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  • Ukraine, history of

    Ukraine: History: From prehistoric times, migration and settlement patterns in the territories of present-day Ukraine varied fundamentally along the lines of three geographic zones. The Black Sea coast was for centuries in the sphere of the contemporary Mediterranean maritime powers. The

  • Ukrainian

    Ukrainian language, East Slavic language spoken in Ukraine and in Ukrainian communities in Kazakhstan, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Lithuania, and Slovakia and by smaller numbers elsewhere. Ukrainian is a lineal descendant of the colloquial language used in Kievan Rus (10th–13th century). It is

  • Ukrainian (people)

    Kazakhstan: Settlement patterns: Slavs—Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians—largely populate the northern plains, where they congregate in large villages that originally served as the centres of collective and state farms. These populated oases are separated by wheat fields or, in the more arid plains to the south, by semideserts and deserts…

  • Ukrainian alphabet

    Cyrillic alphabet: The modern Cyrillic alphabets—Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, and Serbian—have been modified somewhat from the original, generally by the loss of some superfluous letters. Modern Russian has 32 letters (33, with inclusion of the soft sign—which is not, strictly speaking, a letter), Bulgarian 30, Serbian 30, and Ukrainian 32 (33). Modern…

  • Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox church (Ukrainian religion)

    Ukraine: The New Economic Policy and Ukrainization: …propaganda and harassment, was the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, which had gained a wide following among the Ukrainian intelligentsia and peasantry since its formation in 1921.

  • Ukrainian Catholic Church (Ukrainian religion)

    Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, largest of the Eastern Catholic (also known as Eastern rite or Greek Catholic) churches, in communion with Rome since the Union of Brest-Litovsk (1596). Byzantine Christianity was established among the Ukrainians in 988 by St. Vladimir (Volodimir) and followed

  • Ukrainian Democratic Alliance for Reform (political party, Ukraine)

    Vitali Klitschko: …became the leader of the Ukrainian Democratic Alliance for Reform (UDAR; its acronym in Ukrainian spelled “punch”) political party. UDAR performed admirably in the 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary elections, winning 40 seats and establishing itself as a significant force in opposition to Pres. Viktor Yanukovych and his ruling Party of Regions.

  • Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (Ukrainian religion)

    Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, largest of the Eastern Catholic (also known as Eastern rite or Greek Catholic) churches, in communion with Rome since the Union of Brest-Litovsk (1596). Byzantine Christianity was established among the Ukrainians in 988 by St. Vladimir (Volodimir) and followed

  • Ukrainian Helsinki Union (Ukrainian group)

    Ukraine: Ukraine on the path to independence: This was the Ukrainian Helsinki Union, formed by recently released political prisoners, many of whom had been members of the Helsinki Watch Group of the mid-1970s. The Helsinki Union’s declared aim was the restoration of Ukraine’s sovereignty as the main guarantee of its population’s national and human rights…

  • Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Ukrainian military organization)

    Ukraine: The Nazi occupation of Soviet Ukraine: …that became known as the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Ukrainska Povstanska Armiia; UPA). As well as conducting guerrilla warfare with the Germans, the Soviet partisans and the UPA fought each other.

  • Ukrainian language

    Ukrainian language, East Slavic language spoken in Ukraine and in Ukrainian communities in Kazakhstan, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Lithuania, and Slovakia and by smaller numbers elsewhere. Ukrainian is a lineal descendant of the colloquial language used in Kievan Rus (10th–13th century). It is

  • Ukrainian literature

    Ukrainian literature, the body of writings in the Ukrainian language. The earliest writings of the Ukrainians, works produced in Kievan Rus from the 11th to the 13th century, were composed in Church Slavonic and are thus the common literary heritage of the Russians and Belarusians as well. After

  • Ukrainian Massif (geological region, Ukraine)

    Azov Upland: …Pryazovska Vysochyna, hilly region, southeastern Ukraine. Part of the Ukrainian Crystalline Shield, the Azov Upland is an area of denuded mountains, extending from the Dnieper River for 100 miles (160 km) to the Donets Ridge and sloping gently down southeastward to the Sea of Azov. The highest point is Mount…

  • Ukrainian Memorial Society (Ukrainian group)

    Ukraine: Ukraine on the path to independence: …famine of the 1930s, the All-Ukrainian “Memorial” Society was founded in March 1989 based on already existing local groups.

  • Ukrainian Military Organization (political organization, Ukraine)

    Ukraine: Western Ukraine under Polish rule: …a broader underground movement, the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN). Authoritarian in structure, conspiratorial in its methods, and influenced by political theories that stressed the primacy of the nation over the individual and will over reason, the OUN carried out acts of sabotage and assassinations of Polish officials. Although these…

  • Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance (political party, Ukraine)

    Ukraine: Western Ukraine under Polish rule: …in Galicia was the centrist Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance, which tried to extract concessions from the Polish government and to inform public opinion. Left-wing parties (socialists and communist front organizations) had considerably more strength in Volhynia.

  • Ukrainian National Republic (historical state, Ukraine)

    Ukraine: World War I and the struggle for independence: …proclaimed the creation of the Ukrainian National Republic, though still in federation with the new democratic Russia that was expected to emerge from the impending Constituent Assembly. The Bolsheviks, in turn, at the first All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets, held in Kharkiv in December, declared Ukraine to be a Soviet republic…

  • Ukrainian National Union (political organization, Ukraine)

    Ukraine: World War I and the struggle for independence: To coordinate political opposition, the Ukrainian National Union was formed by the main parties and civic organizations, while the peasants manifested their hostility through rebellions and partisan warfare. The capitulation of Germany and Austria in November removed the main prop of Skoropadsky’s regime, and the Ukrainian National Union formed the…

  • Ukrainian Nationalists, Organization of (political organization, Ukraine)

    Ukraine: Western Ukraine under Polish rule: …a broader underground movement, the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN). Authoritarian in structure, conspiratorial in its methods, and influenced by political theories that stressed the primacy of the nation over the individual and will over reason, the OUN carried out acts of sabotage and assassinations of Polish officials. Although these…

  • Ukrainian Orthodox Church

    Ukraine: The New Economic Policy and Ukrainization: …propaganda and harassment, was the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, which had gained a wide following among the Ukrainian intelligentsia and peasantry since its formation in 1921.

  • Ukrainian Shield (geological region, Ukraine)

    Azov Upland: …Pryazovska Vysochyna, hilly region, southeastern Ukraine. Part of the Ukrainian Crystalline Shield, the Azov Upland is an area of denuded mountains, extending from the Dnieper River for 100 miles (160 km) to the Donets Ridge and sloping gently down southeastward to the Sea of Azov. The highest point is Mount…

  • Ukrainian Steppe (vegetation zone, Ukraine)

    Ukraine: Plant and animal life: …Mountains, the forest-steppe joins the steppe zone, which is about 89,000 square miles (231,000 square km) in area. Many of the flat, treeless plains in this region are under cultivation, although low annual precipitation and hot summers make supplemental irrigation necessary. Remnants of the natural vegetation of the steppe, including…

  • Ukrainian Steppe Reserve (nature reserve, Ukraine)

    Ukraine: Plant and animal life: The separate sections of the Ukrainian Steppe Reserve also preserve various types of steppe. The Black Sea Nature Reserve shelters many species of waterfowl and is the only Ukrainian breeding ground of the Mediterranean gull (Larus melanocephalus). Also located on the Black Sea, the Danube Water Meadows Reserve protects the…

  • Ukrainian Suite (dance)

    Igor Moiseyev: …dances for the ensemble, including Ukrainian Suite, portraying a young couple’s betrothal; Soccer Dance, a comic version of this game; and the well-known Partisans, with its representations of guerrilla warfare and men on horseback. His Bulba so effectively re-created the folklore of Belorussia that it was adopted as that region’s…

  • Ukrainian Writers’ Union (Ukrainian organization)

    Ukraine: Parliamentary democracy: …under the aegis of the Writers’ Union of Ukraine. Taking the name Narodnyi Rukh Ukrainy (“Popular Movement of Ukraine for Reconstruction,” often shortened to Rukh), to emphasize its congruence with the policies of Gorbachev (particularly perestroika), the front nevertheless ran into hostility from the CPU. Specifically eschewing the role of…

  • Ukrainization (Ukrainian social policy)

    Ukraine: The New Economic Policy and Ukrainization: …inaugurated a decade of rapid Ukrainization and cultural efflorescence. Within the CP(B)U itself, the proportion of Ukrainians in the rank-and-file membership exceeded 50 percent by the late 1920s. Enrollments in Ukrainian-language schools and the publication of Ukrainian books increased dramatically. Lively debates developed about the course of Ukrainian literature, in…

  • Ukrainka, Lesya (Ukrainian poet)

    Lesya Ukrainka, poet, dramatist, short-story writer, essayist, and critic who was the foremost woman writer in Ukrainian literature and a leading figure in its modernist movement. The daughter of intellectuals, Ukrainka was stricken with tuberculosis in 1881 and traveled widely thereafter in search

  • Ukrainska mova

    Ukrainian language, East Slavic language spoken in Ukraine and in Ukrainian communities in Kazakhstan, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Lithuania, and Slovakia and by smaller numbers elsewhere. Ukrainian is a lineal descendant of the colloquial language used in Kievan Rus (10th–13th century). It is

  • Ukrainska Pravda (Ukrainian internet newspaper)

    Pravda: …dissident journalist Georgy Gongadze founded Ukrainska Pravda (“Ukrainian Truth”) shortly before he was killed by Ukrainian security forces. The publication survived his death and became one of Ukraine’s most-respected news sites.

  • Ukrayina

    Ukraine, country located in eastern Europe, the second largest on the continent after Russia. The capital is Kyiv (Kiev), located on the Dnieper River in north-central Ukraine. A fully independent Ukraine emerged only late in the 20th century, after long periods of successive domination by

  • Ukrayinka, Lesya (Ukrainian poet)

    Lesya Ukrainka, poet, dramatist, short-story writer, essayist, and critic who was the foremost woman writer in Ukrainian literature and a leading figure in its modernist movement. The daughter of intellectuals, Ukrainka was stricken with tuberculosis in 1881 and traveled widely thereafter in search

  • Uksakka (Scandinavian deity)

    Madderakka: …her daughters—Sarakka, the cleaving woman; Uksakka, the door woman; and Juksakka, the bow woman—who watch over the development of the child from conception through early childhood. Madderakka was believed to receive the soul of a child from Veralden-radien, the world ruler deity, and to give it a body, which Sarakka…

  • ukulele (musical instrument)

    Ukulele, (Hawaiian: “flea”), small guitar derived from the machada, or machete, a four-stringed guitar introduced into Hawaii by the Portuguese in the 1870s. It is seldom more than 24 inches (60 cm) long. The ukulele has been played in Europe and the United States as a jazz and solo instrument in

  • UKUTA (Swahili poets’ association)

    Mathias E. Mnyampala: …of Wisdom”), and Ngonjera za UKUTA, 2 vol. (1970–71; “Educational Verses from UKUTA”). UKUTA is the acronym of the Swahili poets’ association that Mnyampala founded. He also published short fiction and educational essays.

  • UL (nutrition)

    human nutrition: Dietary Reference Intakes: Lastly, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is the highest level of a daily nutrient intake that will most likely present no risk of adverse health effects in almost all individuals in the general population (see table).

  • ?Ulā, Al- (Saudi Arabia)

    history of Arabia: Prehistory and archaeology: …the northern Hejaz, such as Dedān (now Al-?Ulā), Al-?ijr (now Madā?in ?āli?, barely six miles north of Dedān), and Taymā? to the northeast of the other two, have long been known but not fully explored. In south-central Arabia, near Al-Sulayyil, a town site at Qaryat Dhāt Kāhil (now Qaryat al-Fāw)…

  • Ulaan Hada (China)

    Chifeng, city, southeastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (qu), northeastern China. It lies on the upper reaches of the Yingjin River, a tributary of the upper Liaoha River (itself a branch of the West Liao River). The name, meaning “Red Mountain” in Chinese, refers to the red-coloured peak

  • Ulaanbaatar (national capital, Mongolia)

    Ulaanbaatar, capital and largest city of Mongolia. It is situated on the Tuul River on a windswept plateau at an elevation of 4,430 feet (1,350 m). The city originated as a seasonal migratory abode of the Mongolian princes and in 1639 finally attained permanence on the present site with the

  • Ulaanbaatar Railway (railway, Mongolia)

    Mongolia: Transportation and telecommunications: …important transportation artery is the Trans-Mongolian Railway (officially, the Ulaanbaatar Railway), which runs north-south through the central part of the country. It links Mongolia to Russia and China and provides the shortest overland route between Moscow and Beijing. The railway, built as a Mongolian-Soviet joint venture, utilizes the Russian broad-gauge…

  • Ulai River (river, Iran)

    Kārūn River, river in southwestern Iran, a tributary of the Shatt al-Arab, which it joins at Khorramshahr. It rises in the Bakhtīārī Mountains west of E?fahān and follows a tortuous course trending basically southwest. The Kārūn’s total length is 515 miles (829 km), though the direct distance from

  • Ulaid (historic province, Ireland)

    Ulster, one of the ancient provinces of Ireland and subsequently the northernmost of Ireland’s four traditional provinces (the others being Leinster, Munster, and Connaught [Connacht]). Because of the Ulster cycle of Irish literature, which recounts the exploits of Cú Chulainn and many other Ulster

  • Ulaid cycle (Irish Gaelic literature)

    Ulster cycle, in ancient Irish literature, a group of legends and tales dealing with the heroic age of the Ulaids, a people of northeast Ireland from whom the modern name Ulster derives. The stories, set in the 1st century bc, were recorded from oral tradition between the 8th and 11th century and

  • Ulaidh (historic province, Ireland)

    Ulster, one of the ancient provinces of Ireland and subsequently the northernmost of Ireland’s four traditional provinces (the others being Leinster, Munster, and Connaught [Connacht]). Because of the Ulster cycle of Irish literature, which recounts the exploits of Cú Chulainn and many other Ulster

  • Ulakhan Iuriakh (river, Russia)

    Russia: Rivers: …miles [4,090 km]), and the Lena (2,734 miles [4,400 km]). Their catchments cover a total area in excess of 3 million square miles (8 million square km) in Siberia north of the Stanovoy Range, and their combined discharge into the Arctic averages 1,750,000 cubic feet (50,000 cubic metres) per second.…

  • Ulakhe River (river, Asia)

    Ussuri River: …Lake Khanka (Xingkai); and the Ulakhe and Arsenyevka rivers, both of which rise on the southwestern slopes of the Sikhote-Alin mountain complex. Its length from the source of the Ulakhe is 565 miles (909 km), and its basin is 72,200 square miles (187,000 square km) in area. The Ussuri is…

  • Ulala (Russia)

    Gorno-Altaysk, city and administrative centre of Altay republic, southern Russia. It lies in the foothills of the Altai Mountains, along the Mayma River near its confluence with the Katun. Gorno-Altaysk is an agricultural centre and has a woodworking industry and cloth factories. Teacher-training

  • Ulalume (poem by Poe)

    Ulalume, poem by Edgar Allan Poe, published in the magazine American Review in December 1847. It is about a man who wanders unconsciously to his lover’s tomb, and it is noted for its Gothic imagery and hypnotic rhythm. In “Ulalume” the narrator, with the nighttime stars as his guide, wanders

  • Ulam spiral (mathematics)

    Stanislaw Ulam: …the positive integers in a spiral pattern and crossed out the prime numbers. In the resulting Ulam spiral, horizontal, vertical, and diagonal lines containing large number of primes are prominent.

  • Ulam, Adam Bruno (American historian)

    Adam Bruno Ulam, Polish-born American historian (born April 8, 1922, Lwow, Pol. [now Lviv, Ukraine]—died March 28, 2000, Cambridge, Mass.), as Gurney Professor of History and Political Science at Harvard University and director of its Russian Research Center was a keen observer of the Soviet U

  • Ulam, Stanislaw (American scientist)

    Stanislaw Ulam, Polish-born American mathematician who played a major role in the development of the hydrogen bomb at Los Alamos, New Mexico, U.S. Ulam received a doctoral degree (1933) at the Polytechnic Institute in Lvov (now Lviv). At the invitation of John von Neumann, he worked at the

  • Ulam, Stanislaw Marcin (American scientist)

    Stanislaw Ulam, Polish-born American mathematician who played a major role in the development of the hydrogen bomb at Los Alamos, New Mexico, U.S. Ulam received a doctoral degree (1933) at the Polytechnic Institute in Lvov (now Lviv). At the invitation of John von Neumann, he worked at the

  • ulama (Islam)

    ?ulamā?, the learned of Islam, those who possess the quality of ?ilm, “learning,” in its widest sense. From the ?ulamā?, who are versed theoretically and practically in the Muslim sciences, come the religious teachers of the Islamic community—theologians, canon lawyers (muftis), judges (qadis),

  • ?ulamā? (Islam)

    ?ulamā?, the learned of Islam, those who possess the quality of ?ilm, “learning,” in its widest sense. From the ?ulamā?, who are versed theoretically and practically in the Muslim sciences, come the religious teachers of the Islamic community—theologians, canon lawyers (muftis), judges (qadis),

  • Ulamburiash (Kassite king)

    history of Mesopotamia: The Kassites in Babylonia: It may have been Ulamburiash who finally annexed this area around 1450 and began negotiations with Egypt in Syria. Karaindash built a temple with bas-relief tile ornaments in Uruk (Erech) around 1420. A new capital west of Baghdad, Dūr Kurigalzu, competing with Babylon, was founded and named after Kurigalzu…

  • Ulan Bator (national capital, Mongolia)

    Ulaanbaatar, capital and largest city of Mongolia. It is situated on the Tuul River on a windswept plateau at an elevation of 4,430 feet (1,350 m). The city originated as a seasonal migratory abode of the Mongolian princes and in 1639 finally attained permanence on the present site with the

  • Ulan Buh (desert, China)

    Alxa Plateau: …in the west, and the Ulan Buh (Wulanbuhe) in the northeast.

  • Ulan Moron (river, China)

    Yangtze River: The upper course: …of the Yangtze is the Ulan Moron (Wulanmulun) River, which originates in glacial meltwaters on the slopes of the Tanggula Mountains in southern Qinghai province on the border with the Tibet Autonomous Region. From the confluence of this stream with several others, the river flows generally easterly through a shallow,…

  • Ulan-Ude (Russia)

    Ulan-Ude, city and capital of Buryatia, east-central Russia. It lies at the confluence of the Selenga and Uda rivers and in a deep valley between the Khamar-Daban and Tsagan-Daban mountain ranges. The wintering camp of Udinskoye, established there in 1666, became the town of Verkhne-Udinsk in 1783;

  • Ulanhad (China)

    Chifeng, city, southeastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (qu), northeastern China. It lies on the upper reaches of the Yingjin River, a tributary of the upper Liaoha River (itself a branch of the West Liao River). The name, meaning “Red Mountain” in Chinese, refers to the red-coloured peak

  • Ulanhu (Chinese politician)

    Ulanhu, Mongol nationalist and Chinese politician who was a highly visible promoter of Mongolian rights throughout his life. Ulanhu was educated at the Mongolian Tibetan school in Beijing. In 1925, mentored by Li Dazhao, Ulanhu joined the Chinese Communist Party and took part in the first Congress

  • Ulanov, Alexei (Soviet athlete)

    Irina Rodnina: … who, with her partners, first Alexey Ulanov and later Aleksandr Zaytsev, won 10 successive world championships (1969–78) and three successive Olympic gold medals.

  • Ulanova, Galina (Russian ballerina)

    Galina Ulanova, first prima ballerina assoluta of the Soviet Union and one of the greatest ballet dancers of the 20th century. The daughter of dancers Sergey Ulanov and Marie Romanova of the Mariinsky Ballet (called the Kirov State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet during the Soviet period),

  • Ulanova, Galina Sergeyevna (Russian ballerina)

    Galina Ulanova, first prima ballerina assoluta of the Soviet Union and one of the greatest ballet dancers of the 20th century. The daughter of dancers Sergey Ulanov and Marie Romanova of the Mariinsky Ballet (called the Kirov State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet during the Soviet period),

  • Ulanqab (China)

    Jining: …the large and newly formed Ulanqab municipality.

  • Ulászló I (king of Hungary and Poland)

    W?adys?aw III Warneńczyk, Polish king (1434–44) who was also king of Hungary (as Ulászló I; 1440–44) and who attempted unsuccessfully to push the Ottoman Turks out of the Balkans. His reign was overshadowed by the presence of his adviser, Zbigniew Ole?nicki. At the age of 10 he succeeded to the

  • Ulászló II (king of Bohemia and Hungary)

    Vladislas II, king of Bohemia from 1471 and of Hungary from 1490 who achieved the personal union of his two realms. The eldest son of Casimir IV Jagie??o, king of Poland, Vladislas was elected king of Bohemia in 1471. The early part of his reign was spent in conflict with the Hungarian king

  • Ulate, Otilio (president of Costa Rica)

    José Figueres Ferrer: When Calderón was defeated by Otilio Ulate for reelection in 1948, the Legislative Assembly annulled the election and tried to reinstall Calderón. Figueres, who had hidden arms and ammunition on his plantation near Cartago, led an uprising in support of Ulate. The two-month civil war ended when Calderón’s forces, despite…

  • Ulay (German performance artist)

    Marina Abramovi?: …with Frank Uwe Laysiepen (byname Ulay), a like-minded German artist. Much of their work together was concerned with gender identity, most notoriously Imponderabilia (1977), in which they stood naked while facing each other in a museum’s narrow entrance, forcing visitors to squeeze between them and, in so doing, to choose…

  • Ulbricht, Walter (German communist leader)

    Walter Ulbricht, German Communist leader and head of the post-World War II German Democratic Republic, or East Germany. Ulbricht, a cabinetmaker by trade, joined the Social Democratic Party (SPD) in 1912 and during World War I served on the Eastern Front, deserting twice. After the war he entered

  • ULCA (American church organization)

    Lutheranism: North American Lutheranism: …three German-language synods formed the United Lutheran Church in America (ULCA). In 1930 the Joint Synod of Ohio, the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Iowa, and the Buffalo Synod formed the American Lutheran Church (German). In 1960 the American Lutheran Church (German) merged with the United Evangelical Lutheran Church (Danish) and…

  • ULCC (ship)

    tanker: …descending order by size, are:

  • ulcer (pathology)

    Ulcer, a lesion or sore on the skin or mucous membrane resulting from the gradual disintegration of surface epithelial tissue. An ulcer may be superficial, or it may extend into the deeper layer of the skin or other underlying tissue. An ulcer has a depressed floor or crater surrounded by sharply

  • ulcerative colitis (pathology)

    Ulcerative colitis, inflammation of the large intestine (colon), especially of its mucous membranes, characterized by patches of tiny ulcers in the inflamed membranese. The most common symptoms of ulcerative colitis are bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain. Other symptoms include fatigue, weight

  • ulcerative-type infection (pathology)

    athlete's foot: Symptoms: In ulcerative-type infections, the interdigital infection spreads to the dorsum (top) or plantar surface of the foot. They have characteristics similar to those of macerated infections and are usually secondarily infected with bacteria.

  • Ulcinj (Montenegro)

    Montenegro: Ethnic groups: …of the coastal community of Ulcinj is Albanian.

  • ULDP (political party, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Ulster Defence Association: …changed its name to the Ulster Democratic Party (UDP). Led by Gary McMichael, son of a murdered UDA man, the UDP won enough electoral support to participate in the multiparty peace talks that led to the Good Friday Agreement (April 1998), but it did not secure any seats in subsequent…

  • Ule?borg (Finland)

    Oulu, city, west-central Finland, at the mouth of the Oulu River on the Gulf of Bothnia. During the European Middle Ages a trading post was located on the site. In 1590 the prospering settlement was fortified, and town rights were granted in 1610. The fortress was destroyed by an explosion in 1793,

  • ulema (Islam)

    ?ulamā?, the learned of Islam, those who possess the quality of ?ilm, “learning,” in its widest sense. From the ?ulamā?, who are versed theoretically and practically in the Muslim sciences, come the religious teachers of the Islamic community—theologians, canon lawyers (muftis), judges (qadis),

  • Uléma Musulmans Algériens, Association des (Muslim religious organization)

    Association of Algerian Muslim Ulama, a body of Muslim religious scholars (?ulamā?) who, under French rule, advocated the restoration of an Algerian nation rooted in Islamic and Arabic traditions. The association, founded in 1931 and formally organized on May 5, 1935, by Sheikh ?Abd al-Hamid ben

  • Ulex europaeus (plant)

    gorse: Common gorse (U. europaeus) is a spiny, yellow-flowered leguminous shrub native to Europe and naturalized in the Middle Atlantic states and on Vancouver Island. The large green spines and green twigs of Spanish gorse (G. hispanica), native to Spain and northern Italy, make it appear…

  • ulexite (mineral)

    Ulexite, borate mineral, NaCaB5O6(ΟH)6·5H2O, that consists of hydrated sodium and calcium borate. Individual crystals are colourless and have a vitreous lustre, whereas the more common nodular, rounded, or lenslike crystal aggregates (often resembling cotton balls) are white and have a silky or

  • Ulf Jarl (regent of Denmark)

    Canute (I): …when his regent in Denmark, Ulf Jarl, the husband of his sister Estrid, joined the king of Norway and the king of Sweden in a coalition against Denmark. Though Canute was defeated at the Battle of the Holy River, Sweden, terms were made. Scandinavian sources attribute to Canute the death…

  • ULF wave (physics)

    geomagnetic field: Magnetohydrodynamic waves—magnetic pulsations: …class of electromagnetic waves called ultralow-frequency (ULF) waves, with frequencies from one to 1,000 megahertz. Because the frequencies are so low, the waves are usually characterized by their period of oscillation (one to 1,000 seconds) rather than by frequency.

  • ULFA (Indian insurgent group)

    Assam People's Council: …a free hand to the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA), a militant separatist group whose violent activities had increased dramatically in the state after the AGP took power. The revelations of direct links between the AGP ministers and the ULFA led New Delhi to dismiss the government in Assam…

  • Ulfilas (bishop of the Goths)

    Ulfilas, Christian bishop and missionary who evangelized the Goths, reputedly created the Gothic alphabet, and wrote the earliest translation of the Bible into a Germanic language. Although his life cannot be reconstructed with certainty, fragments have come from 4th- and 5th-century ecclesiastical

  • Ulfsdotter, Katarina (Swedish saint)

    Saint Catherine of Sweden, ; feast day March 24), daughter of St. Bridget of Sweden, whom she succeeded as superior of the Brigittines. Catherine was married to Egard Lydersson von Kyren, who died shortly after she left for Rome (1350) to join Bridget as her constant companion. She did not return

  • Ulgen (Asian deity)

    shamanism: Worldview: the Mongolian and Turkish peoples, ülgen, a benevolent deity and the god of the Upper World, has seven sons and nine daughters. Among the Buryat of southern Siberia, Tengri (often identified with ülgen) also has children—the western ones being good and the eastern ones wicked. The gods of the Buryats…

  • Ulhasnagar (India)

    Ulhasnagar, city, northwestern Maharashtra state, western India. It lies on the Ulhas River, northeast of Mumbai (Bombay). Part of the Thane industrial area, it specializes in the manufacture of chemicals and silk and nylon textiles. Ulhasnagar became important in 1947 as a refugee camp for

  • uli figure (religious carving)

    Oceanic art and architecture: New Ireland: …cults were carvings known as uli. These are standing figures with female breasts and male genitals; they sometimes have raised hands and may support smaller figures in front of them or on their shoulders. The head is usually large and is topped by a thin, upright crest; the eyes are…

  • uli figure (Papuan sculpture)

    Uli figure, wooden statue of a type carved in the villages of northern and central New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, that represents an ancestral or mythological personage in the secret uli rites. Only after a series of 13 festivals, held over a three-year period, is the construction of an uli figure

  • Ulianovsk (oblast, Russia)

    Ulyanovsk, oblast (region), western Russia. The oblast lies athwart the middle Volga River, which is there transformed into a broad lake by the downstream Samara dam. The larger western part lies on the Volga Upland, which is dissected by river valleys and erosion gullies; the smaller Trans-Volga

  • Ulianovsk (Russia)

    Ulyanovsk, city and administrative centre of Ulyanovsk oblast (region), western Russia. It lies along the Volga River at its confluence with the Sviyaga. Founded in 1648, it was a key fortress on the Sinbirsk defensive line; in 1924 it was renamed after V.I. Ulyanov (Lenin), who was born there and

  • Ulibishev, A. D. (Russian art patron)

    Mily Balakirev: …Karl Eisrich, music director to A.D. Ulibishev, a wealthy landowner who published well-known books on Mozart and Beethoven. Balakirev had the use of Ulibishev’s music library and at age 15 began to compose and was allowed to rehearse the local theatre orchestra. From 1853 to 1855 he studied mathematics at…

  • Ulidae, Princeps (Anglo-Norman conqueror)

    John de Courci, Anglo-Norman conqueror of Ulster, who was a member of a celebrated Norman family of Oxfordshire and Somerset. Sent to Ireland with William FitzAldelm by Henry II in 1176, he immediately led an expedition from Dublin to Ulster and in 1177 seized its capital, Down (now Downpatrick).

  • üliger (Mongolian literature)

    Central Asian arts: Mongolian literature: üligers, orally transmitted epic stories in verse, form the bulk of native literary expression. Highly stylized, these tales relate adventures of legendary heroes and villains. In spite of their great length (sometimes more than 20,000 lines), they are recited from memory by bards. Like other…

  • Ulithi Atoll (atoll, Micronesia)

    Ulithi Atoll, coral atoll, Federated States of Micronesia, in the western Pacific Ocean. It comprises roughly 40 islets and has a total land area of 1.75 square miles (4.5 square km). Ulithi was probably sighted by the Portuguese in 1526, but it remained undisturbed by Europeans until 1731, when it

  • Ulixbone (national capital, Portugal)

    Lisbon, city, port, capital of Portugal, and the centre of the Lisbon metropolitan area. Located in western Portugal on the estuary of the Tagus (Tejo) River, it is the westernmost capital city in continental Europe and serves as the country’s chief port, largest city, and commercial, political,

  • Ulixes (Greek mythology)

    Odysseus, hero of Homer’s epic poem the Odyssey and one of the most frequently portrayed figures in Western literature. According to Homer, Odysseus was king of Ithaca, son of Laertes and Anticleia (the daughter of Autolycus of Parnassus), and father, by his wife, Penelope, of Telemachus. (In later

  • Uljanovsk (Russia)

    Ulyanovsk, city and administrative centre of Ulyanovsk oblast (region), western Russia. It lies along the Volga River at its confluence with the Sviyaga. Founded in 1648, it was a key fortress on the Sinbirsk defensive line; in 1924 it was renamed after V.I. Ulyanov (Lenin), who was born there and

  • Uljanovsk (oblast, Russia)

    Ulyanovsk, oblast (region), western Russia. The oblast lies athwart the middle Volga River, which is there transformed into a broad lake by the downstream Samara dam. The larger western part lies on the Volga Upland, which is dissected by river valleys and erosion gullies; the smaller Trans-Volga

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