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  • wash fastness (textiles)

    dye: Standardization tests and identification of dyes: Colourfastness tests are published by the International Organization for Standardization. For identification purposes, the results of systematic reaction sequences and solubility properties permit determination of the class of dye, which, in many cases, may be all that is required. With modern instrumentation, however, a variety…

  • Wash, The (bay, England, United Kingdom)

    The Wash, shallow bay of the North Sea, 15 mi (24 km) long and 12 mi wide, between the counties of Lincolnshire and Norfolk, England. It once extended as far inland as Peterborough and Cambridge but was largely filled in by silt, brought chiefly by rivers but partly washed in by coastal currents.

  • WASH-1400 (United States report)

    nuclear reactor: The Reactor Safety Study of 1972–75: …1975 of a report titled Reactor Safety Study, also known as WASH-1400. The most useful aspect of the study was its delineation of components and accident sequences (scenarios) that were determined to be the most significant contributors to severe accidents.

  • wash-and-wear cotton (fibre)

    Ruth Benerito: The chemically treated cotton was variously dubbed easy care, wash and wear, durable press, or permanent press, and she also worked on a process that improved the chemical treatment’s environmental impact. Benerito was 15 years old when she entered H. Sophie Newcomb Memorial College, a women’s…

  • Washakie (Shoshone chief)

    Washakie, Shoshone chief who performed extraordinary acts of friendship for white settlers while exhibiting tremendous prowess as a warrior against his people’s tribal enemies. The son of a Umatilla father and Shoshone mother, Washakie left the Umatilla while an adolescent to join his mother’s

  • Washbrook, Cyril (British athlete)

    Cyril Washbrook, English cricketer who was a formidable opening batsman for Lancashire (1933–64, captain 1954–59) and England (1936–56) and who, despite having lost some of his best years to military service during World War II, amassed 34,101 first-class runs (average 42.67) and 76 centuries,

  • Washburn, Abigail (American musician)

    Béla Fleck: He joined clawhammer banjo player Abigail Washburn on Abigail Washburn and the Sparrow Quartet (2008), a bold experiment that fused American roots music and traditional Chinese folk songs. Fleck and Washburn were later married, and the two frequently performed and recorded together; their duet albums included Béla Fleck &amp; Abigail…

  • Washburn, Henry Bradford, Jr. (American mountaineer, photographer, cartographer, and museum director)

    Bradford Washburn, Jr., American mountaineer, photographer, cartographer, and museum director (born June 7, 1910 , Cambridge, Mass.—died Jan. 10, 2007 , Lexington, Mass.), mapped the Grand Canyon during the 1970s and made Boston’s Museum of Science a leading institution of its type. A pioneer of

  • Washburn, Margaret Floy (American psychologist)

    Margaret Floy Washburn, American psychologist whose work at Vassar College in Poughkeepsie made it a leading institution in undergraduate psychological research and education. Washburn graduated from Vassar College in 1891. She then studied briefly at Columbia University, New York City, where she

  • Washburne, Carleton (American educator)

    Carleton Washburne, American educator noted for his innovations in school programs known as the Winnetka Plan. Washburne attended Chicago schools administered by John Dewey and Francis Parker before earning his bachelor’s degree at Stanford University (1912) and completing a doctorate in education

  • Washburne, Carleton Wolsey (American educator)

    Carleton Washburne, American educator noted for his innovations in school programs known as the Winnetka Plan. Washburne attended Chicago schools administered by John Dewey and Francis Parker before earning his bachelor’s degree at Stanford University (1912) and completing a doctorate in education

  • Washburne, Elihu B. (American politician)

    Ulysses S. Grant: The Civil War: …general through the influence of Elihu B. Washburne, a U.S. congressman from Galena. On learning this news and recalling his son’s previous failures, his father said, “Be careful, Ulyss, you are a general now—it’s a good job, don’t lose it!” To the contrary, Grant soon gained command of the District…

  • washed-curd cheese

    dairy product: Pasteurized process cheese: However, other cheeses such as washed-curd, Colby, Swiss, Gruyère, and Limburger are similarly processed. In a slight variation, cold pack or club cheese is made by grinding and mixing together one or more varieties of cheese without heat. This cheese food may contain added flavours or ingredients.

  • washer (machine part)

    Washer, machine component that is used in conjunction with a screw fastener such as a bolt and nut and that usually serves either to keep the screw from loosening or to distribute the load from the nut or bolt head over a larger area. For load distribution, thin flat rings of soft steel are usual.

  • washhand stand (furniture)

    Washstand, from the beginning of the 19th century until well into the 20th, an essential piece of bedroom furniture. The washstand consisted of a wooden structure of varying shape and complexity intended to accommodate a large basin, a pitcher, a toothbrush jar, and various other toilet

  • washing (technology)

    fruit processing: Fruit juice: …processing of fruit juice involves washing, extraction, clarification, and preservation.

  • washing machine (device)

    Newton: In 1898 the washing machine industry began there with the manufacture of ratchet-slat washers. Newton was where Frederick L. Maytag invented a “hand power” washing machine (1907) and his motor-driven washer (1911), which revolutionized the industry.

  • washing powder

    Detergent, any of various surfactants (surface-active agents) particularly effective in dislodging foreign matter from soiled surfaces and retaining it in suspension. The term usually denotes a synthetic substance that is not prepared by saponifying fats and oils (as is soap). A brief treatment of

  • washing soda (chemical compound)

    Washing soda, sodium carbonate decahydrate, efflorescent crystals used for washing, especially textiles. It is a compound of sodium

  • Washington (West Sussex, England, United Kingdom)

    Washington, town in Sunderland metropolitan borough, metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear, historic county of Durham, northeastern England. It lies along the north side of the River Wear below Chester-le-Street. The site was an area of early coal mining and industrial activity and was associated

  • Washington (Ohio, United States)

    Piqua, city, Miami county, western Ohio, U.S., on the Great Miami River, 27 miles (43 km) north of Dayton. The original Shawnee village of Piqua (the name, from a term meaning “man who arose from the ashes,” comes from a local Shawnee clan’s creation story), near present-day Springfield, was

  • Washington (ship)

    Henry Miller Shreve: …built to his specifications the Washington, with a flat, shallow hull, a high-pressure steam engine on the main deck instead of in the hold, and a second deck. His round trip in the Washington in 1816 from Pittsburgh to New Orleans and back to Louisville definitely established the Mississippi steamboat…

  • Washington (Pennsylvania, United States)

    Washington, city, seat (1781) of Washington county, southwestern Pennsylvania, U.S. It lies 28 miles (45 km) southwest of Pittsburgh. Prior to the American Revolution the area was the centre of a land dispute with Virginia. Pennsylvania’s claim was finally validated by the Virginia constitution of

  • Washington (North Carolina, United States)

    Washington, city, seat of Beaufort county, eastern North Carolina, U.S., along the Pamlico-Tar estuary just east of Greenville. Founded by Colonel James Bonner in 1771 and originally known as Forks of Tar River, it was one of the first places in the United States to be named (December 7, 1776) for

  • Washington (Georgia, United States)

    Washington, city, seat (1805) of Wilkes county, northeastern Georgia, U.S., roughly halfway between Athens and Augusta. First settled by the Stephen Heard family from Virginia in 1773, it was laid out in 1780 and was one of the first U.S. communities to be named in honour of George Washington.

  • Washington (county, Vermont, United States)

    Washington, county, central Vermont, U.S. It comprises a piedmont region in the east that rises up into the Green Mountains in the west. The Winooski River rises near the village of Cabot. Its tributaries are the Little, Mad, and Dog rivers and the North, Stevens, and Kingsbury branches. Dominated

  • Washington (Illinois, United States)

    Macomb, city, seat (1830) of McDonough county, western Illinois, U.S. It lies along the East Fork La Moine River, about 65 miles (105 km) southwest of Peoria. Settled in 1829 by John Baker, a Baptist minister, and originally called Washington, it was renamed the following year for General Alexander

  • Washington (county, Rhode Island, United States)

    Washington, county, southwestern Rhode Island, U.S. It is bordered by Connecticut to the west, Narragansett Bay to the east, and Block Island Sound to the south and includes Block Island south of the mainland. The Pawcatuck River flows through the western portion of the county and defines the

  • Washington (county, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Washington, county, southwestern Pennsylvania, U.S., bordered by West Virginia to the west, Enlow Fork and Tenmile Creek to the south, and the Monongahela River to the east. It consists of a hilly region on the Allegheny Plateau. The county was created in 1781 and named for George Washington. It

  • Washington (county, New York, United States)

    Washington, county, eastern New York state, U.S. It is bordered by Lake George to the northwest, Vermont to the northeast and east (Lake Champlain and the Poultney River constituting the northeastern boundary), and the Hudson River to the west. The lowlands of the Hudson valley and central area

  • Washington (county, Maryland, United States)

    Washington, county, northern Maryland, U.S., bounded by Pennsylvania to the north and the Potomac River (which constitutes the border with Virginia and West Virginia) to the south and southwest. The county lies in the Cumberland Valley between the Allegheny (west) and the Blue Ridge (east)

  • Washington (state, United States)

    Washington, constituent state of the United States of America. Lying at the northwestern corner of the 48 conterminous states, it is bounded by the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north, the U.S. states of Idaho to the east and Oregon to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

  • Washington (county, Maine, United States)

    Washington, county, eastern Maine, U.S., bordered to the east by New Brunswick, Canada (the Chiputneticook Lakes, the St. Croix River, and Passamaquoddy Bay constituting the boundary), and to the south by the Atlantic Ocean. It consists of a hill-and-valley region and includes several islands in

  • Washington Academy (university, Lexington, Virginia, United States)

    Washington and Lee University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Lexington, Virginia, U.S. The university, one of the oldest in the United States, comprises the College, the School of Law, and the Williams School of Commerce, Economics, and Politics. It offers undergraduate

  • Washington Agricultural College (university, Pullman, Washington, United States)

    Washington State University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Pullman, Washington, U.S. It is Washington’s land-grant university under the provisions of the Morrill Act of 1862. Washington State comprises a graduate school, the Intercollegiate College of Nursing (a

  • Washington and Jefferson College (college, Washington, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Pennsylvania: Education: …College (1787), in Lancaster; and Washington and Jefferson College (1787), in Washington. Carlisle was the site of the Carlisle Indian Industrial School from 1879 to 1918; the facility became the home of the U.S. Army War College in 1951.

  • Washington and Lee University (university, Lexington, Virginia, United States)

    Washington and Lee University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Lexington, Virginia, U.S. The university, one of the oldest in the United States, comprises the College, the School of Law, and the Williams School of Commerce, Economics, and Politics. It offers undergraduate

  • Washington Aqueduct (aqueduct, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    Montgomery C. Meigs: …substantial contribution, however, was the Washington Aqueduct, which extended 12 miles (19 kilometres) from the Great Falls on the Potomac to a distribution reservoir west of Georgetown. His Cabin John Bridge (1852–60), designed to carry Washington’s main water supply and vehicular traffic, is an engineering masterpiece. Until the 20th century…

  • Washington Bullets (American basketball team)

    Washington Wizards, American professional basketball team based in Washington, D.C. The Wizards (then known as the Washington Bullets) made four trips to the National Basketball Association (NBA) finals in the 1970s and won an NBA championship in the 1977–78 season. Founded in 1961 as the Chicago

  • Washington Capitals (American hockey team)

    Washington Capitals, American professional ice hockey team based in Washington, D.C., that plays in the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). The Capitals have won two Eastern Conference championships (1998, 2018) and one Stanley Cup (2018). Founded in 1974, the Capitals

  • Washington Cathedral (cathedral, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    Washington National Cathedral, in Washington, D.C., Episcopal cathedral chartered by the U.S. Congress in 1893 and established on Mount St. Alban (the highest point in the city) in 1907. Its cornerstone was laid by President Theodore Roosevelt. Although construction slowed during periods of

  • Washington College (college, Washington, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Pennsylvania: Education: …College (1787), in Lancaster; and Washington and Jefferson College (1787), in Washington. Carlisle was the site of the Carlisle Indian Industrial School from 1879 to 1918; the facility became the home of the U.S. Army War College in 1951.

  • Washington College (university, Lexington, Virginia, United States)

    Washington and Lee University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Lexington, Virginia, U.S. The university, one of the oldest in the United States, comprises the College, the School of Law, and the Williams School of Commerce, Economics, and Politics. It offers undergraduate

  • Washington College (college, Hartford, Connecticut, United States)

    Trinity College, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Hartford, Conn., U.S. It is a nonsectarian liberal arts college that has a historical affiliation with the Episcopal church. It offers B.A. and B.S. degrees in about 35 majors and M.A. and M.S. degrees in five departments.

  • Washington College (college, Chestertown, Maryland, United States)

    Kent: Chestertown, the county seat, contains Washington College (founded 1782), one of the oldest colleges in the United States.

  • Washington College of Law (college, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    Ellen Spencer Mussey: …helped establish and incorporate the Washington College of Law in 1898. From 1898 to 1913 Mussey served as dean of the college, which trained large numbers of women, as well as men, for the bar, and she also taught classes in constitutional law, contracts, wills, equity, and other topics.

  • Washington Conference (1907)

    José Santos Zelaya: The Washington Conference of 1907 ensued, at which all five Central American states signed an agreement pledging to maintain peace among themselves. Zelaya, however, quickly broke the treaty.

  • Washington Conference (1927)

    broadcasting: International conferences: The Washington Conference of 1927 widened the area of cooperation in respect to radiotelegraph, broadcasting, and the international allocation of wavelengths, or frequencies. It was followed by the Madrid Conference of 1932, which codified the rules and established the official international frequency list. This agreement stabilized…

  • Washington Conference (1921–1922)

    Washington Conference, (1921–22), international conference called by the United States to limit the naval arms race and to work out security agreements in the Pacific area. Held in Washington, D.C., the conference resulted in the drafting and signing of several major and minor treaty agreements.

  • Washington Conference on the Limitation of Armaments and Pacific Questions (1921–1922)

    Washington Conference, (1921–22), international conference called by the United States to limit the naval arms race and to work out security agreements in the Pacific area. Held in Washington, D.C., the conference resulted in the drafting and signing of several major and minor treaty agreements.

  • Washington Conference on Theoretical Physics

    Hans Bethe: Early work: The Washington Conferences on Theoretical Physics were paradigmatic of the meetings organized to assimilate the insights quantum mechanics was giving to many fields, especially atomic and molecular physics and the emerging field of nuclear physics. Bethe attended the 1935 and 1937 Washington Conferences, but he agreed…

  • Washington Consensus (economics)

    Washington Consensus, a set of economic policy recommendations for developing countries, and Latin America in particular, that became popular during the 1980s. The term Washington Consensus usually refers to the level of agreement between the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, and U.S.

  • Washington Crossing State Park (parks, New Jersey-Pennsylvania, United States)

    Washington Crossing State Park, two parks on the Pennsylvania and New Jersey shores of the Delaware River 8 miles (13 km) northwest of Trenton. The parks mark the site where, in a blinding snowstorm on the night of Dec. 25, 1776, General George Washington crossed the river with 2,400 colonial

  • Washington Crossing the Delaware (painting by Leutze)

    Emanuel Leutze: …American historical painter whose picture Washington Crossing the Delaware (1851) numbers among the most popular and widely reproduced images of an American historical event.

  • Washington Education Association (American organization)

    Davenport v. Washington Education Association: …other nonunion members of the Washington Education Association (WEA), the state’s largest teacher union, filed a lawsuit against the WEA, claiming that it had failed to obtain the affirmative authorization required in Section 760; the state of Washington also brought a similar suit against the WEA (Washington v. Washington Education…

  • Washington Freedom (American soccer team)

    Mia Hamm: …also played professionally for the Washington Freedom of the short-lived Women’s United Soccer Association (2001–03). After retiring from competitive play in 2004, she remained involved in the sport. Notably, in 2014 Hamm became a co-owner—along with her husband, former baseball player Nomar Garciaparra, and numerous others—of the Los Angeles Football…

  • Washington Generals (American exhibition basketball team)

    Nancy Lieberman: …Lieberman was chosen by the Washington Generals to play against the Harlem Globetrotters, making her the first woman to participate in a Globetrotters world tour. Approaching the age of 40 but still a talented player, she joined the Phoenix Mercury of the newly formed NBA-sponsored Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA)…

  • Washington hawthorn (plant)

    hawthorn: Common species: The Washington hawthorn (C. phaenopyrum) is famous for its red autumn colour and its abundant clusters of orange-red fruits that persist on the twigs well into winter; it is somewhat susceptible to rust but is otherwise a durable and much-used ornamental. Downy, or red, hawthorn (C.…

  • Washington Herald (American newspaper)

    Eleanor Medill Patterson: …editor and publisher of the Washington Times-Herald.

  • Washington Island (island, Kiribati)

    Teraina Island, coral atoll of the Northern Line Islands, part of Kiribati, in the west-central Pacific Ocean. With a circumference of 9 miles (14 km), it rises to about 10 feet (3 metres) and has a freshwater lake at its eastern end. It was sighted in 1798 by an American trader and explorer,

  • Washington Merry-Go-Round (work by Pearson)

    Drew Pearson: , reporter, wrote a book, Washington Merry-Go-Round (1931), a gossipy treatment of the scene in the U.S. capital. He and Allen were fired for writing the irreverent book, but its success brought them an invitation to write a column with the same name for syndication. The column first appeared in…

  • Washington Merry-Go-Round (film by Cruze [1932])

    James Cruze: …in 1932 Cruze scored with Washington Merry-Go-Round, a political drama starring Lee Tracy as an idealistic congressman. He also directed one of the episodes in Paramount’s all-star showcase If I Had a Million (1932). I Cover the Waterfront (1933) was Cruze’s most important pre-Production Code picture; it starred Ben Lyon…

  • Washington Monument (monument, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    Washington Monument, obelisk in Washington, D.C., honouring George Washington, the first president of the United States. Constructed of granite faced with Maryland marble, the structure is 55 feet (16.8 metres) square at the base and 554 feet 7 inches (169 metres) high and weighs an estimated

  • Washington Monument (monument, Baltimore, Maryland, United States)

    Baltimore: The contemporary city: The Washington Monument (1829), a 178-foot (54-metre) Doric column, was designed by architect Robert Mills, who later designed the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C. Hampton National Historic Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, and Pimlico Race Course (home of the Preakness Stakes) are nearby, as are several state…

  • Washington National Cathedral (cathedral, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    Washington National Cathedral, in Washington, D.C., Episcopal cathedral chartered by the U.S. Congress in 1893 and established on Mount St. Alban (the highest point in the city) in 1907. Its cornerstone was laid by President Theodore Roosevelt. Although construction slowed during periods of

  • Washington Nationals (American baseball team)

    Washington Nationals, American professional baseball team based in Washington, D.C., that plays in the National League (NL). The Nationals have won one World Series and one NL pennant (both 2019). The franchise was based in Montreal and known as the Expos (after Expo 67, the world’s fair held in

  • Washington Naval Conference (1921–1922)

    Washington Conference, (1921–22), international conference called by the United States to limit the naval arms race and to work out security agreements in the Pacific area. Held in Washington, D.C., the conference resulted in the drafting and signing of several major and minor treaty agreements.

  • Washington Naval Disarmament Conference (1921–1922)

    Washington Conference, (1921–22), international conference called by the United States to limit the naval arms race and to work out security agreements in the Pacific area. Held in Washington, D.C., the conference resulted in the drafting and signing of several major and minor treaty agreements.

  • Washington Normal School (university, Ellensburg, Washington, United States)

    Central Washington University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Ellensburg, Washington, U.S. It is one of six such institutions sponsored by the state of Washington. The university consists of colleges of arts and humanities, business, sciences, and education and professional

  • Washington Peace Conference (United States history)

    John Tyler: Succession to the presidency: …1861 he presided over the Washington Peace Conference, an abortive effort to resolve sectional differences. When the Senate rejected the proposals of the conference, he relinquished all hope of saving the Union and returned to Virginia, where he served as a delegate to the Virginia Secession Convention. Shortly before his…

  • Washington Post, The (American newspaper)

    The Washington Post, morning daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C., the dominant newspaper in the U.S. capital and usually counted as one of the greatest newspapers in that country. The Post was established in 1877 as a four-page organ of the Democratic Party. For more than half a century

  • Washington Redskins (American football team)

    Washington Redskins, American professional gridiron football team based in Washington, D.C. The Redskins play in the National Football Conference (NFC) of the National Football League (NFL) and have won two NFL championships (1937 and 1942) and three Super Bowls (1983, 1988, and 1992). Founded in

  • Washington Senators (American baseball team)

    Minnesota Twins, American professional baseball team based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, that plays in the American League (AL). The Twins originally played in Washington, D.C. (1901–60), and were known as the Senators before relocating to Minneapolis in 1961. The franchise has won three World Series

  • Washington Senators (American baseball team)

    Texas Rangers, American professional baseball team based in Arlington, Texas, that plays in the American League (AL). The Rangers began play in 1961 as the Washington (D.C.) Senators and have won two AL pennants (2010 and 2011). The Senators finished in last place or tied for last place in each of

  • Washington Square (novel by James)

    Washington Square, short novel by Henry James, published in 1880 and praised for its depiction of the complicated relationship between a stubborn father and his daughter. The novel’s main character, Catherine Sloper, lives with her widowed aunt and her physician father in New York City’s

  • Washington Square Serenade (album by Earle)

    Steve Earle: …folk album) in 2005, and Washington Square Serenade (2007), Earle’s romantic confessional collaboration with his sixth wife, singer Allison Moorer, won a Grammy (best contemporary folk/Americana album) in 2008. His 2009 tribute to Van Zandt, titled Townes, earned him another Grammy Award for best contemporary folk album.

  • Washington Star (American newspaper)

    Tuskegee syphilis study: …methods were exposed in the Washington Star. A class-action suit against the federal government was settled out of court for $10 million in 1974. That same year the U.S. Congress passed the National Research Act, requiring institutional review boards to approve all studies involving human subjects. In 1997 President Bill…

  • Washington State University (university, Pullman, Washington, United States)

    Washington State University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Pullman, Washington, U.S. It is Washington’s land-grant university under the provisions of the Morrill Act of 1862. Washington State comprises a graduate school, the Intercollegiate College of Nursing (a

  • Washington stroke (rowing)

    Hiram Boardman Conibear: …distinctive style known as the American stroke (also called the Washington stroke and the Conibear stroke) that revolutionized college rowing and had an effect on the sport that lasted for 30 years.

  • Washington Territory (historical territory, United States)

    Washington: Territory and state: In 1853 Congress created the Washington Territory—named for the first president of the United States—and extended it east of the Columbia River to the crest of the Rockies, including parts of present-day Idaho and Montana.

  • Washington Times-Herald (American newspaper)

    Eleanor Medill Patterson: …editor and publisher of the Washington Times-Herald.

  • Washington University in St. Louis (university, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States)

    Washington University in St. Louis, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in St. Louis, Missouri, U.S. It is a comprehensive research and academic institution, and it includes one of the leading research-centred medical schools in the United States. In addition, the university

  • Washington v. Davis (law case)

    disparate impact: Evolution of disparate impact theory: …the disparate impact theory was Washington v. Davis (1976), in which the Supreme Court held that the theory could not be used to establish a constitutional claim—in this case, that an employment practice by the District of Columbia violated the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment—unless plaintiffs could show…

  • Washington Wizards (American basketball team)

    Washington Wizards, American professional basketball team based in Washington, D.C. The Wizards (then known as the Washington Bullets) made four trips to the National Basketball Association (NBA) finals in the 1970s and won an NBA championship in the 1977–78 season. Founded in 1961 as the Chicago

  • Washington’s Birthday (United States holiday)

    Presidents’ Day, in the United States, holiday (third Monday in February) popularly recognized as honouring George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. The day is sometimes understood as a celebration of the birthdays and lives of all U.S. presidents. The origin of Presidents’ Day lies in the 1880s,

  • Washington’s Crossing (work by Fischer)

    David Hackett Fischer: Washington’s Crossing (2004) was a study of the American Revolution with special focus on George Washington’s 1776 crossing of the Delaware River to attack British troops at Trenton, New Jersey. It became a popular best seller and won the 2005 Pulitzer Prize for history. Fischer…

  • Washington, Booker T. (American educator)

    Booker T. Washington, educator and reformer, first president and principal developer of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (now Tuskegee University), and the most influential spokesman for black Americans between 1895 and 1915. He was born in a slave hut but, after emancipation, moved with

  • Washington, Booker Taliaferro (American educator)

    Booker T. Washington, educator and reformer, first president and principal developer of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (now Tuskegee University), and the most influential spokesman for black Americans between 1895 and 1915. He was born in a slave hut but, after emancipation, moved with

  • Washington, Bushrod (United States jurist)

    Bushrod Washington, associate justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1798 to 1829. A nephew of George Washington, he graduated in 1778 from the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, where he was one of the original members of the Phi Beta Kappa society. He served in the

  • Washington, D.C. (work by Vidal)

    Gore Vidal: Washington, D.C. (1967), an ironic examination of political morality in the U.S. capital, was the first of a series of several popular novels known as the Narratives of Empire, which vividly re-created prominent figures and events in American history—Burr (1973), 1876 (1976), Lincoln (1984), Empire…

  • Washington, D.C. (national capital, United States)

    Washington, D.C., city and capital of the United States of America. It is coextensive with the District of Columbia (the city is often referred to as simply D.C.) and is located on the northern shore of the Potomac River at the river’s navigation head—that is, the transshipment point between

  • Washington, D.C., flag of (United States federal district flag)

    U.S. federal district flag consisting of a white field with two horizontal red stripes and three red stars above the stripes. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is 1 to 2.Following World War I (1914–18), a number of designs were advanced for a flag for the District of Columbia. Among those submitted

  • Washington, D.C., International (American horse race)

    Washington, D.C., International, United States flat horse race attracting leading horses from all over the world. Instituted in 1952, it was the first such event in North America. The race is a 1.5-mile (about 2,400-metre) event for horses three years old and over, held annually in November on a

  • Washington, Denzel (American actor)

    Denzel Washington, American actor celebrated for his engaging and powerful performances. Throughout his career he was regularly praised by critics, and his consistent success at the box office helped to dispel the perception that African American actors could not draw mainstream white audiences.

  • Washington, Dinah (American singer)

    Dinah Washington, black American blues singer noted for her excellent voice control and unique gospel-influenced delivery. As a child, Ruth Jones moved with her family to Chicago. She sang in and played the piano for her church choir and in 1939 began to sing and play piano in various Chicago

  • Washington, flag of (United States state flag)

    U.S. state flag consisting of a green field (background) with the state seal in the centre.The 19th-century territorial seal of Washington had a detailed naturalistic scene with sea and mountains and a woman in the foreground epitomizing hope, surrounded by a log cabin, wagon, and fir forest. That

  • Washington, George (American settler)

    Centralia: Cochran and George Washington; Washington, the son of an African slave and an Englishwoman, had been denied the right to settle, and Cochran, his adoptive father, had filed the claim for him. Washington purchased the claim from his father when the newly created Washington Territory established different…

  • Washington, George (president of United States)

    George Washington, American general and commander in chief of the colonial armies in the American Revolution (1775–83) and subsequently first president of the United States (1789–97). Washington’s father, Augustine Washington, had gone to school in England, tasted seafaring life, and then settled

  • Washington, Grover, Jr. (American musician)

    Grover Washington, Jr., American saxophonist who played in organ-based “soul jazz” groups before his smooth, blues-inflected style won him crossover fame as leader of jazz-funk fusion albums, including Mister Magic (1975), Feels So Good (1975), and Winelight (1980), which included his hit song

  • Washington, Harold (American politician and lawyer)

    Harold Washington, American politician who gained national prominence as the first African American mayor of Chicago (1983–87). During World War II, Washington joined the army and served as an engineer in the South Pacific. After returning home in 1946, he graduated from Roosevelt University (B.A.,

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