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  • Whittemore, Reed (American teacher and poet)

    Reed Whittemore, American teacher and poet noted for his free-flowing ironic verse. Whittemore cofounded the literary magazine Furioso while he was a student at Yale University (B.A., 1941). He served in the U.S. Army Air Forces during World War II and afterward revived and edited Furioso and its

  • Whitten Brown, Sir Arthur (British aviator)

    Sir Arthur Whitten Brown, British aviator who, with Capt. John W. Alcock, made the first nonstop airplane crossing of the Atlantic. Brown was trained as an engineer and became a pilot in the Royal Air Force during World War I. As navigator to Alcock he made the record crossing of the Atlantic in a

  • Whitten v. Georgia (law case)

    Eighth Amendment: …a century later, however, in Whitten v. Georgia (1872), the Supreme Court put limits on what was constitutionally permissible, holding that the “cruel and unusual” clause was “intended to prohibit the barbarities of quartering, hanging in chains, castration, etc.” Similarly, in In re Kemmler (1890), when the electric chair was…

  • Whittier (California, United States)

    Whittier, city, Los Angeles county, southern California, U.S. It lies at the foot of the Puente Hills, about 12 miles (19 km) southeast of the city centre of Los Angeles. Part of the Rancho Paso de Bartolo Viejo land grant, the site was chosen in 1887 by Aquila H. Pickering for a Quaker community

  • Whittier, John Greenleaf (American author)

    John Greenleaf Whittier, American poet and abolitionist who, in the latter part of his life, shared with Henry Wadsworth Longfellow the distinction of being a household name in both England and the United States. Born on a farm into a Quaker family, Whittier had only a limited formal education. He

  • Whittier, Pollyanna (fictional character)

    Pollyanna, fictional character, the orphaned but ever-optimistic heroine of Eleanor Hodgman Porter’s novel Pollyanna

  • Whittingham, Charles (American horse trainer)

    Charles Whittingham, (“Charlie”; “the Bald Eagle”), American horse trainer of over 2,500 winners, including Kentucky Derby winners Ferdinand (1986) and Sunday Silence (1989), both of which made him the oldest trainer of a Derby champion; he won top-trainer Eclipse Awards three times (1971, 1982,

  • Whittingham, Charlie (American horse trainer)

    Charles Whittingham, (“Charlie”; “the Bald Eagle”), American horse trainer of over 2,500 winners, including Kentucky Derby winners Ferdinand (1986) and Sunday Silence (1989), both of which made him the oldest trainer of a Derby champion; he won top-trainer Eclipse Awards three times (1971, 1982,

  • Whittingham, M. Stanley (British American chemist)

    M. Stanley Whittingham, British-born American chemist who won the 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in developing lithium-ion batteries. He shared the prize with American chemist John Goodenough and Japanese chemist Yoshino Akira. Whittingham received a bachelor’s degree (1964), a master’s

  • Whittingham, William (English theologian)

    biblical literature: The Geneva Bible: …almost certainly be identified as William Whittingham, the brother-in-law of Calvin’s wife, and his assistants Anthony Gilby and Thomas Sampson. The Geneva Bible was not printed in England until 1576, but it was allowed to be imported without hindrance. The accession of Elizabeth in 1558 put an end to the…

  • Whittington, Dick (English merchant and politician)

    Dick Whittington, English merchant and lord mayor of London who became a well-known figure in legend and traditional pantomime. Whittington, who was the son of a knight of Gloucestershire, opened a mercer’s shop in London that supplied velvets and damasks to such notables as Henry Bolingbroke

  • Whittington, Richard (English merchant and politician)

    Dick Whittington, English merchant and lord mayor of London who became a well-known figure in legend and traditional pantomime. Whittington, who was the son of a knight of Gloucestershire, opened a mercer’s shop in London that supplied velvets and damasks to such notables as Henry Bolingbroke

  • Whittle, Sir Frank (British inventor and aviator)

    Sir Frank Whittle, English aviation engineer and pilot who invented the jet engine. The son of a mechanic, Whittle entered the Royal Air Force (RAF) as a boy apprentice and soon qualified as a pilot at the RAF College in Cranwell. He was posted to a fighter squadron in 1928 and served as a test

  • Whittlesey, Derwent S. (American geographer)

    historical geography: …intervals of historic time—initiated by Derwent S. Whittlesey and Carl O. Sauer. The establishment of the Journal of Historical Geography (1975) and historical-geography research groups by the Institute of British Geographers (1973) and the Association of American Geographers (1979) served to vindicate the historical approach in geography.

  • Whittredge, Thomas Worthington (American painter)

    Worthington Whittredge, American landscape painter associated with the Hudson River school. Whittredge, originally a house painter, took up portraiture and landscape painting about 1838. Beginning in 1849 he spent five years in Düsseldorf, Germany, and five years in Rome, where he posed for Emanuel

  • Whittredge, Worthington (American painter)

    Worthington Whittredge, American landscape painter associated with the Hudson River school. Whittredge, originally a house painter, took up portraiture and landscape painting about 1838. Beginning in 1849 he spent five years in Düsseldorf, Germany, and five years in Rome, where he posed for Emanuel

  • Whitty, Thomas (British weaver)

    Axminster carpet: …1755 by the cloth weaver Thomas Whitty. Resembling somewhat the Savonnerie carpets produced in France, Axminster carpets were symmetrically knotted by hand in wool on woolen warps and had a weft of flax or hemp. Like the French carpets, they often featured Renaissance architectural or floral patterns; others mimicked Oriental…

  • Whitworth, Kathrynne Ann (American athlete)

    Kathy Whitworth, American athlete who was one of the great players of women’s professional golf. Whitworth grew up in Jal, New Mexico, where she began playing golf at the age of 15. After graduating from high school in 1957, she attended Odessa (Texas) Junior College for a semester. Whitworth

  • Whitworth, Kathy (American athlete)

    Kathy Whitworth, American athlete who was one of the great players of women’s professional golf. Whitworth grew up in Jal, New Mexico, where she began playing golf at the age of 15. After graduating from high school in 1957, she attended Odessa (Texas) Junior College for a semester. Whitworth

  • Whitworth, Sir Joseph, Baronet (British engineer)

    Sir Joseph Whitworth, Baronet, English mechanical engineer who won international recognition as a machine toolmaker. After working as a mechanic for various Manchester machine manufacturers, Whitworth went to London in 1825 and at Maudslay & Company devised a scraping technique for making a true

  • WHO (UN public health agency)

    World Health Organization (WHO), specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) established in 1948 to further international cooperation for improved public health conditions. Although it inherited specific tasks relating to epidemic control, quarantine measures, and drug standardization from the

  • Who Asked You? (novel by McMillan)

    Terry McMillan: …sequel to Waiting to Exhale; Who Asked You? (2013); and I Almost Forgot About You (2016). McMillan edited Breaking Ice: An Anthology of Contemporary African-American Fiction (1990). She also wrote the nonfiction work It’s OK If You’re Clueless: And 23 More Tips for the College Bound (2006).

  • Who Framed Roger Rabbit (film by Zemeckis [1988])

    Bugs Bunny: …reappeared in the feature films Who Framed Roger Rabbit? (1988) and Space Jam (1996). His likeness is marketed extensively on commercial products.

  • Who Goes There? (story by Campbell)

    Howard Hawks: Films of the 1950s: Campbell’s classic science-fiction story “Who Goes There?” bears all the hallmarks of a Hawks film (not least in its overlapping dialogue). It marked Hawks’s only foray into that genre, but it has been recognized by many cineasts as one of the best science-fiction films of the 1950s. The Big…

  • Who Governs?: Democracy and Power in an American City (work by Dahl)

    Robert A. Dahl: In his best-known work, Who Governs?: Democracy and Power in an American City (1961), a study of power dynamics in New Haven, Connecticut, Dahl argued that political power in the United States is pluralistic. He thus rebutted power-elite theorists such as C. Wright Mills and Floyd Hunter, who had…

  • Who Has Seen the Wind? (novel by Mitchell)

    Canadian literature: Modern period, 1900–60: …and My House (1941) by Sinclair Ross, Who Has Seen the Wind (1947) by W.O. Mitchell, and The Mountain and the Valley (1952) by Ernest Buckler, set in Nova Scotia’s Annapolis valley. These novels strain the bonds of conventional narrative structures as they shift from social realism toward lyricism. In…

  • Who Is America? (American television series)

    Sacha Baron Cohen: …then debuted the television series Who Is America? in 2018, once again creating several outlandish characters to interview unsuspecting politicians and celebrities to reveal their prejudices. The next year the comedian assumed a more serious role when he was cast as Israeli operative Eli Cohen in the TV series The…

  • Who Needs Pictures (album by Paisley)

    Brad Paisley: …before releasing his debut record, Who Needs Pictures, in 1999. The album sold more than one million copies, fueled in part by the ballad “He Didn’t Have to Be,” an affectionate tribute to stepfathers that was Paisley’s first number one hit on the Billboard country singles chart. That same year…

  • Who Shot Lester Monroe? (film by Hall, Hall, and Carter [2009])

    Tom T. Hall: …the comic all-star bluegrass film Who Shot Lester Monroe? (2009), featuring the Halls and their friends. In 2008 Hall was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame.

  • Who Wants to Be a Millionaire (American game show)

    Television in the United States: The return of the game show: Who Wants to Be a Millionaire, hosted by TV talk-show veteran Regis Philbin, began as a series of limited runs, functioning as a game show miniseries of sorts. In August, November, and January the show aired on consecutive nights—as many as 18 in a row.…

  • Who Was Oswald Fish? (novel by Wilson)

    A.N. Wilson: …the sometimes outrageous comedy of Who Was Oswald Fish? (1981) and Scandal (1983) to the black comedy of The Healing Art (1980), Wise Virgin (1982), The Vicar of Sorrows (1993), and My Name Is Legion (2004). His other novels included works set in the past, such as Gentleman in England…

  • Who You Think I Am (film by Nebbou [2019])

    Juliette Binoche: …Celle que vous croyez (2019; Who You Think I Am), in which a middle-aged professor pretends to be a younger woman on social media; and La bonne épouse (2020; How to Be a Good Wife), a satire about the patriarchy in 1960s France.

  • Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (film by Nichols [1966])

    Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, American dramatic film, released in 1966, that was an adaptation of Edward Albee’s shocking play of the same name. The acclaimed movie—which marked Mike Nichols’s film directorial debut—won 5 of the 13 Academy Awards it was nominated for; each of the four main

  • Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (play by Albee)

    Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, play in three acts by Edward Albee, published and produced in 1962. The action takes place in the living room of a middle-aged couple, George and Martha, who have come home from a faculty party drunk and quarrelsome. When Nick, a young biology professor, and his

  • Who’s Been Sleeping in My Bed? (film by Mann [1963])

    Carol Burnett: …number of motion pictures, including Who’s Been Sleeping in My Bed? (1963), Pete ’n’ Tillie (1972), The Four Seasons (1981), and Annie (1982). She displayed her dramatic skill in the television movie Friendly Fire (1979), for which she received an Emmy nomination. Aside from her work on The Carol Burnett…

  • Who’s Minding the Store? (film by Tashlin [1963])

    Frank Tashlin: Films of the 1960s: Lewis also starred in Who’s Minding the Store? (1963), this time as an inept department-store clerk with a crush on an elevator operator (Jill St. John). Danny Kaye had the lead in The Man from the Diners’ Club (1963), which was based on a screenplay by William Peter Blatty,…

  • Who’s Next (album by the Who)

    the Who: …Who cemented their standing with Who’s Next (1971), an album of would-be teen anthems (“Won’t Get Fooled Again,” “Baba O’Riley”) and sensitive romances (“Behind Blue Eyes,” “Love Ain’t for Keeping”), all reflecting Townshend’s dedication to his “avatar,” the Indian mystic Meher Baba. That same year, Entwistle released a solo album,…

  • Who’s Sorry Now (recording by Francis)

    Connie Francis: However, “Who’s Sorry Now,” a 1920s standard that she had recorded in 1957 as a rock ballad, became a hit the following year after it was championed by Dick Clark on his American Bandstand television show.

  • Who’s That Knocking at My Door? (film by Scorsese)

    Martin Scorsese: Early life and work: Scorsese’s first theatrical film, Who’s That Knocking at My Door (1967), was an intimate portrayal of life in the streets of Little Italy. Harvey Keitel (who went on to do five more films with Scorsese in the 1970s and ’80s) starred as Scorsese’s alter ego, a streetwise but sensitive…

  • Who’s Who

    Who’s Who, any of numerous biographical dictionaries that give brief and pertinent information about prominent living persons who are distinguished in a particular field or by official position or public standing and who have, in most cases, supplied data about themselves through publisher

  • Who’s Who in America

    biography: Reference collections: … (Britain), Chi è? (Italy), and Who’s Who in America?

  • Who, the (British rock group)

    The Who, British rock group that was among the most popular and influential bands of the 1960s and ’70s and that originated the rock opera. The principal members were Pete Townshend (b. May 19, 1945, London, England), Roger Daltrey (b. March 1, 1944, London), John Entwistle (b. October 9, 1944,

  • WHOI (research centre, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, United States)

    Marine Biological Laboratory: The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), an offshoot of the laboratory established in 1930, is maintained by a permanent staff of more than 850. WHOI has supported hundreds of research projects and activities, including studies of marine life, the chemical composition of oceans, global climate changes,…

  • Whole Art of the Stage, The (work by Aubignac)

    Fran?ois Hédelin, abbé d'Aubignac: …La Pratique du théatre (1657; The Whole Art of the Stage, 1684), was commissioned by Richelieu and is based on the idea that the action on stage must have credibility (vraisemblance) in the eyes of the audience. Aubignac proposed, among other things, that the whole play should take place as…

  • whole blood (biology)

    therapeutics: Blood and blood cells: Whole blood, which contains red blood cells, plasma, platelets, and coagulation factors, is almost never used for transfusions because most transfusions only require specific blood components. It can be used only up to 35 days after it has been drawn and is not always available,…

  • Whole Booke of Psalmes Faithfully Translated into English Metre, The (work by Ravenscroft)

    Bay Psalm Book, (1640), perhaps the oldest book now in existence that was published in British North America. It was prepared by Puritan leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Printed in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on a press set up by Stephen Day, it included a dissertation on the lawfulness and

  • Whole Booke of Psalmes Faithfully Translated into English Metre, The (work by Ravenscroft)

    Bay Psalm Book, (1640), perhaps the oldest book now in existence that was published in British North America. It was prepared by Puritan leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Printed in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on a press set up by Stephen Day, it included a dissertation on the lawfulness and

  • Whole Booke of Psalms (work by Ravenscroft)

    Bay Psalm Book, (1640), perhaps the oldest book now in existence that was published in British North America. It was prepared by Puritan leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Printed in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on a press set up by Stephen Day, it included a dissertation on the lawfulness and

  • whole copra (coconut product)

    copra: Whole copra, also called ball or edible copra, is produced by the less common drying of the intact, whole nut kernel.

  • Whole Duty of Man According to the Law of Nature, The (work by Pufendorf)

    Samuel, baron von Pufendorf: Career in Sweden: …an excerpt from it, titled The Whole Duty of Man According to the Law of Nature, in which Pufendorf departed from the traditional approach of the medieval theologians to natural law and based it on man’s existence as a social being (socialitas). He argued that every individual has a right…

  • Whole Earth ‘Lectronic Link, The (Internet community)

    The WELL, long-standing Internet community that features message-board-style discussions on a wide variety of topics. Founded by Americans Stewart Brand and Larry Brilliant, The WELL’s origins trace back to 1985, when it began as a dial-up bulletin board system (BBS) located in San Francisco. Since

  • Whole Earth Catalog, The (American publication)

    Internet: The WELL: …as an extension of his Whole Earth Catalog, the WELL was one of the first electronic communities organized around forums dedicated to particular subjects such as parenting and Grateful Dead concerts. The latter were an especially popular topic of online conversation, but it was in the parenting forum where a…

  • Whole Foods Market (American supermarket chain)

    Whole Foods Market, the largest American chain of supermarkets that specializes in natural and organic foods. It operates stores in the United States and also in Canada and the United Kingdom. Corporate headquarters are in Austin, Texas. In 2017 Whole Foods was acquired by Amazon.com. The first

  • whole genome sequencing (genetics)

    Whole genome sequencing, the act of deducing the complete nucleic acid sequence of the genetic code, or genome, of an organism or organelle (specifically, the mitochondrion or chloroplast). The first whole genome sequencing efforts, carried out in 1976 and 1977, focused respectively on the

  • whole genome shotgun sequencing (genetics)

    whole genome sequencing: Sequencing methods: from genes to genomes: …using instead an approach called whole genome shotgun sequencing. This approach avoided the time and expense needed to create physical maps and provided more-rapid access to the DNA sequence.

  • whole hog sausage

    meat processing: Hogs: In whole hog sausage production all the skeletal meat is trimmed off the carcass, and therefore the carcass is routinely skinned following exsanguination.

  • whole life insurance

    life insurance: Whole life insurance, which runs for the whole of the insured’s life, is established with a fixed premium and a fixed payout amount. Most whole life contracts also accumulate a cash value that is paid when the contract matures or is surrendered; the cash value…

  • Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On (song)

    Jerry Lee Lewis: …on Sun Records with “Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On,” “Great Balls of Fire,” and “Breathless,” all Top Ten hits in 1957 and 1958. His rhythmically assured and versatile “pumping” piano style (the left hand maintaining a driving boogie pattern while the right added flashy ornamentation) was influenced by church…

  • Whole Love, The (album by Wilco)

    Wilco: …first album for the label, The Whole Love (2011), opened with an adventurous seven-minute sound collage, “Art of Almost,” and closed with a 12-minute meditation, “One Sunday Morning (Song for Jane Smiley’s Boyfriend).” In between were more concise examples of Tweedy’s songwriting range, from Beatles-inspired chamber pop to autumnal folk,…

  • Whole New Life, A (memoir by Price)

    Reynolds Price: …up in North Carolina, and A Whole New Life (1994), which recounts his illness.

  • Whole New World, A (song by Menken and Rice)

    Tim Rice: …Alan Menken; their song “A Whole New World” won an Academy Award as well as two Grammys. Rice had continued success with The Lion King (1993), collaborating with singer-songwriter Elton John on various songs, notably the Oscar-winning “Can You Feel the Love Tonight.” The two men also worked on…

  • Whole Town’s Talking, The (film by Ford [1935])

    Edward G. Robinson: The Whole Town’s Talking (1935), in which he played the dual roles of a timid bank clerk and a ruthless hoodlum, showed Robinson capable of fine understated comedy, whereas in Bullets or Ballots (1936) he at last got to play somebody on the right side…

  • Whole Woman’s Health v. Hellerstedt (law case)

    Roe v. Wade: In Whole Woman’s Health v. Hellerstedt (2016), the court invoked its decision in Casey to strike down two provisions of a Texas law that had required abortion clinics to meet the standards of ambulatory surgical centres and abortion doctors to have admitting privileges at a nearby…

  • Whole Woman, The (work by Greer)

    Germaine Greer: In 1999 she published The Whole Woman, in which she criticized many of the supposed gains of the women’s movement as being handed down by the male establishment. Her revisionist biography of Anne Hathaway, Shakespeare’s Wife (2007), casts doubt on earlier portrayals of Hathaway as being little more than…

  • whole-language method (reading technique)

    phonics: …challenged by proponents of “whole-language” instruction, a process in which children are introduced to whole words at a time, are taught using real literature rather than reading exercises, and are encouraged to keep journals in which “creative” spelling is permitted. A strong backlash against whole-language teaching polarized these two…

  • whole-tone scale (music)

    Whole-tone scale, in music, a scalar arrangement of pitches, each separated from the next by a whole-tone step (or whole step), in contradistinction to the chromatic scale (consisting entirely of half steps, also called semitones) and the various diatonic scales, such as the major and minor scales

  • whole-wheat bread

    baking: Whole wheat bread: Whole wheat bread, using a meal made substantially from the entire wheat kernel instead of flour, is a dense, rather tough, dark product. Breads sold as wheat or part-whole-wheat products contain a mixture of whole grain meal with sufficient white flour to…

  • whole-wheat flour

    flour: …wheat flours generally available includes whole wheat, or graham, flour, made from the entire wheat kernel and often unbleached; gluten flour, a starch-free, high-protein, whole wheat flour; all-purpose flour, refined (separated from bran and germ), bleached or unbleached, and suitable for any recipe not requiring a special flour; cake flour,…

  • wholecloth quilt (soft furnishing)

    quilting: Early quilts: …may be two large 14th-century wholecloth (i.e., entire, not pieced) Sicilian pieces whose whitework surfaces are heavily embellished with trapunto, also known as corded or stuffed quilting. One quilt is in the collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, the other in the Bargello Museum in Florence. Both…

  • wholesale club (business)

    marketing: Off-price retailers: Warehouse (or wholesale) clubs operate out of enormous, low-cost facilities and charge patrons an annual membership fee. They sell a limited selection of brand-name grocery items, appliances, clothing, and miscellaneous items at a deep discount. These warehouse stores, such as Wal-Mart-owned Sam’s, Price Club, and…

  • wholesale price index

    Wholesale price index, measure of changes in the prices charged by manufacturers and wholesalers. Wholesale price indexes measure the changes in commodity prices at a selected stage or stages before goods reach the retail level; the prices may be those charged by manufacturers to wholesalers or by

  • wholesaling

    Wholesaling, the selling of merchandise to anyone other than a retail customer. The merchandise may be sold to a retailer, a wholesaler, or to an enterprise that will use it for business, rather than individual, purposes. Wholesaling usually, but not necessarily, involves sales in quantity and at

  • Whoop-Up, Fort (fort, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada)

    Lethbridge: A replica of Fort Whoop-Up (1860), once notorious for its whisky trade with the Indians, stands in Indian Battle Park on the Oldman River. The park marks the site of the last great encounter (1870) between the Cree and the Blackfoot Indians prior to a peace treaty (1871).…

  • whooping cough (respiratory disease)

    Whooping cough, acute, highly communicable respiratory disease characterized in its typical form by paroxysms of coughing followed by a long-drawn inspiration, or “whoop.” The coughing ends with the expulsion of clear, sticky mucus and often with vomiting. Whooping cough is caused by the bacterium

  • whooping cough vaccine (medicine)

    infectious disease: Pertussis vaccine: The number of cases of pertussis (whooping cough), a serious disease that is frequently fatal in infancy, can be dramatically reduced by the use of the pertussis vaccine. The pertussis immunizing agent is included in the DPT vaccine. Active immunity can be induced…

  • whooping crane (bird)

    Whooping crane, (Grus americana), tallest American bird and one of the world’s rarest. At the beginning of the 21st century fewer than 300 whooping cranes remained in the wild. Most are part of a flock that migrates between Texas and Canada. Almost all the rest are part of a mainly nonmigrating

  • Whopper (hamburger)

    Burger King Corporation: A large hamburger called the Whopper is Burger King’s signature product. The Whopper was introduced in 1957, at a time when its competitor McDonald’s was still selling only small hamburgers. The chain took a new direction by adding hot dogs to the menu in 2016.

  • whore of Babylon (Christianity)

    Christianity: The church and the Roman Empire: …of Rome with the great whore of Babylon (Revelation 17:3–7). The first attitude, formulated by St. Paul, was decisive in the development of a Christian political consciousness. The second was noticeable especially in the history of radical Christianity and in radical Christian pacifism, which rejects cooperation as much in military…

  • Whorf, Benjamin Lee (American linguist)

    Benjamin Lee Whorf, U.S. linguist noted for his hypotheses regarding the relation of language to thinking and cognition and for his studies of Hebrew and Hebrew ideas, of Mexican and Mayan languages and dialects, and of the Hopi language. Under the influence of Edward Sapir, at Yale University,

  • Whorfian hypothesis (linguistics)

    North American Indian languages: Language and culture: …now often known as the Whorfian (or Sapir-Whorf) hypothesis. Whorf’s initial arguments focused on the striking differences between English and Native American ways of saying “the same thing.” From such linguistic differences, Whorf inferred underlying differences in habits of thought and tried to show how these thought patterns are reflected…

  • whorl (shell structure)

    gastropod: The shell: Generally, the coils, or whorls, added later in life are larger than those added when the snail is young. At the end of the last whorl is the aperture, or opening. The shell is secreted along the outer lip of the aperture by the fleshy part of the animal…

  • whorled leaf arrangement (botany)

    angiosperm: Leaves: A plant has whorled leaves when there are three or more equally spaced leaves at a node.

  • Whoroscope (work by Beckett)

    Samuel Beckett: Production of the major works: …slim volumes of poetry were Whoroscope (1930), a poem on the French philosopher René Descartes, and the collection Echo’s Bones (1935). A number of short stories and poems were scattered in various periodicals. He wrote the novel Dream of Fair to Middling Women in the mid-1930s, but it remained incomplete…

  • whortleberry (plant)

    Bilberry, (Vaccinium myrtillus), low-growing deciduous shrub belonging to the heath family (Ericaceae). It is found in woods and on heaths, chiefly in hilly districts of Great Britain, northern Europe, and Asia. The fruits are a principal food of the grouse and are used for tarts and preserves. The

  • Whose Body? (work by Sayers)

    Lord Peter Wimsey: Sayers in Whose Body? (1923).

  • Whose Justice? Which Rationality? (work by MacIntyre)

    Alasdair MacIntyre: After Virtue and later works: MacIntyre argued in Whose Justice? Which Rationality? (1988) and Three Rival Versions of Moral Enquiry (1990) that justification of such large-scale viewpoints must proceed historically: in order to assess the rationality of adherence to large-scale viewpoints—MacIntyre called them “traditions”—one must look to the history of their development. Traditions…

  • Why Are We in Vietnam? (work by Mailer)

    American literature: New fictional modes: …An American Dream (1965) and Why Are We in Vietnam? (1967). As with many of the postmodern novelists, his subject was the nature of power, personal as well as political. However, it was only when he turned to “nonfiction fiction” or “fiction as history” in The Armies of the Night…

  • Why Be Happy When You Could Be Normal? (memoir by Winterson)

    Jeanette Winterson: …Places (1998); the vivid memoir Why Be Happy When You Could Be Normal? (2011); and several children’s books and screenplays for television. She was named an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in 2006.

  • Why Can’t We Live Together Like Civilized Human Beings? (work by Kumin)

    Maxine Kumin: The short-story collection Why Can’t We Live Together Like Civilized Human Beings? (1982) further explores issues of loss and relationships between men and women. Kumin again demonstrated her ability to buck genre constraints in her 1999 animal-rights mystery Quit Monks or Die!

  • Why come ye nat to courte (poem by Skelton)

    John Skelton: …1521), Collyn Clout (1522), and Why come ye nat to courte (1522), were all directed against the mounting power of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, both in church and in state, and the dangers—as Skelton saw them—of the new learning of the Humanists. Wolsey proved too strong an opponent to attack further,…

  • Why Did I Get Married Too? (film by Perry [2010])

    Janet Jackson: …Married? (2007) and its sequel, Why Did I Get Married Too? (2010), both written and directed by Tyler Perry. She also appeared in For Colored Girls (2010), Perry’s adaptation of Ntozake Shange’s 1975 theatre piece For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide/When the Rainbow Is Enuf.

  • Why Did I Get Married? (film by Perry [2007])

    Tyler Perry: …2007 adaptation of his play Why Did I Get Married? (2004), an exploration of modern relationships, allowed Perry to move beyond the Madea character on-screen. He additionally began writing and directing films that were not based on previous work, such as Daddy’s Little Girls (2007) and The Family That Preys…

  • Why England Slept (work by Kennedy)

    John F. Kennedy: Early life: …thesis into a best-selling book, Why England Slept (1940).

  • Why I Live at the P.O. (short story by Welty)

    Why I Live at the P.O., short story by Eudora Welty, first published in the Atlantic Monthly in 1941 and collected in A Curtain of Green (1941). This comic monologue by Sister, a young woman in a small Mississippi town who has set up housekeeping in the post office to escape from her eccentric

  • Why Man Creates (film by Bass [1968])

    Saul Bass: His Why Man Creates (1968) won the Academy Award for best short-subject documentary.

  • Why Must I Die? (film by Del Ruth [1960])

    Roy Del Ruth: Later work: His final film was Why Must I Die? (1960), an account of Barbara Graham, a party girl convicted and executed for murder; it was an alternate treatment to director Robert Wise’s I Want to Live! (1958).

  • Why wasn’t Auschwitz bombed?

    The question “Why wasn’t Auschwitz bombed?” is not only historical. It is also a moral question emblematic of the Allied response to the plight of the Jews during the Holocaust. Moreover, it is a question that has been posed to a series of presidents of the United States. In their first meeting in

  • Why We Fight (documentary films by Capra [1942–1945])

    Anatole Litvak: The Hollywood years: …with Frank Capra on the Why We Fight series of documentaries, codirecting (uncredited) Prelude to War (1942), The Nazis Strike (1943), Divide and Conquer (1943), The Battle of Russia (1943), The Battle of China (1944), and War Comes to America (1945).

  • Whyalla (South Australia, Australia)

    Whyalla, city and port, southern South Australia, on the east coast of Eyre Peninsula opposite Port Pirie and northwest of Adelaide. It was created in 1901 by the Broken Hill Proprietary Company Ltd. (BHP) as the Spencer Gulf terminus of a tramway bringing iron ore from the Middleback Ranges for

  • Whyberd, Ray (British ventriloquist and writer)

    Ray(mond) Alan, (Ray Whyberd), British ventriloquist and writer (born Sept. 18, 1930, London, Eng.—died May 24, 2010, Reigate, Surrey, Eng.), created numerous much-loved puppet characters, notably the drunken aristocrat Lord Charles and a boy and his pet duck named, respectively, Tich and Quackers.

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