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  • water well

    aquifer: Wells can be drilled into many aquifers, and they are one of the most important sources of fresh water on Earth.

  • water willow (plant)

    loosestrife: Swamp loosestrife, water willow, or wild oleander (Decodon verticillatus) is a perennial herb native to swamps and ponds of eastern North America.

  • Water Witch incident (South American history)

    Water Witch incident, (1855), brief military skirmish near the Paraguayan Ft. Itapirú, involving the USS “Water Witch,” commanded by Lt. Thomas J. Page, and Paraguayan troops who fired as the vessel was exploring the Paraná River, in international waters. In 1853 the “Water Witch” set out on a

  • Water with Berries (novel by Lamming)

    George Lamming: Lamming’s later novels include Water with Berries (1971), a political allegory based on Shakespeare’s The Tempest, and Natives of My Person (1971), about 16th-century explorers in the West Indies. His poetry and short stories were published in various anthologies, and Conversations, a volume of essays and interviews, was published…

  • water yam (plant)

    yam: trifida) and winged, or water, yam (D. alata) are the edible species most widely diffused in tropical and subtropical countries. The tubers of D. alata sometimes weigh 45 kg (100 pounds). Guinea yam (D. rotundata) and yellow Guinea yam (D. cayenensis) are the main yam species grown…

  • water, ground (hydrology)

    Groundwater, water that occurs below the surface of Earth, where it occupies all or part of the void spaces in soils or geologic strata. It is also called subsurface water to distinguish it from surface water, which is found in large bodies like the oceans or lakes or which flows overland in

  • water, ordeal by (trial process)

    ordeal: …test, particularly by fire or water, is the most common. In Hindu codes a wife may be required to pass through fire to prove her fidelity to a jealous husband; traces of burning would be regarded as proof of guilt. The practice of dunking suspected witches was based on the…

  • Water-Babies, The (work by Kingsley)

    children's literature: Coming of age (1865–1945): In 1863 there appeared The Water-Babies by Charles Kingsley. In this fascinating, yet repulsive, “Fairy Tale for a Land-Baby,” an unctuous cleric and a fanciful poet, uneasily inhabiting one body, collaborated. The Water-Babies may stand as a rough symbol of the bumpy passage from the moral tale to a…

  • water-balance response

    hormone: Neurohypophysis and the polypeptide hormones of the hypothalamus: …arginine vasotocin evokes the so-called Brunn (water-balance) response; that is, water accumulates within the body as a result of a combination of increased water uptake through the skin and the wall of the bladder and decreased urinary output. This response, which also involves the uptake of sodium by the skin,…

  • water-bearing stratum (hydrology)

    Aquifer, in hydrology, rock layer that contains water and releases it in appreciable amounts. The rock contains water-filled pore spaces, and, when the spaces are connected, the water is able to flow through the matrix of the rock. An aquifer also may be called a water-bearing stratum, lens, or

  • water-control program

    China: Economic development: These water-control projects varied in scale with terrain and ecology. In central and southern China, irrigation systems were the foundation for rice cultivation and were largely the product of private investment and management. In northern China, control of the heavily silted Huang He (Yellow River), which…

  • water-cooled, plate-fuel reactor (fission reactor)

    nuclear reactor: Water-cooled, plate-fuel reactors: These are the most common type of research reactor. Water-cooled, plate-fuel reactors use enriched uranium fuel in plate assemblies (see above Fuel types) and are cooled and moderated with water. They operate over a wide range of thermal power levels, from a…

  • water-current system (biology)

    sponge: Form and function: …canals and chambers, called a water-current system, through which water circulates to bring food and oxygen to the sponge. The water-current system also helps disperse gametes and larvae and remove wastes.

  • water-gas shift reaction (industrial process)

    chemical industry: Nitrogen: …possible to carry out a water-gas shift reaction by passing the water gas with more steam over a catalyst, yielding more hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is removed by dissolving it in water at a pressure of about ten atmospheres; it can also be utilized directly, as noted…

  • water-in-oil emulsion

    pharmaceutical industry: Liquid dosage forms: …readily with water-based liquids, while water-in-oil emulsions mix more easily with oils. Milk is a common example of an oil-in-water emulsion. In order to prevent the separation of the two liquids, most pharmaceutical emulsions contain a naturally occurring emulsifying agent such as cholesterol or tragacanth or a synthetic emulsifying agent…

  • water-jet channeling

    mining: Unit operations: The advantages of water-jet channeling are that it cuts narrow, straight channels with very little noise and that it does not damage the wall surface.

  • water-jet machining

    machine tool: Water-jet machining: In the water-jet machining process, water is forced through tiny nozzles under very high pressures to cut through materials such as polymers, brick, and paper. Water-jet machining has several advantages over other methods: it generates no heat, the workpiece does not deform during machining,…

  • Water-Method Man, The (novel by Irving)

    John Irving: …Irving’s debut and the subsequent The Water-Method Man (1972) received enthusiastic notices; The 158-Pound Marriage (1974) was roundly panned. The World According to Garp, however, struck a chord with the international reading public. Infused with comedy and violence, Irving’s breakthrough book chronicles the tragic life and death of the novelist…

  • water-penny beetle (insect)

    coleopteran: Annotated classification: Family Psephenidae (water-penny beetles) Larvae flat, almost circular; a few species, mostly in India, North America. Family Ptilodactylidae About 200 tropical species; aquatic or in rotten wood. Superfamily Chrysomeloidea Mostly wood or plant feeders; body

  • water-repellent fabric

    inorganic polymer: Silicones: Silicones are also water-repellent. Paper, wool, silk, and other fabrics can be coated with a water-repellent film by exposing them for a short time (one to two seconds) to the vapour of trimethylchlorosilane, (CH3)3SiCl. The ―OH groups on the surface of the materials react with the silane, and…

  • water-silk (green algae)

    Spirogyra, (genus Spirogyra), any member of a genus of some 400 species of free-floating green algae (division Chlorophyta) found in freshwater environments around the world. Named for their beautiful spiral chloroplasts, spirogyras are filamentous algae that consist of thin unbranched chains of

  • water-supply system

    Water supply system, infrastructure for the collection, transmission, treatment, storage, and distribution of water for homes, commercial establishments, industry, and irrigation, as well as for such public needs as firefighting and street flushing. Of all municipal services, provision of potable

  • water-vascular system (zoology)

    echinoderm: Water-vascular system: The water-vascular system, which functions in the movement of tube feet, is a characteristic feature of echinoderms, and evidence of its existence has been found in even the oldest fossil forms. It comprises an internal hydraulic system of canals and reservoirs containing a…

  • water-witch (bird)

    Grebe, (order Podicipediformes), any member of an order of foot-propelled diving birds containing a single family, Podicipedidae, with about 20 species. They are best known for the striking courtship displays of some species and for the silky plumage of the underparts, which formerly was much used

  • Waterberg Series (geology)

    Waterberg Series, major division of rocks in southern Africa. The age of the Waterberg is in doubt; it is possible that the Waterberg is late Precambrian or Early Paleozoic (older or younger than 540 million years, respectively). Waterberg rocks consist of several thousand feet of brown, red, and p

  • Waterberg System (geology)

    Waterberg Series, major division of rocks in southern Africa. The age of the Waterberg is in doubt; it is possible that the Waterberg is late Precambrian or Early Paleozoic (older or younger than 540 million years, respectively). Waterberg rocks consist of several thousand feet of brown, red, and p

  • waterboarding (torture method)

    Waterboarding, method of torture in which water is poured into the nose and mouth of a victim who lies on his back on an inclined platform, with his feet above his head. As the victim’s sinus cavities and mouth fill with water, his gag reflex causes him to expel air from his lungs, leaving him

  • Waterboer, Andries (South African chief)

    South Africa: British occupation of the Cape: Griqua raiding states led by Andries Waterboer, Adam Kok, and Barend Barends captured more Africans from among people such as the Hurutshe, Rolong, and Kwena. Other people, such as those known as the Mantatees, were forced to become farmworkers, mainly in the eastern Cape. European farmers also raided for labour…

  • Waterboer, Nicholaas (South African chief)

    South Africa: Diamonds and confederation: …the western Griqua under Nicolaas Waterboer, and southern Tswana chiefs. At a special hearing in October 1871, Robert W. Keate (then lieutenant governor of Natal) found in favour of Waterboer, but the British persuaded him to request protection against his Boer rivals, and the area was annexed as Griqualand West.

  • Waterboy, The (film by Coraci [1998])

    Adam Sandler: …of financial necessity, and in The Waterboy (1998) he played the emotionally stunted water boy of a college football team who becomes its unlikely saviour. In The Wedding Singer (1998), a romantic comedy with Drew Barrymore, and Big Daddy (1999), in which his character adopts a child to impress his…

  • waterbuck (mammal)

    Waterbuck, antelope species of the genus Kobus

  • waterbug (insect)

    cockroach: The German cockroach (Blattella germanica), a common household pest sometimes erroneously called a waterbug, is light brown with two dark stripes on the prothoracic region. The female produces the ootheca three days after mating and carries it for about 20 days. Three or more generations may…

  • Waterburg, Battle of (German-Namibian history)

    Namibia: The German conquest: …main Herero army at the Battle of Waterburg and, taking no prisoners, drove them into the Kalahari, where most died. By 1910 the loss of life by hanging, battle, or starvation and thirst—plus the escape of a few to the Bechuanaland protectorate—had reduced the Herero people by about 90 percent…

  • Waterbury (Connecticut, United States)

    Waterbury, city, coextensive with the town (township) of Waterbury, New Haven county, west-central Connecticut, U.S., on the Naugatuck River. Mattatuck Plantation, settled in 1674 as part of Farmington, was incorporated (1686) as the town of Waterbury, so named because of the abundant drainage of

  • watercolor (art)

    Watercolour, pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is

  • watercolor painting (art)

    Watercolour, pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is

  • watercolour (art)

    Watercolour, pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is

  • watercolour painting (art)

    Watercolour, pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is

  • watercolour paper (art)

    drawing: Surfaces: Modern watercolour paper is a pure linen paper glued in bulk and absolutely free of fat and alum; its two surfaces are of different grain. For pastel drawings, a firm, slightly rough surface is indicated, whereas pen drawings are best done on a very smooth paper.

  • watercraft (transport)

    ship: History of ships: Boats are still vital aids to movement, even those little changed in form during that 6,000-year history. The very fact that boats may be quite easily identified in illustrations of great antiquity shows how slow and continuous had been this evolution until just 150 years…

  • watercress (plant)

    Watercress, (Nasturtium officinale), perennial aquatic plant of the mustard family (Brassicaceae), native to Eurasia and naturalized throughout North America. Watercress thrives in cool flowing streams, where it grows submerged, floating on the water, or spread over mud surfaces. It is often

  • Wateree (people)

    Sumter: The Wateree Indians, a small Siouan-speaking tribe, inhabited the region in the 17th century. By the time of the American Revolution, European settlers had replaced its forests with farms; the county continues to be a leading source of cotton, tobacco, grains, legumes, and livestock. Gen. Thomas…

  • Wateree Lake (lake, South Carolina, United States)

    Santee-Wateree-Catawba river system: …and reservoirs, the largest being Wateree Lake (15 miles [24 km] long), to its junction with the Congaree. From this confluence the Santee, as it is called, winds southeastward for 143 miles (230 km) to its delta on the Atlantic Ocean south of Georgetown, S.C. The Santee has been dammed…

  • Wateree River (river, South Carolina, United States)

    Wateree River, River, central South Carolina, U.S. It enters the state from North Carolina as the Catawba River but is known as the Wateree in South Carolina. It joins the Congaree River to form the Santee River. The Wateree flows through a series of lakes and reservoirs, the largest of which is

  • waterfall (geology)

    Waterfall, area where flowing river water drops abruptly and nearly vertically (see video). Waterfalls represent major interruptions in river flow. Under most circumstances, rivers tend to smooth out irregularities in their flow by processes of erosion and deposition. In time, the long profile of a

  • waterfall technique (materials processing)

    advanced ceramics: Tape casting: …other tape-casting methods are the waterfall technique and the paper-casting process. In the waterfall technique a conveyor belt carries a flat surface through a continuous, recirculated waterfall of slurry. This method—which is commonly employed to coat candy with chocolate—has also been used to form thin-film dielectrics for capacitors as well…

  • Waterfall, The (painting by Shingei)

    Shingei: Shingei’s most famous painting, “The Waterfall” (1480; in the Nezu Art Museum in Tokyo), is executed in the Tenshō Shūbun manner; but its pronounced stylization represents a significantly greater departure from the original Chinese landscape paintings. Shingei’s style was continued by his disciple Kei Shoki, for whom “The Waterfall” was…

  • Waterfalls of Slunj, The (work by Doderer)

    Heimito von Doderer: Die Wasserf?lle von Slunj (1963; The Waterfalls of Slunj) was the first novel in an intended tetralogy spanning life in Vienna from 1880 to 1960 and collectively entitled Roman Nr. 7 (“Novel No. 7”). The second volume, Der Grenzwald (“The Frontier Forest”), unfinished, appeared posthumously in 1967.

  • waterflooding (industrial process)

    heavy oil and tar sand: …lighter conventional crudes are often waterflooded to enhance recovery, this method is essentially ineffective for heavy crudes between 20° and 10° API gravity, and thermal recovery becomes necessary. Heavy crude oils have enough mobility that, given time, they will be producible through a well bore in response to thermal recovery…

  • Waterford (county, Ireland)

    Waterford, county in the province of Munster, southern Ireland. It is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the south and from west to east by Counties Cork, Tipperary, Kilkenny, and Wexford. The county’s northern boundary follows the River Suir through the city of Waterford. Dungarvan, on Dungarvan

  • Waterford (Connecticut, United States)

    Waterford, town (township), New London county, southeastern Connecticut, U.S., on Long Island Sound just west of the city of New London. The area, settled about 1653, was separated from New London and incorporated as a town in 1801. Drained by the Thames and Niantic rivers, it has a name

  • Waterford (Ireland)

    Waterford, city and port, eastern County Waterford, and the major town of southeastern Ireland. It is Ireland’s oldest city. Waterford city, administratively independent of the county, is situated on the south bank of the River Suir, 4 miles (6 km) above its junction with the Barrow and at the head

  • Waterford glass (decorative arts)

    Waterford glass, heavy cut glassware produced in Waterford, Ire., from 1729. Waterford glass, particularly the early variety, is characterized by thick walls, deeply incised geometric cutting, and brilliant polish. The smoky, bluish gray colour of early Waterford glass was considered a drawback,

  • waterfowl (bird)

    Waterfowl, in the United States, all varieties of ducks, geese, and swans; the term is sometimes expanded to include some unrelated aquatic birds such as coots, grebes (see photograph), and loons. In Britain the term refers only to domesticated swans, geese, and ducks kept for ornamental purposes,

  • Watergate Scandal (United States history)

    Watergate scandal, interlocking political scandals of the administration of U.S. Pres. Richard M. Nixon that were revealed following the arrest of five burglars at Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters in the Watergate office-apartment-hotel complex in Washington, D.C., on June 17, 1972.

  • Waterhouse, Alfred (British architect)

    Alfred Waterhouse, English architect who worked in the style of High Victorian medieval eclecticism. He is remembered principally for his elaborately planned complexes of educational and civic buildings. Waterhouse was an apprentice to Richard Lane in Manchester. His position as a designer of

  • Waterhouse, Benjamin (American physician)

    Benjamin Waterhouse, American physician and scientist, a pioneer in smallpox vaccination. Upon reading in 1799 of the work of Edward Jenner, the British surgeon and doctor who discovered vaccination, Waterhouse began a lifelong crusade for vaccination in the United States, beginning with his

  • Waterhouse, George Marsden (British statesman)

    George Marsden Waterhouse, businessman, politician, prime minister of South Australia (1861–63) and prime minister of New Zealand (1872–73), the only man ever to be premier of two British colonies. Waterhouse went with his Wesleyan missionary father to Tasmania, set up a business with his brother

  • Waterhouse, John William (English artist)

    John William Waterhouse, English painter of the Victorian era known for his large-scale paintings of Classical mythological subjects. He is associated both with his predecessors, the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, based on their shared interest in literary subjects (e.g., scenes from Alfred, Lord

  • Waterhouse, Keith (British writer)

    Keith Waterhouse, English novelist, playwright, and screenwriter noted for his ability to create comedy and satire out of depressing human predicaments. Waterhouse left school at the age of 15 and worked at various odd jobs before becoming a newspaperman first in Yorkshire and then in London,

  • Waterhouse, Keith Spencer (British writer)

    Keith Waterhouse, English novelist, playwright, and screenwriter noted for his ability to create comedy and satire out of depressing human predicaments. Waterhouse left school at the age of 15 and worked at various odd jobs before becoming a newspaperman first in Yorkshire and then in London,

  • Waterhouse, Rupert (British physician)

    Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome: …named after the British physician Rupert Waterhouse and the Danish physician Carl Friderichsen, who independently described it in the early 1900s.

  • Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (pathology)

    Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, a rare type of septicemia (blood poisoning) of rapid and severe onset, marked by fever, collapse and sometimes coma, hemorrhage from skin and mucous membranes, and severe bilateral hemorrhage of the adrenal cortical tissue. The syndrome is most common in children

  • Watering Place, The (work by Gainsborough)

    Thomas Gainsborough: London period: The Watering Place was described by Horace Walpole, the English man of letters, as in the style of Rubens, but it also has much of the classic calm of Claude Lorrain, whose etchings Gainsborough owned. In 1783 he made an expedition to the Lake District…

  • Waterland (novel by Swift)

    Graham Swift: …his most highly regarded novel, Waterland (1983; film 1992). The story centres on a history teacher who is obsessed with local history and his family’s past. Swift’s other novels include Out of This World (1988), a metaphysical family saga, and Ever After (1992), the story of a man preoccupied with…

  • waterleaf (plant)

    Waterleaf, any of about eight species of herbaceous plants constituting a genus (Hydrophyllum) in the borage family (Boraginaceae) and native to damp woodlands of North America. Light-greenish mottling on the leaves, suggesting watermarks on paper, gives the genus its name. Notable members of the

  • waterleaf family (plant subfamily)
  • Waterlily (novel by Deloria)

    Ella Cara Deloria: …work, she wrote the novel Waterlily (completed in 1948, but not published until 1988) about the daily life of a Teton Sioux woman. The book, published posthumously, was an attempt to introduce Native American culture to non-scholars and non-Natives.

  • waterlogging (Earth science)

    grassland: Origin: …cause is seasonal flooding or waterlogging, which is responsible for the creation and maintenance of large grasslands in parts of the highly seasonal subtropics and in smaller areas of other regions. One of the best examples of a seasonally flooded subtropical grassland is the Pantanal in the Mato Grosso region…

  • Waterloo (Ontario, Canada)

    Waterloo, city, regional municipality of Waterloo, southeastern Ontario, Canada. Its settlement dates from the early 1800s, when a group of Pennsylvania Mennonites led by Abraham Erb settled along the Grand River. The community was named for the Battle of Waterloo (1815). Part of the

  • Waterloo (recording by ABBA)

    ABBA: …prize with the song “Waterloo.” The resulting single served as the anchor for the album of the same name, released that year.

  • Waterloo (Texas, United States)

    Austin, city, capital of Texas, U.S., and seat (1840) of Travis county. It is located at the point at which the Colorado River crosses the Balcones Escarpment in the south-central part of the state, about 80 miles (130 km) northeast of San Antonio. Austin’s metropolitan area encompasses Hays,

  • Waterloo (Iowa, United States)

    Waterloo, city, seat (1855) of Black Hawk county, northeastern Iowa, U.S., along both sides of the Cedar River, adjacent to Cedar Falls on the west. The site was first settled in 1845 as Prairie Rapids, and the name Waterloo was adopted in 1851. The town grew as a railroad division point and a

  • Waterloo Bridge (bridge, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Edinburgh: Edinburgh’s bridges: In the same period Waterloo Bridge, with its Regency Arch (1820), opened the eastern slopes of Calton Hill (northeast of the Castle Rock) to Regency building, while King’s Bridge (1833), leaping westward from the Castle Rock, was the vital link in the so-called “western approach.” Throughout the Victorian and…

  • Waterloo Bridge (bridge, London, United Kingdom)

    John Rennie: …however, for his London bridges: Waterloo Bridge (1811–17; replaced 1937–45), composed of masonry arches; Southwark Bridge (1814–19; replaced 1912–21), composed of three cast-iron arches; and the New London Bridge (opened in 1831 and moved more than 130 years later to Lake Havasu City, Arizona, U.S.), made of multiple masonry arches.

  • Waterloo Cup (hunting)

    coursing: The Waterloo Cup, the Derby of coursing, was established in 1836 and is held annually at the Altcar Club, near Liverpool. The event was named for the Waterloo Hotel in Liverpool, where the first promoters met. The National Coursing Club was formed in 1858.

  • Waterloo Station (railroad station, London, United Kingdom)

    Waterloo Station, railway station in the borough of Lambeth, London, England. It is one of the largest stations in the United Kingdom. Part of the station serves as a terminus for the Channel Tunnel (Eurotunnel), which connects the isle of Britain to continental Europe. The station is located in

  • Waterloo Sunset (song by Davies)

    the Kinks: …a teenage runaway; and “Waterloo Sunset,” a hymn to London that became the Kinks’ signature song. In 1967 Dave scored a solo success with “Death of a Clown,” a memorable drinking song.

  • Waterloo, Battle of (European history)

    Battle of Waterloo, (June 18, 1815), Napoleon’s final defeat, ending 23 years of recurrent warfare between France and the other powers of Europe. It was fought during the Hundred Days of Napoleon’s restoration, 3 miles (5 km) south of Waterloo village (which is 9 miles [14.5 km] south of Brussels),

  • Waterloo, University of (university, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada)

    University of Waterloo, Public university in Waterloo, Ont., Can., founded in 1957. It has faculties of applied health sciences, arts, engineering, environmental studies, mathematics, and science, as well as schools of accounting, architecture, optometry, and urban and regional planning. Special

  • Waterman Junction (California, United States)

    Barstow, city, San Bernardino county, south-central California, U.S. Located in the Mojave Desert, the city lies at a junction of pioneer trails. It was founded in 1880 during a silver-mining rush and was first called Fishpond and then Waterman Junction. It was renamed in 1886 to honour William

  • Waterman, L. E. (American inventor)

    pen: …1884 by the American inventor L.E. Waterman.

  • watermark (paper)

    Watermark, design produced by creating a variation in the thickness of paper fibre during the wet-paper phase of papermaking. This design is clearly visible when the paper is held up to a light source. Watermarks are known to have existed in Italy before the end of the 13th century. Two types of

  • watermeal (plant)

    angiosperm: General features: …individual flowering plant, probably the watermeal (Wolffia; Araceae) at less than 2 millimetres (0.08 inch), to one of the tallest angiosperms, Australia’s mountain ash tree (Eucalyptus regnans; Myrtaceae) at about 100 metres (330 feet). Between these two extremes lie angiosperms of almost every size and shape. Examples of this variability…

  • watermelon (fruit)

    Watermelon, (Citrullus lanatus), succulent fruit and vinelike plant of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae), native to tropical Africa and cultivated around the world. The fruit contains vitamin A and some vitamin C and is usually eaten raw. The rind is sometimes preserved as a pickle. The history of

  • watermelon pilea (plant)

    Pilea: …expel their pollen when mature; aluminum plant, or watermelon pilea (P. cadierei), with silvery markings on glossy dark green leaves; Chinese money plant (P. peperomioides), with long petioles (leaf stalks) attached to the centre of the undersides of the round leaves; and friendship plant, or panamiga (P. involucrata), with quilted…

  • watermill (engineering)

    Waterwheel, mechanical device for tapping the energy of running or falling water by means of a set of paddles mounted around a wheel. The force of the moving water is exerted against the paddles, and the consequent rotation of the wheel is transmitted to machinery via the shaft of the wheel. The

  • Waterpocket Fold (fold, Utah, United States)

    Capitol Reef National Park: Natural history: …the nearly 100-mile- (160-km-) long Waterpocket Fold. That formation constitutes a monocline, a sharp fold of Earth’s crust that was formed when thick layers of horizontal sedimentary rocks (mainly sandstones but also shales, mudstones, and limestones) that had been deposited over a period of more than 200 million years were…

  • waterpower

    Waterpower, power produced by a stream of water as it turns a wheel or similar device. The waterwheel was probably invented in the 1st century bce, and it was widely used throughout the Middle Ages and into modern times for grinding grain, operating bellows for furnaces, and other purposes. The

  • waterproof cement (cement)

    cement: Types of portland cement: Waterproof cement is the name given to a portland cement to which a water-repellent agent has been added. Hydrophobic cement is obtained by grinding portland cement clinker with a film-forming substance such as oleic acid in order to reduce the rate of deterioration when the…

  • waterproofing (industry)

    art conservation and restoration: Techniques of building conservation: Techniques of waterproofing wet walls include the insertion of high-capillary tubes, designed to draw the moisture to themselves and to expel it, and also the injection of silicone or latex and similar water-repellent solutions into the heart of the walling. Simple methods are best. The traditional ditch,…

  • Waters of Babylon (work by Arden)

    John Arden: Waters of Babylon (1957), a play with a roguish but unjudged central character, revealed a moral ambiguity that troubled critics and audiences. His next play, Live Like Pigs (1958), was set on a housing estate. This was followed by his best-known work, Serjeant Musgrave’s Dance…

  • Waters, Alice (American restaurateur, chef, and activist)

    Alice Waters, American restaurateur, chef, and food activist who was a leading proponent of the “slow food” movement, which billed itself as the healthy antithesis to fast food. Waters studied French culture at the University of California, Berkeley, receiving a bachelor’s degree in 1967. She

  • Waters, Benjamin (American musician)

    Benny Waters, American tenor saxophonist and arranger who played for seven years with Charlie Johnson’s early Harlem jazz band in New York City. A journeyman sideman, he later played woodwinds with American jazz and blues bands fronted by Fletcher Henderson, Jimmy Archey, and Roy Milton before

  • Waters, Benny (American musician)

    Benny Waters, American tenor saxophonist and arranger who played for seven years with Charlie Johnson’s early Harlem jazz band in New York City. A journeyman sideman, he later played woodwinds with American jazz and blues bands fronted by Fletcher Henderson, Jimmy Archey, and Roy Milton before

  • Waters, David Mark Rylance (British actor and director)

    Mark Rylance, British theatre actor and director recognized not only for his period-specific enactments of both male and female roles in the works of William Shakespeare but also for his poignant portrayals of contemporary characters. Rylance, habitually consumed by his roles, often kept in

  • Waters, Ethel (American singer and actress)

    Ethel Waters, American blues and jazz singer and dramatic actress whose singing, based in the blues tradition, featured her full-bodied voice, wide range, and slow vibrato. Waters grew up in extreme poverty and was married for the first time at the age of 12, while she was still attending convent

  • Waters, Frank (American author)

    Frank Waters, U.S. novelist and biographer whose works concentrated on the American Southwest (b. July 5, 1902--d. June 3,

  • Waters, John (American director and author)

    Johnny Depp: 21 Jump Street, Tim Burton films, and Hunter S. Thompson: …the series and appeared in John Waters’s Cry-Baby and Tim Burton’s Edward Scissorhands, two films by maverick directors that showcased Depp’s range. Scissorhands began a long association between the actor and director that led to Depp’s appearance in several other Burton films, including Ed Wood (1994), Sleepy Hollow (1999), and…

  • Waters, Muddy (American musician)

    Muddy Waters, dynamic American blues guitarist and singer who played a major role in creating the post-World War II electric blues. Waters, whose nickname came from his proclivity for playing in a creek as a boy, grew up in the cotton country of the Mississippi Delta, where he was raised

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