (NPM), as advocated by neoliberals; these reforms were attempts to increase the role of markets and of corporate management techniques in the public sector. The second wave of reforms consisted of attempts to develop and manage a joined-up series of networks informed…

  • NPN (political party, Nigeria)

    Odumegwu Ojukwu: He joined the National Party of Nigeria (NPN) in January 1983 and subsequently attempted to reenter politics; his bid for the senate representing the state of Anambra was unsuccessful. He was detained for 10 months following a coup that brought Muhammad Buhari to power at the end of…

  • NPP (biology)

    marine ecosystem: Biological productivity: …of producers; what remains is net productivity. Net marine primary productivity is the amount of organic material available to support the consumers (herbivores and carnivores) of the sea. The standing crop is the total biomass (weight) of vegetation. Most primary productivity is carried out by pelagic phytoplankton, not benthic plants.

  • NPP (political party, Ghana)

    Ghana: Democratic stability: …John Agyekum Kufuor of the New Patriotic Party (NPP) in the first peaceful transfer of power between democratically elected governments since Ghanaian independence in 1957; Kufuor was reelected in 2004.

  • NPR (American organization)

    National Public Radio (NPR), the public radio network of the United States. Based in Washington, D.C., NPR offers a broad range of high-quality news and cultural programming to hundreds of local public radio stations. The 1967 Public Broadcasting Act created the Corporation for Public Broadcasting

  • NPS (political party, Suriname)

    Suriname: Political movements: …universal suffrage, set up the Suriname National Party (Nationale Partij Suriname; NPS). The Progressive Suriname People’s Party (Progressieve Suriname Volkspartij; PSV) organized the working-class Creoles. Eventually, the South Asians and Indonesians were grouped respectively within the United Reform Party (later called the Progressive Reform Party [Vooruitstrvende Hervormde Partij; VHP]) and…

  • NPS (United States government agency)

    National Park Service (NPS), agency of the U.S. Department of the Interior that manages and maintains several hundred national parks, monuments, historical sites, and other designated properties of the federal government. It was established in 1916 by an act of the U.S. Congress that was signed

  • NPT (international agreement)

    Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, agreement of July 1, 1968, signed by the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union, and 59 other states, under which the three major signatories, which possessed nuclear weapons, agreed not to assist other states in obtaining or

  • NPV (election law)

    electoral college: Arguments for and against the electoral college: …efforts on passing a so-called National Popular Vote (NPV) bill through state legislatures. State legislatures that enacted the NPV would agree that their state’s electoral votes would be cast for the winner of the national popular vote—even if that person was not the winner of the state’s popular vote; language…

  • NQR spectroscopy (physics)

    spectroscopy: General principles: … spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy. The first two arise, respectively, from the interaction of the magnetic moment of a nucleus or an electron with an external magnetic field. The nature of this interaction is highly dependent on the molecular environment in which the nucleus or…

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