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  • Weekley, Freida (German aristocrat)

    D.H. Lawrence: Youth and early career: …in love and eloped with Frieda Weekley (née von Richthofen), the aristocratic German wife of a professor at Nottingham. The couple went first to Germany and then to Italy, where Lawrence completed Sons and Lovers. They were married in England in 1914 after Frieda’s divorce.

  • Weekly Illustrated (British magazine)

    history of photography: Photojournalism: …where he established the magazines Weekly Illustrated (1934) and Picture Post (1938). Staff photographers on both magazines included old colleagues also forced from Germany, such as Man and Kurt Hutton. They and other contributors were encouraged to develop the technique and pictorial style of taking photographs by using available light—i.e.,…

  • Weekly Register (American newspaper)

    Hezekiah Niles: …Register (later to be called Niles’ Weekly Register), which he edited and published until 1836 and which became one of the most influential papers in the United States. Niles favoured protective tariffs and the gradual abolition of slavery, and he ceaselessly propagandized for both these causes. Because his articles were…

  • Weekly Standard, The (American magazine)

    The Weekly Standard, American political opinion magazine founded in 1995 by William Kristol, Fred Barnes, and John Podhoretz with financial backing from Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation. The Weekly Standard largely reflected the opinions and concerns of contemporary American neoconservatives,

  • Weekly World News (American newspaper)

    National Enquirer: …included a sister tabloid, the Weekly World News (known for even more sensational stories, such as those of alien visitations, and regularly featured “news updates” of a quasi-human creature named “Bat Boy”). In 1994 the company—which by then included a range of other publications—changed its name to American Media, Inc.

  • Weeknd, The (Canadian singer)

    The Weeknd, Canadian rhythm-and-blues singer and songwriter who was perhaps best known for his explicit songs about sex and drugs, many of which were autobiographical, and for his soaring falsetto and its singular tremolo. Tesfaye’s mother and grandmother immigrated in the 1980s to Canada from

  • Weeks, Feast of (Judaism)

    Shavuot, (“Festival of the Weeks”), second of the three Pilgrim Festivals of the Jewish religious calendar. It was originally an agricultural festival, marking the beginning of the wheat harvest. During the Temple period, the first fruits of the harvest were brought to the Temple, and two loaves of

  • Weelkes, Thomas (English composer)

    Thomas Weelkes, English organist and composer, one of the most important composers of madrigals. Nothing definite is known of Weelkes’s early life, but his later career suggests that he came from southern England. He may have been the Thomas Wikes who was a chorister at Winchester College from 1583

  • Weems, Carrie Mae (American artist and photographer)

    Carrie Mae Weems, American artist and photographer known for creating installations that combine photography, audio, and text to examine many facets of contemporary American life. Weems, who is probably best known as a photographer, initially studied modern dance. She received her first camera at

  • Weems, Mason Locke (United States minister and writer)

    Mason Locke Weems, American clergyman, itinerant book agent, and fabricator of the story of George Washington’s chopping down the cherry tree. This fiction was inserted into the fifth edition (1806) of Weems’s book The Life and Memorable Actions of George Washington (1800). Weems was ordained in

  • Weeninx, Jan Baptiste (Dutch painter)

    Jan Baptist Weenix, conventional painter of Italianate landscapes, fanciful seascapes, still lifes with dead game, and portraits. Jan Micker was his first master. He later studied under Abraham Bloemaert in Utrecht and Claes Moeyaert in Amsterdam. In 1643 Weenix travelled to Italy and stayed there

  • Weenix, Jan Baptist (Dutch painter)

    Jan Baptist Weenix, conventional painter of Italianate landscapes, fanciful seascapes, still lifes with dead game, and portraits. Jan Micker was his first master. He later studied under Abraham Bloemaert in Utrecht and Claes Moeyaert in Amsterdam. In 1643 Weenix travelled to Italy and stayed there

  • Weep Not, Child (work by Ngugi)

    Ngugi wa Thiong'o: His popular Weep Not, Child (1964) was the first major novel in English by an East African. As he became sensitized to the effects of colonialism in Africa, Ngugi adopted his traditional name and wrote in the Bantu language of Kenya’s Kikuyu people.

  • weeper (medieval sculpture)

    Western sculpture: High Gothic: …in niches—figures generally known as weepers, since they often represented members of the family who might be presumed to be in mourning. Later, in the early 14th century, the first representations appear of the heavily cloaked and cowled professional mourners who were normally employed to follow the coffin in a…

  • weeper capuchin (monkey)

    capuchin monkey: albifrons), and weeper (C. nigrivittatus) capuchins, in which the crown bears a smooth, dark, and more or less pointed cap. The name black-capped capuchin has been applied to both C. apella and C. nigrivittatus.The genus Cebus belongs to the family Cebidae.

  • weeping (human behaviour)

    infancy: Crying is basic to infants from birth, and the cooing sounds they have begun making by about eight weeks progress to babbling and ultimately become part of meaningful speech. Virtually all infants begin to comprehend some words several months before they themselves speak their first…

  • weeping fig (plant)

    Ficus: Major species: lyrata), the weeping fig (F. benjamina), and some climbing species such as the climbing fig (F. pumila) are also popular ornamentals.

  • weeping forsythia (plant)

    forsythia: Weeping forsythia (F. suspensa), also from China, has hollow, pendulous stems about 3 m long and golden-yellow flowers. Common forsythia (F. intermedia), a hybrid between green-stem forsythia and weeping forsythia, has arching stems to 6 m and bright yellow flowers. There also are variegated, dwarf,…

  • weeping love grass (grass)

    love grass: trichodes), and weeping love grass (E. curvula) are forage species in southern North America. Weeping love grass, native to South Africa, was introduced elsewhere as an ornamental and later was used to reclaim abandoned or eroded areas formerly under cultivation. Stink grass (E. cilianensis), a weedy, coarse…

  • weeping willow (tree)

    willow: …with drooping habit are called weeping willows, especially S. babylonica and its varieties from East Asia. From northern Asia, S. matsudana has sharply toothed leaves, whitish beneath. One variety, S. matsudana tortuosa, is called corkscrew willow for its twisted branches.

  • weeping woman (ancient religion)

    Finno-Ugric religion: Cult authorities: …controller of the rites); professional weeping women (the “vocalists,” especially of the cult of the dead but also of weddings, who were the verbal expressers of the content of the ritual); and the masters of ceremonies at weddings. The shaman had many and various tasks in Arctic regions, but farther…

  • Weerasethakul, Apichatpong (Thai film director)

    Apichatpong Weerasethakul, Thai film director, writer, and installation artist whose preference for unconventional storytelling usually relegated his work to the art house. Nevertheless, his style also has been described as joyful, spontaneous, playful, unpretentious, and gentle. Weerasethakul’s

  • Weertz, Louis Jacob (American musician)

    Roger Williams, (Louis Jacob Weertz), American pianist (born Oct. 1, 1924, Omaha, Neb.—died Oct. 8, 2011, Los Angeles, Calif.), charmed the public throughout the 1950s and ’60s with his renditions of sentimental hits, particularly his arpeggio-ornamented recording of “Autumn Leaves” (1955), the

  • Weese, Harry M. (American architect)

    Harry M. Weese, American architect of the Chicago school who designed the subway system in Washington, D.C.—considered one of the most remarkable public works projects of the 20th century—and who played a prominent role in the planning and architecture of Chicago. Educated at the Massachusetts

  • weever (fish)

    Weever, any of four species of small marine fishes of the family Trachinidae (order Perciformes). Weevers are long-bodied fishes that habitually bury themselves in the sand. They have large, upwardly slanted mouths and eyes near the top of the head. There is a sharp spine on each gill cover; these

  • weevil (insect)

    Weevil, (family Curculionidae), true weevil of the insect order Coleoptera (beetles and weevils). Curculionidae is one of the largest coleopteran families (about 40,000 species). Most weevils have long, distinctly elbowed antennae that may fold into special grooves on the snout. Many have no wings,

  • Weezer (American musical group)

    Spike Jonze: …in the 1994 video for Weezer’s “Buddy Holly,” which features the band in 1950s attire performing as if in a scene from the American television show Happy Days.

  • Weezy (American rapper)

    Lil Wayne, American rapper who became one of the top-selling artists in hip-hop in the early 21st century. Lil Wayne grew up in New Orleans’s impoverished 17th Ward. There he came to the attention of Cash Money Records head Bryan Williams, and he soon became a member—with Juvenile, B.G., and

  • WEF (religious organization)

    World Evangelical Alliance (WEA), international fellowship of organizations that hold biblically conservative interpretations of the Christian faith. From 1846 until the mid-1900s, the World Evangelical Alliance (WEA) was primarily the venture of its founding member, the British Evangelical

  • Wefaq, al- (political party, Bahrain)

    Bahrain: Domestic and foreign relations since independence: The Islamist Shī?ite party al-Wefaq, known for its criticism of the Sunni-dominated government, became the largest party in the lower house that same year, though its coalition remained a few seats shy of a majority.

  • Wefers, Bernard J., Sr. (American athlete)

    Bernard J. Wefers, Sr., American sprinter who held the world record for the 200-metre dash (straightaway; 1896–1921, though tied by five other runners) and for the 220-yard dash (straightaway; 1896–1921, also tied by the same five runners). Wefers ran for the New York Athletic Club and also coached

  • Wefers, Bernie (American athlete)

    Bernard J. Wefers, Sr., American sprinter who held the world record for the 200-metre dash (straightaway; 1896–1921, though tied by five other runners) and for the 220-yard dash (straightaway; 1896–1921, also tied by the same five runners). Wefers ran for the New York Athletic Club and also coached

  • weft (weaving)

    Filling, in woven fabrics, the widthwise, or horizontal, yarns carried over and under the warp, or lengthwise, yarns and running from selvage to selvage. Filling yarns are generally made with less twist than are warp yarns because they are subjected to less strain in the weaving process and

  • weft knit (textile)

    clothing and footwear industry: Textile fabrics: Types of weft knitting are jersey, rib, purl, run resist, tuck stitch, and interlock. Types of warp knitting are tricot, milanese, and raschel simplex. The classifying is based on principles of linking the yarns in structuring the fabric. (See also textile.)

  • Weg zu Christo, Der (tract by B?hme)

    Jakob B?hme: Writings.: …Der Weg zu Christo (The Way to Christ), a small work joining nature mysticism with devotional fervour. Publication of this tract brought about the intense displeasure of Richter, who incited the populace against B?hme.

  • Weg zur Form, Der (work by Ernst)

    Paul Ernst: …to classicism in his essay Der Weg zur Form (1906; “The Road to Form”). His search for eternal truths led him through German idealist philosophy back to a form of Christianity that he dramatized in what he called redemption drama, best exemplified by Ariadne auf Naxos (1912).

  • Weg zurück, Der (work by Remarque)

    All Quiet on the Western Front: Reception: … called Der Weg zurück (The Road Back), which was published in 1931 and also later banned by the Nazi Party.

  • Wege zur Raumschiffahrt (work by Oberth)

    Hermann Oberth: Oberth’s Wege zur Raumschiffahrt (1929; Ways to Spaceflight) won the first annual Robert Esnault-Pelterie–André Hirsch Prize of 10,000 francs, enabling him to finance his research on liquid-propellant rocket motors. The book anticipated by 30 years the development of electric propulsion and of the ion rocket. In 1931 Oberth received a…

  • Wegely, Wilhelm Kaspar (German potter)

    Berlin ware: …was founded in 1751 by Wilhelm Kaspar Wegely, with the aid of an arcanist, Johann Benckengraff, from H?chst, and the patronage of King Frederick II the Great. Wegely gave up in 1757 after King Frederick occupied Saxony, became involved with the Meissen factory there, and withdrew his patronage from Wegely.…

  • Wegener granulomatosis (medical disorder)

    Granulomatosis and polyangiitis (GPA), uncommon disorder characterized by inflammation and degeneration of small blood vessels, particularly those in the lungs, kidneys, and sinuses. Granulomatosis and polyangiitis (GPA) is a form of vasculitis, a group of conditions characterized by blood vessel

  • Wegener, Alfred (German meteorologist and geophysicist)

    Alfred Wegener, German meteorologist and geophysicist who formulated the first complete statement of the continental drift hypothesis. The son of an orphanage director, Wegener earned a Ph.D. degree in astronomy from the University of Berlin in 1905. He had meanwhile become interested in

  • Wegener, Alfred Lothar (German meteorologist and geophysicist)

    Alfred Wegener, German meteorologist and geophysicist who formulated the first complete statement of the continental drift hypothesis. The son of an orphanage director, Wegener earned a Ph.D. degree in astronomy from the University of Berlin in 1905. He had meanwhile become interested in

  • Wegenerian cycle (geology)

    plate tectonics: Supercontinent cycle: Although the Wilson cycle provided the means for recognizing the formation and destruction of ancient oceans, it did not provide a mechanism to explain why this occurred. In the early 1980s a controversial concept known as the supercontinent cycle was developed to address…

  • Wegierski, Kajetan (Polish writer)

    Polish literature: Didactic element in prose and poetry: …models of stylistic fluency, and Kajetan W?gierski, a freethinker and admirer of Voltaire who is notorious for his lampoons of influential personalities and fashions.

  • Wegman, William (American photographer)

    Weimaraner: …whimsical photographs and videos of William Wegman.

  • Wegner, Hans Jorgen (Danish furniture designer)

    Hans Jorgen Wegner, Danish furniture designer (born April 2, 1914 , T?nder, Jutland, Den.—died Jan. 26, 2007, Copenhagen, Den.), designed sculpturally elegant yet functional chairs, each of which epitomized the beauty and superb craftsmanship of the Danish Modern style. Wegner created his first

  • Wehlau, Treaty of (Poland [1657])

    Treaty of Wehlau, (Sept. 19, 1657), agreement in which John Casimir, king of Poland from 1648 to 1668, renounced the suzerainty of the Polish crown over ducal Prussia and made Frederick William, who was the duke of Prussia as well as the elector of Brandenburg (1640–88), the duchy’s sovereign

  • Wehler, Hans-Ulrich (German historian)

    Hans-Ulrich Wehler, German historian (born Sept. 11, 1931, Freudenberg, Ger.—died July 5, 2014, Berlin, Ger.), analyzed the residual imbalances of 19th-century German industrialization in his consequential 1973 work, The German Empire, 1871–1918, and led a scholarly revival by cultivating the

  • Wehling, Ulrich (German skier)

    Ulrich Wehling, German skier who was the only three-time winner of the Nordic combined (two ski jumps totaled, plus a 15-km race) in Olympic history. In doing so, he was the first male competitor who was not a figure skater to win three consecutive gold medals in the same individual Winter Olympic

  • Wehrmacht (armed forces of the Third Reich)

    Wehrmacht, (German: “defense power”) the armed forces of the Third Reich. The three primary branches of the Wehrmacht were the Heer (army), Luftwaffe (air force), and Kriegsmarine (navy). After World War I, the Treaty of Versailles abolished conscription in Germany, reduced the size of the German

  • Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality, The (work by Wette)

    Wehrmacht: War crimes and the myth of the clean Wehrmacht: …the publication of Wolfram Wette’s Die Wehrmacht: Feindbilder, Vernichtungskrieg, Legenden (2002; Eng trans. The Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality, 2006). Wette’s work detailed the Wehrmacht offensives on the Eastern Front, which he characterized as nothing less than a campaign of extermination against Bolsheviks, Jews, and Slavs. The upper echelons of Wehrmacht…

  • Wehrmachtsausstellung (German art exhibit)

    Wehrmacht: War crimes and the myth of the clean Wehrmacht: A 1995–99 art exhibition titled “Vernichtungskrieg. Verbrechen der Wehrmacht 1941 bis 1944” (“War of Annihilation: Crimes of the Wehrmacht 1941–44”) triggered a massive reappraisal of the role of the Wehrmacht in World War II. The controversial exhibit toured 33 cities in Germany and Austria and was viewed by more than…

  • Wei (empress of Tang dynasty)

    China: Rise of the empress Wuhou: …a domineering wife, the empress Wei, who initiated a regime of utter corruption at court, openly selling offices. When the emperor died in 710, probably poisoned by her, she tried to establish herself as ruler as Wuhou had done before her. But Li Longji, the future Xuanzong, with the aid…

  • wei (Chinese military unit)

    weisuo: …5,600 men known as a wei. Each wei was divided into five qianhu suo of 1,120 men each, which was subdivided into 10 baihu suo of 112 men each. The head of each wei reported directly to the provincial headquarters (dusi) governed by the Ministry of War rather than to…

  • Wei (ancient kingdom, China)

    Wei, one of the many warring states into which China was divided during the Dong (Eastern) Zhou period (770–256 bce). The state was located in what is now Shanxi province, in north-central China. Wei was originally a vassal kingdom that was annexed by the neighbouring state of Jin in 661 bce. The

  • Wei Cheng (Chinese scholar)

    library: Cataloging by author and subject: …the 7th century the scholar Wei Cheng wrote the bibliographic section of the official Sui Dynasty History, dividing the books into four categories: Confucian classics, historical records, philosophical writings, and miscellaneous works.

  • Wei chih (Chinese historical text)

    Japanese music: Early evidence: …of the 3rd century (Wei zhi, 297 ce) does speak of the natives of Japan as singing and dancing during a funeral. That source also notes two traits well-known in Shintō today: a concern for purification and the use of hand claps in praying before a shrine.

  • Wei Chung-hsien (Chinese official)

    Wei Zhongxian, eunuch who completely dominated the Chinese government between 1624 and 1627, ruthlessly exploiting the population and terrorizing the official class. He is usually considered by historians to have been the most powerful eunuch in Chinese history. Wei’s career began as a butler in

  • Wei dynasty (Chinese history [386-534/535])

    Wei dynasty, (386–534/535 ce), the longest-lived and most powerful of the northern Chinese dynasties that existed before the reunification of China under the Sui and Tang dynasties. The Wei dynasty was founded by Tabgatch (Tuoba) tribesmen who, like many of the nomads inhabiting the frontiers of

  • Wei Gaozu (emperor of Wei dynasty)

    Xiaowendi, posthumous name (shi) of the seventh emperor of the Bei (Northern) Wei dynasty (386–534/535), which dominated much of North China during part of the chaotic 360-year period between the end of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220) and the founding of Sui rule (581–618). Xiaowendi sinicized his

  • Wei He (river, Gansu and Shaanxi provinces, China)

    Wei River, river in Gansu and Shaanxi provinces, north-central China, a western tributary of the Huang He (Yellow River). It rises in the Niaoshu Mountains in Weiyuan county of central Gansu province and flows east, first between the north-south-trending Long Mountains and the east-west-trending

  • Wei Ho (river, Gansu and Shaanxi provinces, China)

    Wei River, river in Gansu and Shaanxi provinces, north-central China, a western tributary of the Huang He (Yellow River). It rises in the Niaoshu Mountains in Weiyuan county of central Gansu province and flows east, first between the north-south-trending Long Mountains and the east-west-trending

  • Wei Ho Valley (valley, China)

    Shaanxi: Relief and drainage: This valley is a major geological trough, bounded on the south by a vast complex of faults and fractures along the base of the Qin Mountains; it is a zone of considerable seismic instability, especially vulnerable to earthquakes. The northern border of the Wei River trench…

  • Wei kingdom (Chinese history [220-265/266])

    Daoism: Official recognition of the Daoist organization: …six years later founded the Wei dynasty in the north. This resulted in official recognition of the sect by the dynasty; the celestial masters in turn expressed their spiritual approbation of the Wei’s mandate to replace the Han. Under these conditions a formal definition of the relations of organized Daoism…

  • Wei Liang-fu (Chinese actor and musician)

    Liang Chenyu: When his great actor friend Wei Liangfu developed a new, subtler, and quieter style of dramatic singing, he asked Liang to create a showcase for his new style. Liang complied by writing the Huanshaji (“Washing the Silken Gauze”), a kunqu drama that initiated the type of theatre that was to…

  • Wei Liangfu (Chinese actor and musician)

    Liang Chenyu: When his great actor friend Wei Liangfu developed a new, subtler, and quieter style of dramatic singing, he asked Liang to create a showcase for his new style. Liang complied by writing the Huanshaji (“Washing the Silken Gauze”), a kunqu drama that initiated the type of theatre that was to…

  • Wei Man (ruler of Chos?n)

    Wiman, Chinese general, or possibly a Korean in Chinese service, who took advantage of the confusion that existed around the time of the founding of the Han dynasty in China to usurp the throne of the Korean state of Chos?n. He moved the capital to the present-day site of P’y?ngyang on the Taedong

  • Wei Meng-pien (Chinese mechanical engineer)

    Wei Mengbian, Chinese mechanical engineer. He devised numerous wheeled vehicles, including a type of odometer and a south-pointing carriage. He also built a wagon mill in which rotation of the wheels drove a set of millstones and hammers that automatically processed grain. His mechanisms

  • Wei Mengbian (Chinese mechanical engineer)

    Wei Mengbian, Chinese mechanical engineer. He devised numerous wheeled vehicles, including a type of odometer and a south-pointing carriage. He also built a wagon mill in which rotation of the wheels drove a set of millstones and hammers that automatically processed grain. His mechanisms

  • Wei River (river, Gansu and Shaanxi provinces, China)

    Wei River, river in Gansu and Shaanxi provinces, north-central China, a western tributary of the Huang He (Yellow River). It rises in the Niaoshu Mountains in Weiyuan county of central Gansu province and flows east, first between the north-south-trending Long Mountains and the east-west-trending

  • Wei River (river, Henan province, China)

    Henan: Transportation: The Wei of northeastern Henan, flowing north into the Hai system, has been joined by the People’s Victory Canal to the Huang He. In 1964–65 it was successfully dredged in an experiment aimed at deepening the riverbed and so increasing flow and reducing waterlogging.

  • Wei River Valley (valley, China)

    Shaanxi: Relief and drainage: This valley is a major geological trough, bounded on the south by a vast complex of faults and fractures along the base of the Qin Mountains; it is a zone of considerable seismic instability, especially vulnerable to earthquakes. The northern border of the Wei River trench…

  • Wei To (Buddhism)

    Wei To, in Chinese and Japanese Buddhism, a popular protector of the faith and the general-in-chief under the lokapalas, the regents of the four quarters. From about the 7th century ce his images have been set up facing the main sanctuary of a temple. He is generally represented both in China and

  • Wei Wendi (emperor of Wei dynasty)

    Cao Pi, founder of the short-lived Wei dynasty (ad 220–265/266) during the Sanguo (Three Kingdoms) period of Chinese history. The son of the great general and warlord Cao Cao of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220), Cao Pi succeeded his father as king of Wei upon the latter’s death in 220. At the same

  • Wei Yang (Chinese statesman)

    Shang Yang, Chinese statesman and thinker whose successful reorganization of the state of Qin paved the way for the eventual unification of the Chinese empire by the Qin dynasty (221–207 bce). Shang Yang believed that the integrity of a state could be maintained only with power and that power

  • Wei Yuan (Chinese historian)

    Wei Yuan, historian and geographer of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12). Wei was a leader in the Statecraft school, which attempted to combine traditional scholarly knowledge with practical experience to find workable solutions to the problems plaguing the Chinese government. In 1826 he published the

  • Wei Yüan (Chinese historian)

    Wei Yuan, historian and geographer of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12). Wei was a leader in the Statecraft school, which attempted to combine traditional scholarly knowledge with practical experience to find workable solutions to the problems plaguing the Chinese government. In 1826 he published the

  • Wei zhi (Chinese historical text)

    Japanese music: Early evidence: …of the 3rd century (Wei zhi, 297 ce) does speak of the natives of Japan as singing and dancing during a funeral. That source also notes two traits well-known in Shintō today: a concern for purification and the use of hand claps in praying before a shrine.

  • Wei Zhongxian (Chinese official)

    Wei Zhongxian, eunuch who completely dominated the Chinese government between 1624 and 1627, ruthlessly exploiting the population and terrorizing the official class. He is usually considered by historians to have been the most powerful eunuch in Chinese history. Wei’s career began as a butler in

  • wei-ch’i (game)

    Go, board game for two players. Of East Asian origin, it is popular in China, Korea, and especially Japan, the country with which it is most closely identified. Go, probably the world’s oldest board game, is thought to have originated in China some 4,000 years ago. According to some sources, this

  • Wei-fang (China)

    Weifang, city, east-central Shandong sheng (province), eastern China. It is situated on the main route along the northern slopes of the Shandong Hills at the northern end of the central plain. The locality is watered by the Wei and Jiaolai rivers, which divide the Mount Tai complex to the west from

  • Wei-hai (China)

    Weihai, port city, eastern Shandong sheng (province), eastern China. It lies on the north coast of the Shandong Peninsula. Until the 14th century Weihai was no more than a minor fishing village, but in 1398, as part of the coastal defense policy against the raids of Japanese pirates, it became a

  • wei-so (Chinese military history)

    Weisuo, (Chinese: “guard post”), any of the military garrison units utilized by China’s Ming dynasty (1368–1644) to maintain peace throughout its empire. Originally developed by the preceding Yuan (or Mongol) dynasty (1206–1368), the system consisted of a guard unit of 5,600 men known as a wei.

  • Wei-t’o (Buddhism)

    Wei To, in Chinese and Japanese Buddhism, a popular protector of the faith and the general-in-chief under the lokapalas, the regents of the four quarters. From about the 7th century ce his images have been set up facing the main sanctuary of a temple. He is generally represented both in China and

  • Weicheng (novel by Qian Zhongshu)

    Qian Zhongshu: …short stories; and Weicheng (1947; Fortress Besieged), a novel. Although it was widely translated, Qian’s novel did not receive much recognition in China until the late 1970s. It became a best-seller in China in the 1980s and was made into a television drama series in 1991.

  • Weichi Yiseng (Chinese painter)

    Chinese painting: Three Kingdoms (220–280) and Six Dynasties (220–589): A descendant of his, Weichi Yiseng, painted frescoes in the temples of Chang’an using a thick impasto (a thick application of pigment) and a brush line that was “tight and strong like bending iron or coiling wire.” Those foreign techniques caused much comment among the Chinese but seem to…

  • Weichsel Glacial Stage (paleontology)

    Weichsel Glacial Stage, major division of late Pleistocene deposits and time in western Europe (the Pleistocene Epoch began about 2.6 million years ago and ended about 11,700 years ago). The Weichsel Glacial Stage followed the Eemian Interglacial Stage and marks the last major incursion of

  • Weicker, Lowell, Jr. (American politician)

    Connecticut: Political, economic, and social maturation: Lowell Weicker, Jr., a former Republican U.S. senator, won the 1990 gubernatorial election as an independent. He was followed in that office by several Republicans, who retained the governorship into the early 21st century.

  • Weidenreich, Franz (German anthropologist)

    Franz Weidenreich, German anatomist and physical anthropologist whose reconstruction of prehistoric human remains and work on Peking man (then called Sinanthropus pekinensis) and other hominids brought him to preeminence in the study of human evolution. Weidenreich received his M.D. from the

  • Weider, Ben (Canadian bodybuilding entrepreneur)

    Ben Weider, Canadian bodybuilding entrepreneur (born Feb. 1, 1923, Montreal, Que.—died Oct. 17, 2008, Montreal), cofounded (1946) the International Federation of Body Building and Fitness (IFBB) and created a worldwide following that eventually led (1998) to bodybuilding’s provisional status as an

  • Weider, Joe (Canadian-born American entrepreneur)

    Joe Weider, (Josef Weider), Canadian-born American entrepreneur (born Nov. 29, 1919, Montreal, Que.—died March 23, 2013, Los Angeles, Calif.), created a bodybuilding empire as the cofounder (1946, with his brother Ben) of the International Federation of Bodybuilders (later the International

  • Weider, Josef (Canadian-born American entrepreneur)

    Joe Weider, (Josef Weider), Canadian-born American entrepreneur (born Nov. 29, 1919, Montreal, Que.—died March 23, 2013, Los Angeles, Calif.), created a bodybuilding empire as the cofounder (1946, with his brother Ben) of the International Federation of Bodybuilders (later the International

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    medal: Germany and Austria: Christoph Weiditz produced numerous Augsburg medals and with Schwarz showed the greatest sensitivity in capturing individual character in his portraits. Friedrich Hagenauer, active in Munich and in Augsburg (1527–32), produced more than 230 medals. In Nürnberg, Matthes Gebel (active 1525–54) and his follower Joachim Deschler…

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    Charles Weidman, major innovator of American modern dance, noted for the abstract, rhythmic pantomime he developed and employed in his comic and satiric works. Weidman became interested in dance after seeing Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn perform, and after studying with Elinor Frampton in Lincoln he

  • Weidman, Charles Edward, Jr. (American dancer)

    Charles Weidman, major innovator of American modern dance, noted for the abstract, rhythmic pantomime he developed and employed in his comic and satiric works. Weidman became interested in dance after seeing Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn perform, and after studying with Elinor Frampton in Lincoln he

  • Weidman, Jerome (American author)

    Jerome Weidman, American author (born April 4, 1913, New York, N.Y.—died Oct. 6, 1998, New York), created novels, short stories, and plays in which he presented a harsh and unapologetic view of New York City. The son of Jewish immigrants, Weidman grew up in New York City on Manhattan’s Lower East S

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    uniform convergence: …Henrik Abel (1802–29), and the Weierstrass M-test, devised by German mathematician Karl Weierstrass (1815–97).

  • Weierstrass, Karl (German mathematician)

    Karl Weierstrass, German mathematician, one of the founders of the modern theory of functions. His domineering father sent him to the University of Bonn at age 19 to study law and finance in preparation for a position in the Prussian civil service. Weierstrass pursued four years of intensive

  • Weierstrass, Karl Theodor Wilhelm (German mathematician)

    Karl Weierstrass, German mathematician, one of the founders of the modern theory of functions. His domineering father sent him to the University of Bonn at age 19 to study law and finance in preparation for a position in the Prussian civil service. Weierstrass pursued four years of intensive

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    Weifang, city, east-central Shandong sheng (province), eastern China. It is situated on the main route along the northern slopes of the Shandong Hills at the northern end of the central plain. The locality is watered by the Wei and Jiaolai rivers, which divide the Mount Tai complex to the west from

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