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  • WFTU (international labour organization)

    World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU), leftist-oriented international labour organization founded in 1945 by the World Trade Union Congress. Its principal organizers were the British Trades Union Congress, the U.S. Congress of Industrial Organizations, and the All-Union Central Congress of Trade

  • WGBH (public television station, Boston, Massachusetts, United States)

    Television in the United States: Educational TV: …consortium of ETV stations, including WGBH in Boston, WTTW in Chicago, and KQED in San Francisco. In 1965 the Carnegie Foundation established its Commission on Education Television to conduct a study of ETV and make recommendations for future action. The report from the commission was published about two years later,…

  • WGN (American broadcasting company)

    radio: The development of networks and production centres: …Sam ’n’ Henry on Chicago’s WGN station in 1926 and quickly became a national phenomenon when it made its network debut under its new name in 1929. Although the characters on the show seem insultingly stereotypical by today’s standards, the show was hugely popular with both white and black radio…

  • WHA (American radio station)

    radio: Radio’s early years: The University of Wisconsin’s WHA began as a physics department transmitter, but as early as 1917 it was sending wireless telegraph agricultural market reports by Morse Code to Wisconsin farmers. WHA, the first American educational outlet, probably began voice broadcasts in early 1921, though several other universities soon initiated…

  • WHA (sports league)

    ice hockey: The National Hockey League: A new 12-team league, the World Hockey Association (WHA), was formed in 1972, and the ensuing rivalry caused an escalation in players’ salaries. In 1979 the NHL, which had grown to 17 teams, merged with the WHA to become a 21-team league; by 2017, 31 teams played in the NHL.…

  • Whaddon, Baron, Viscount Villiers (English statesman)

    George Villiers, 1st duke of Buckingham, royal favourite and statesman who virtually ruled England during the last years of King James I and the first years of the reign of Charles I. Buckingham was extremely unpopular, and the failure of his aggressive, erratic foreign policy increased the

  • Whale (steel roadway)

    Mulberry: …of flexible steel roadways (code-named Whales) that floated on steel or concrete pontoons (called Beetles). The roadways terminated at great pierheads, called Spuds, that were jacked up and down on legs which rested on the seafloor. These structures were to be sheltered from the sea by lines of massive sunken…

  • whale (mammal)

    Whale, any of the larger species of aquatic mammals belonging to the order Cetacea. The term whale can be used in reference to any cetacean, including porpoises and dolphins, but in general it is applied to those more than 3 metres (10 feet) long. An exception is the 2.7-metre dwarf sperm whale

  • whale catcher (boat)

    Whale catcher, large, fast steamship or motor vessel from which whales are harpooned and killed and marked for pickup by a parent vessel called a factory ship. Whale catchers are the descendants of the early whaleboats that were carried aboard a whaler and sent out to stalk and kill the whale.

  • whale killer (boat)

    Whale catcher, large, fast steamship or motor vessel from which whales are harpooned and killed and marked for pickup by a parent vessel called a factory ship. Whale catchers are the descendants of the early whaleboats that were carried aboard a whaler and sent out to stalk and kill the whale.

  • whale lice (crustacean)

    Whale louse, (family Cyamidae), any of a small group of highly specialized peracaridan crustaceans (order Amphipoda) related to the familiar skeleton shrimp found in shallow marine habitats. Whale lice are external parasites that live on the body surface of such marine mammals as whales, d

  • whale louse (crustacean)

    Whale louse, (family Cyamidae), any of a small group of highly specialized peracaridan crustaceans (order Amphipoda) related to the familiar skeleton shrimp found in shallow marine habitats. Whale lice are external parasites that live on the body surface of such marine mammals as whales, d

  • whale oil (chemical compound)

    Whale oil, any oil derived from any species of whale, including sperm oil from sperm whales, train oil from baleen whales, and melon oil from small toothed whales. From the 16th century through the 19th century, whale oil was used principally as lamp fuel and for producing soap. Long utilized for

  • whale shark (fish)

    Whale shark, (Rhincodon typus), gigantic but harmless shark (family Rhincodontidae) that is the largest living fish. Whale sharks are found in marine environments worldwide but mainly in tropical oceans. They make up the only species of the genus Rhincodon and are classified within the order

  • Whale Wars (American television program)

    Paul Watson: …efforts were also chronicled in Whale Wars, which first aired on the Animal Planet cable television network in 2008. In 2010 one of the society’s boats, the Ady Gil, sunk after colliding with a Japanese whaling boat. Patrolling the seas under a modified Jolly Roger pirate flag, Watson and his…

  • Whale, James (American director)

    James Whale, British-born American filmmaker whose stylish horror films marked him as one of the most distinctive filmmakers of the early 1930s. Born into a poor family in an English coal-mining town, Whale was eager to join the army when World War I broke out. Captured by the Germans, he began

  • Whale, The (work by Tavener)

    Sir John Tavener: …his first significant mark with The Whale, an avant-garde cantata that received a popular debut at the London Sinfonietta in 1968. His music drew from Russian, Byzantine, and Greek influences and became more inwardly focused after he joined the Russian Orthodox church in 1977. At age 36 Tavener suffered a…

  • Whale, The (film by Chisholm and Parfit [2011])

    Ryan Reynolds: Charity and advocacy work: …narrated the eco-conscious Canadian documentary The Whale (2011). He also worked with the environmental organization Natural Resources Defence Group to advocate for renewable energy and to bring attention to the effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, he helped raise funds for relief…

  • Whale, The (novel by Melville)

    Moby Dick, novel by Herman Melville, published in London in October 1851 as The Whale and a month later in New York City as Moby-Dick; or, The Whale. It is dedicated to Nathaniel Hawthorne. Moby Dick is generally regarded as Melville’s magnum opus and one of the greatest American novels. Moby Dick

  • whale-headed stork (bird)

    Shoebill, (Balaeniceps rex), large African wading bird, a single species that constitutes the family Balaenicipitidae (order Balaenicipitiformes, Ciconiiformes, or Pelecaniformes). The species is named for its clog-shaped bill, which is an adaptation for catching and holding the large, slippery

  • whalebird (bird)

    procellariiform: Importance to humans: …slender-billed, or short-tailed, shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris) are taken on the Bass Strait islands off Tasmania and sold fresh, salted, or deep-frozen as “muttonbirds.” In all likelihood, the name muttonbird was derived from the use of the flesh as a supplement for mutton by the early settlers of New South…

  • whalebird (bird)

    Prion, any of several species of small Antarctic seabirds of the genus Pachyptila, in the family Procellariidae (order Procellariiformes). All are blue-gray above and whitish below. Among the broad-billed species, the bill, unique among petrels, is flattened, with the upper mandible fringed with s

  • whaleboat (boat)

    Whaleboat, light, swift, rowing and sailing boat fitted with a centreboard (retractable keel), initially developed for use by whaling crews and now used more generally. Its double-ended, broad-beamed design is reminiscent of the old Viking boats; in time carvel-constructed whaleboats superseded

  • whalebone (anatomy)

    Whalebone, series of stiff keratinous plates in the mouths of baleen whales, used to strain copepods and other zooplankton, fishes, and krill from seawater. Whalebone was once important in the production of corsets, brushes, and other

  • whalebone whale (mammal)

    Baleen whale, (suborder Mysticeti), any cetacean possessing unique epidermal modifications of the mouth called baleen, which is used to filter food from water. Baleen whales seek out concentrations of small planktonic animals. The whales then open their mouth and take in enormous quantities of

  • whalelike catfish (fish)

    ostariophysan: Annotated classification: Family Cetopsidae (whalelike catfishes) Body naked, lacking bony plates. South America. 7 genera, 23 species. Family Callichthyidae (callichthyid armoured catfishes) 2 longitudinal series of overlapping bony plates. Herbivorous aquarium fishes. South and Central America. 8 genera, about 177 species.

  • Whalen, Philip (American poet)

    Philip Whalen, American poet who emerged from the Beat movement of the mid 20th century, known for his wry and innovative poetry. Whalen served in the U.S. Army from 1943 to 1946 and attended Reed College, Portland (B.A., 1951), before joining the West Coast’s nascent Beat movement. Like other

  • Whalen, Philip Glenn (American poet)

    Philip Whalen, American poet who emerged from the Beat movement of the mid 20th century, known for his wry and innovative poetry. Whalen served in the U.S. Army from 1943 to 1946 and attended Reed College, Portland (B.A., 1951), before joining the West Coast’s nascent Beat movement. Like other

  • whaler (fish)

    carcharhinid: …classification of many, especially the gray sharks, or whalers (Carcharhinus), is uncertain and may be revised after further study.

  • Whales, Bay of (former bay, Antarctica)

    Bay of Whales, former indentation in the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. First seen by the British explorer Sir James Clark Ross in 1842 and visited by a fellow countryman, Ernest Henry (later Sir Ernest) Shackleton, in 1908, the Bay of Whales served as one of the most important centres of Antarctic

  • whaling (human predation)

    Whaling, the hunting of whales for food and oil. Whaling was once conducted around the world by seafaring nations in pursuit of the giant animals that seemed as limitless as the oceans in which they swam. However, since the mid-20th century, when whale populations began to drop catastrophically,

  • whaling dance (Eskimo culture)

    Native American dance: Eskimo (Inuit): …held elaborate outdoor ceremonies for whale catches and similar events. In Alaska, preliminaries included the rhythmic mime of a successful whale catch, with a woman in the role of the whale. A sprinkling of ashes on the ice drove away evil spirits, and there were incantations and songs when leaving…

  • WHAM-O (American company)

    Hula Hoop: …of the American toy company WHAM-O, purchased American rights. The company introduced the Hula Hoop to children in southern California in 1958. Seen on television news segments and variety shows, the Hula Hoop rapidly became a national and international fad. Sales of the original Hula-hoop were estimated to have reached…

  • Whampoa Academy (military academy, China)

    Lin Biao: Early life and military career: The Whampoa Academy, headed by Sun’s successor, Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi), was to train the officers for the revolutionary army. Lin had been at the academy less than a year when Chiang launched the Northern Expedition in July 1926. Nevertheless, despite the brevity of his formal…

  • Whampoa, Treaty of (Sino-French relations)

    unequal treaty: …the United States and the Treaty of Whampoa with France (both 1844). Each additional treaty expanded upon the rights of extraterritoriality, and, as a result, the foreigners obtained an independent legal, judicial, police, and taxation system within the treaty ports.

  • wharf (structure)

    dock: …of a quay wall, a wharf, consisting of a trestle-mounted rectangular platform running parallel to the shoreline, and with a connecting passageway to the shore, may be constructed. Normally only the front or seaward side of a wharf is used for berthing, because the water depth and accessibility on the…

  • wharf rat (rodent)

    rat: The brown rat, Rattus norvegicus (also called the Norway rat), and the house rat, R. rattus (also called the black rat, ship rat, or roof rat), live virtually everywhere that human populations have settled; the house rat is predominant in warmer climates, and the brown rat…

  • Wharfe, River (river, England, United Kingdom)

    River Wharfe, river in the historic county of Yorkshire in north-central England. It rises in the Pennines in the administrative county of North Yorkshire and then flows 60 miles (97 km) southeast to become an important tributary of the River Ouse (which drains into the Humber, an estuary of the

  • Wharfedale (valley, England, United Kingdom)

    Wharfedale, upper valley of the River Wharfe within the Pennine uplands, in the historic county of Yorkshire, England, noted for its scenic attractions. The valley descends from the western part of the administrative county of North Yorkshire across the northern part of the metropolitan county of

  • Wharton Model (economics)

    Lawrence R. Klein: The Wharton Models found wide use in forecasting gross national product, exports, investment, and consumption. A more ambitious effort, the LINK project, incorporated data gathered from a large number of industrialized, centrally planned, and developing countries to forecast trade and capital movements and to test the…

  • Wharton’s duct (anatomy)

    salivary gland: …major duct of each (Wharton’s duct) opens into the floor of the mouth at the junction where the front of the tongue meets the mouth’s floor. A capsule of tissue also surrounds each of these glands, which give off mixed secretions mostly serous in nature. The third pair, the…

  • Wharton, Edith (American writer)

    Edith Wharton, American author best known for her stories and novels about the upper-class society into which she was born. Edith Jones came of a distinguished and long-established New York family. She was educated by private tutors and governesses at home and in Europe, where the family resided

  • Wharton, Philip Wharton, 4th Baron (English political reformer)

    Philip Wharton, 4th Baron Wharton, prominent English reforming peer from the English Civil Wars to the Glorious Revolution of 1688–89. Wharton succeeded his grandfather as Baron Wharton in March 1625 and then studied at Exeter College, Oxford. A committed Puritan, Wharton advocated reform in the

  • Wharton, Thomas, 1st Marquess of Wharton (English author and politician)

    Thomas, 1st Marquess Wharton, English peer who was one of the principal Whig politicians after the Glorious Revolution (1688–89). The son of Philip Wharton, 4th Baron Wharton, he became a member of the House of Commons in 1673 and remained an M.P. until he inherited his father’s title in 1696. He

  • Wharton, William (American author)

    William Wharton, American novelist and painter best known for his innovative first novel, Birdy (1979; filmed 1984), a critical and popular success. Wharton spent his youth in Philadelphia. He joined the army upon graduating from high school and was severely wounded in the Battle of the Bulge

  • What Ails the UN Security Council?

    The UN Security Council’s irresolute wrangling in 2003 over whether to use force in Iraq spurred pointed questioning by many observers about its relevance and even its future. Continuing differences over the course of postwar reconstruction only added to the chorus of doubts. On one point the world

  • What Are We Doing Here? (essays by Robinson)

    Marilynne Robinson: Later nonfiction and other works: …and in 2018 she published What Are We Doing Here?, a collection of essays based on lectures that address the cost of ceding critical thought to flat ideologies and orthodox principles.

  • What Do You Do in the Infantry? (song by Loesser)

    Frank Loesser: …song of the infantry, “What Do You Do in the Infantry?” From 1947 Loesser enjoyed major successes on Broadway and in Hollywood, often with songs employing an urban postwar vernacular. His song “On a Slow Boat to China” was a leading hit of 1948. Where’s Charley? (1948), a musical…

  • What Ever Happened to Baby Jane? (film by Aldrich [1962])

    What Ever Happened to Baby Jane?, American psychological thriller film, released in 1962, that was a late-career triumph for both Bette Davis and Joan Crawford. Baby Jane Hudson (played by Davis) is a former child star of the vaudeville era whose fame was so widespread that there was even a “Baby

  • What Every Girl Should Know (pamphlet by Sanger)

    Margaret Sanger: …on the topics, including “What Every Girl Should Know” for the New York Call. In 1914 she issued a short-lived magazine, The Woman Rebel, and distributed a pamphlet, Family Limitation, advocating her views. She was indicted for mailing materials advocating birth control, but the charges were dropped in 1916.…

  • What Every Woman Knows (play by Barrie)

    Gregory La Cava: Heyday: Barrie play; Helen Hayes reprised her stage role as the canny wife who props up her rather dim politician husband (Brian Aherne). In 1935 La Cava made two films with Claudette Colbert: Private Worlds, a drama about doctors in a mental institution that also starred Charles…

  • What Every Woman Knows (film by La Cava [1934])

    Gregory La Cava: Heyday: What Every Woman Knows (1934) was an adept adaptation of the J.M. Barrie play; Helen Hayes reprised her stage role as the canny wife who props up her rather dim politician husband (Brian Aherne). In 1935 La Cava made two films with Claudette Colbert: Private…

  • What Happened (memoir by Clinton)

    Hillary Clinton: Secretary of state and 2016 presidential candidate: In What Happened (2017), she wrote candidly about the election and offered reasons why she lost. In May 2017 she launched Onward Together, a political group that aimed to fund and support progressive causes. Two years later she wrote (with her daughter, Chelsea) The Book of…

  • What Happened to the Corbetts (work by Shute)

    Nevil Shute: …include So Disdained (1928) and What Happened to the Corbetts (1939), a foretaste of World War II’s bombing of civilians. His later novels—all set in Australia—reflected a growing feeling of despair about the future of humanity. A Town Like Alice (1950) dealt with the Far Eastern theatre of World War…

  • What Happens in Hamlet (work by Wilson)

    Dover Wilson: His most famous book, What Happens in Hamlet (1959), is an original reading of that play, and The Fortunes of Falstaff (1943) presents a picture of Falstaff as a force of evil ultimately rejected by the king. His other works include Life in Shakespeare’s England: A Book of Elizabethan…

  • What I Believe (work by Tolstoy)

    Leo Tolstoy: Conversion and religious beliefs: …chyom moya vera? (written 1884; What I Believe); he later added Tsarstvo bozhiye vnutri vas (1893; The Kingdom of God Is Within You) and many other essays and tracts. In brief, Tolstoy rejected all the sacraments, all miracles, the Holy Trinity, the immortality of the soul, and many other tenets…

  • What I’m Going to Do, I Think (novel by Woiwode)

    Larry Woiwode: Woiwode’s critically acclaimed first novel, What I’m Going to Do, I Think (1969), is a study of a newly married couple. Beyond the Bedroom Wall: A Family Album (1975) is a multigenerational saga of a North Dakota family; Born Brothers (1988) continues the story of Charles and Jerome Neumiller, characters…

  • what if a much of a which of a wind (poem by Cummings)

    accentual verse: The poem "what if a much of a which of a wind’’ by E.E. Cummings is an example of accentual verse. In the following lines from the poem the number of accents is constant at four while the number of syllables per line varies from seven to…

  • What Is Art? (work by Tolstoy)

    Leo Tolstoy: Fiction after 1880: In Chto takoye iskusstvo? (1898; What Is Art?) he argued that true art requires a sensitive appreciation of a particular experience, a highly specific feeling that is communicated to the reader not by propositions but by “infection.” In Tolstoy’s view, most celebrated works of high art derive from no real…

  • What Is Christianity? (work by Harnack)

    Adolf von Harnack: …Das Wesen des Christentums (1900; What Is Christianity?), which was the transcript of a course of lectures he had delivered at the University of Berlin.

  • What Is Darwinism? (work by Hodge)

    evolution: Religious criticism and acceptance: …an American Protestant theologian, published What Is Darwinism?, one of the most articulate assaults on evolutionary theory. Hodge perceived Darwin’s theory as “the most thoroughly naturalistic that can be imagined and far more atheistic than that of his predecessor Lamarck.” He argued that the design of the human eye evinces…

  • What Is Life? (work by Schr?dinger)

    Erwin Schr?dinger: During this period he wrote What Is Life? (1944), an attempt to show how quantum physics can be used to explain the stability of genetic structure. Although much of what Schr?dinger had to say in this book has been modified and amplified by later developments in molecular biology, his book…

  • What Is Literature? (work by Sartre)

    literary criticism: Functions: Sartre’s own What Is Literature? (1947) is typical in its wide-ranging attempt to prescribe the literary intellectual’s ideal relation to the development of his society and to literature as a manifestation of human freedom. Similarly, some prominent American critics, including Alfred Kazin, Lionel Trilling, Kenneth Burke, Philip…

  • What Is Metaphysics? (work by Heidegger)

    phenomenology: In France: …Heidegger’s Was ist Metaphysik? (1929; What Is Metaphysics?), in fact, are copied literally. The meaning of nothingness, which Heidegger in this lecture made the theme of his investigations, became for Sartre the guiding question. Sartre departs from Heidegger’s analytic of Dasein and introduces the position of consciousness (which Heidegger had…

  • What Is Missing? (multimedia work by Lin)

    Maya Lin: …apotheosis with the multimedia project What Is Missing? (begun 2009), an exploration of the growing threats to biodiversity that she referred to as her “final memorial.”

  • What Is Oblomovism (essay by Dobrolyubov)

    Nikolay Aleksandrovich Dobrolyubov: …best known for his essay “What is Oblomovism” (1859–60). The essay deals with the phenomenon represented by the character Oblomov in Ivan Goncharov’s novel of that name. It established the term Oblomovism as a name for the superfluous man of Russian life and literature.

  • What Is Property? (work by Proudhon)

    Pierre-Joseph Proudhon: Early life and education: …Qu’est-ce que la propriété? (1840; What Is Property?, 1876). This created a sensation, for Proudhon not only declared, “I am an anarchist”; he also stated, “Property is theft!”

  • What Is the Third Estate? (pamphlet by Sieyès)

    Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès: …General, Sieyès issued his pamphlet Qu’est-ce que le tiers état? (January 1789; “What Is the Third Estate?”), in which he identified the unprivileged Third Estate with the French nation and asserted that it alone had the right to draft a new constitution.

  • What Is the What: The Autobiography of Valentino Achak Deng (work by Eggers)

    Dave Eggers: …books followed Eggers’s memoir, notably What Is the What: The Autobiography of Valentino Achak Deng (2006). The book chronicled the story of a South Sudanese man who had survived the destruction of his family’s village during Sudan’s civil war and made his way to the United States. In 2007 the…

  • What Is to Be Done? (work by Lenin)

    Vladimir Lenin: Formation of a revolutionary party: In his What Is To Be Done? (1902), Lenin totally rejected the standpoint that the proletariat was being driven spontaneously to revolutionary Socialism by capitalism and that the party’s role should be to merely coordinate the struggle of the proletariat’s diverse sections on a national and international…

  • What Is to Be Done? (novel by Chernyshevsky)

    Russian literature: The intelligentsia: …utopian novel Chto delat (1863; What Is to Be Done?). Although appallingly bad from a literary point of view, this novel, which also features a fake suicide, was probably the most widely read work of the 19th century.

  • What It’s All About (work by Frolov)

    children's literature: Russia/Soviet Union: …finest teenage novels, Vadim Frolov’s Chto k chemu (Eng. trans., What It’s All About, 1965), is quite untouched by dogma of any kind. Soviet children’s literature, and especially its vast body of popularized science and technology for the young, however, was in general governed by the ideals of socialist realism,…

  • What Maisie Knew (film by McGehee and Siegel)

    Julianne Moore: Movies of the early 21st century: …Game Change before starring in What Maisie Knew, a modern-day adaptation of the Henry James novel. Her later films included the dramedy The English Teacher (2013); Carrie (2013), a horror film based on Stephen King’s classic novel; Non-Stop (2014), an action thriller set on an airplane; and The Hunger Games:…

  • What Maisie Knew (novel by James)

    What Maisie Knew, novel by Henry James, published in 1897. Set mostly in England, the novel is related from the perspective of Maisie, a preadolescent whose parents were divorced when she was six years old and who spends six months of the year with each parent. The only emotional constant in

  • What Makes Sammy Run (novel by Schulberg)

    Budd Schulberg: That work, What Makes Sammy Run? (1941), about an unprincipled motion-picture studio mogul, was a great success.

  • What Men Want (film by Shankman [2019])

    Taraji P. Henson: …can hear men’s thoughts in What Men Want (2019), a remake of the comedy What Women Want (2000). Later in 2019 she appeared in The Best of Enemies, portraying civil rights activist Ann Atwater, who developed an unlikely friendship with C.P. Ellis, a leader of the Ku Klux Klan.

  • What Money Cannot Buy (work by Sudermann)

    Hermann Sudermann: , What Money Cannot Buy), first performed in Berlin on Nov. 27, 1889, was a milestone in the naturalist movement, although to later critics it seemed a rather trite and slick treatment of class conflicts in Berlin. Heimat (performed 1893; Eng. trans., Magda) carried his fame…

  • What My Dad Gave Me (sculpture by Burden)

    Chris Burden: …Burden’s noteworthy public installations included What My Dad Gave Me (2008; displayed at Rockefeller Center, New York City, for about a year), a 65-foot (20-metre) skyscraper he built from Erector set parts, and Urban Light (2008), a permanent—and now iconic—installation of some 200 restored antique lampposts outside the Los Angeles…

  • What Price Hollywood? (film by Cukor [1932])

    George Cukor: Early life and work: There he made What Price Hollywood? (1932), which established the template for William Wellman’s A Star Is Born (1937) and its remakes (including Cukor’s 1954 version). Constance Bennett starred as a waitress who rises to acting stardom while her alcoholic mentor plummets into disgrace. A Bill of Divorcement…

  • What Remains (novel by Wolf)

    German literature: After reunification: …Wolf’s narrative Was bleibt (1990; What Remains) had unleashed a violent controversy about the form and function of reflections on the East German past. The subject of the story was Wolf’s reactions to surveillance by the East German state security police. Some readers saw the tale as a self-serving portrayal…

  • What the ′Friends of the People′ Are, and How They Fight the Social-Democrats (work by Lenin)

    Marxism: Lenin: …oni voyuyut protiv Sotsial-Demokratov? (What the “Friends of the People” Are, and How They Fight the Social-Democrats), Lenin took up Marx’s distinction between “material social relations” and “ideological social relations.” In Lenin’s eyes the importance of Das Kapital was that “while explaining the structure and the development of the…

  • What the Butler Saw (work by Orton)

    Joe Orton: Sloane (1964), Loot (1965), and What the Butler Saw (produced posthumously, 1969), were outrageous and unconventional black comedies that scandalized audiences with their examination of moral corruption, violence, and sexual rapacity. Orton’s writing was marked by epigrammatic wit and an incongruous polish, his characters reacting with comic propriety to the…

  • What the Dog Saw and Other Adventures (book by Gladwell)

    Malcolm Gladwell: …Ron Popeil, into the collection What the Dog Saw, and Other Adventures (2009).

  • What the Grass Says (poetry by Simic)

    Charles Simic: Simic’s first volume of poetry, What the Grass Says (1967), was well received; critics noted that his imagery drew on rural and European subjects rather than those of his adopted country. Among Simic’s many subsequent poetry collections are Somewhere Among Us a Stone Is Taking Notes (1969), Dismantling the Silence…

  • What the Light Was Like (work by Clampitt)

    Amy Clampitt: What the Light Was Like (1985), also highly praised, contains several poems about death, including two elegies to her brother, who had died in 1981 and to whom the work was dedicated. Literary critics commented on the ease and certainty with which Clampitt employed literary…

  • What the Twilight Says (work by Walcott)

    Derek Walcott: The essays in What the Twilight Says (1998) are literary criticism. They examine such subjects as the intersection of literature and politics and the art of translation.

  • What They Had (film by Chomko [2018])

    Hilary Swank: …progressing dementia in the drama What They Had (2018). In 2019 she appeared in the sci-fi thriller I Am Mother, which centres on a girl who begins to have doubts about the maternal robot raising her, and the following year in The Hunt, a controversial satire in which conservatives are…

  • What Time Is It There? (Taiwanese motion picture)

    history of the motion picture: Taiwan: …nei pien chi tien (2001; What Time Is It There?).

  • What Time Is the Next Swan? (work by Slezak)

    Leo Slezak: …American actor, wrote an autobiography, What Time’s the Next Swan? (1962). The title refers to his father’s famous ad-lib in Richard Wagner’s Lohengrin, when the boat drawn by a swan moved offstage without him.

  • What to Expect When You’re Expecting (film by Jones [2012])

    Chris Rock: …a role in the film What to Expect When You’re Expecting, an ensemble comedy about parenting, and starred opposite actress and filmmaker Julie Delpy in her culture-clash comedy 2 Days in New York. Rock then wrote, directed, and starred in Top Five (2014), about a comedian struggling to transition to…

  • What Was It? (story by O’Brien)

    Fitz-James O'Brien: …a drop of water; “What Was It?” in which a man is attacked by a thing he apprehends with every sense but sight; and “The Wondersmith,” in which robots are fashioned only to turn upon their creators. These three stories appeared in periodicals in 1858 and 1859.

  • What We Talk About When We Talk About Love (short story by Carver)

    Birdman or (The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance): …of Raymond Carver’s short story “What We Talk About When We Talk About Love.” The film draws viewers behind the scenes of the fraught production and into Thomson’s mind. The character of Birdman taunts Thomson whenever he is alone, and Thomson exhibits magical powers under Birdman’s influence, but it is…

  • What Women Want (film by Meyers [2000])

    Nancy Meyers: Meyers next wrote and helmed What Women Want (2000), which featured Mel Gibson as a chauvinistic advertising executive who develops the ability to read women’s minds after an accident. While the romantic comedy received mixed reviews, it was popular with moviegoers and cemented Meyers’s position as a major player in…

  • What Work Is (poetry collection by Levine)

    Philip Levine: …in 1991 for his collection What Work Is, an honour that may have partly inspired the backward look that he achieved in The Bread of Time: Toward an Autobiography (1994, reissued 2001), a series of autobiographical essays that one critic called both elegant and tough-minded. Among his later books of…

  • What You Have Heard Is True: A Memoir of Witness and Resistance (autobiography by Forché)

    Carolyn Forché: …2019 she published the autobiography What You Have Heard Is True: A Memoir of Witness and Resistance.

  • What’s Bred in the Bone (novel by Davies)

    What’s Bred in the Bone, novel by Robertson Davies, published in 1985 as the second volume of his so-called Cornish trilogy. The other books in the trilogy are The Rebel Angels (1981) and The Lyre of Orpheus (1988). Two angels narrate this story about the mysterious life of a famous art collector

  • What’s Cookin’? (film by Cline [1942])

    the Andrews Sisters: …which included Private Buckaroo (1942), What’s Cookin’? (1942), and Swingtime Johnny (1943). The trio’s many hits from these years included “Hold Tight,” “Don’t Sit Under the Apple Tree,” “Rum and Coca-Cola,” “Beer Barrel Polka,” and “Ac-Cent-Tchu-Ate the Positive.” Their recorded performances were heard in the sound tracks of numerous movies,…

  • What’s Eating Gilbert Grape (film by Hallstr?m [1993])

    Leonardo DiCaprio: …and for his next film, What’s Eating Gilbert Grape (1993), he received an Academy Award nomination for best supporting actor for his realistic portrayal of a teenager with an intellectual disability. Several independent movies followed, including The Basketball Diaries (1995) and Total Eclipse (1995), which focused on poet Arthur Rimbaud’s…

  • What’s Going On (album by Gaye)

    Marvin Gaye: What’s Going On was a critical and commercial sensation in spite of the fact that Gordy, fearing its political content (and its stand against the Vietnam War), had argued against its release.

  • What’s Love Got to Do with It? (film by Gibson [1993])

    Laurence Fishburne: …of musician Ike Turner in What’s Love Got to Do with It (1993) earned him an Academy Award nomination for best actor. In 1995 he became the first African American to play Shakespeare’s Othello in a major film. In The Matrix (1999), Fishburne appeared as a guru who reveals an…

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