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  • Widener, George D. (American racehorse owner)

    George D. Widener, U.S. financier, breeder, owner and racer of Thoroughbred horses. Scion of a wealthy Philadelphia family, Widener was educated privately and at the deLancey School in Philadelphia. He managed the family’s affairs and became a director of the Electric Storage Battery Company and of

  • Widener, Peter A. B. (American businessman and philanthropist)

    Peter A.B. Widener, American transportation magnate and philanthropist. The son of poor parents, Widener began his working career as a butcher, eventually establishing a successful chain of meat stores. At the same time, he became active in Philadelphia politics, rising to the position of city

  • Widener, Peter Arrell Brown (American businessman and philanthropist)

    Peter A.B. Widener, American transportation magnate and philanthropist. The son of poor parents, Widener began his working career as a butcher, eventually establishing a successful chain of meat stores. At the same time, he became active in Philadelphia politics, rising to the position of city

  • Widerberg, Bo (Swedish director)

    Bo Widerberg, Swedish film director whose works generally stressed themes of social consciousness; his best-known film, Elvira Madigan, 1967, which made a popular hit of Mozart’s Piano Concerto No. 21, portrays young lovers whose disregard for society’s rules dooms them to life on the run and

  • Wider?e, Rolf (Norwegian engineer)

    linear accelerator: …years later, the Norwegian engineer Rolf Wider?e built the first machine of this kind, successfully accelerating potassium ions to an energy of 50,000 electron volts (50 kiloelectron volts).

  • widersp?nstigen Z?hmung, Der (opera by G?tz)

    Hermann G?tz: …opera Der widersp?nstigen Z?hmung (1874; The Taming of the Shrew) achieved immediate success for its spontaneous style and lighthearted characterization. His other works include a less successful opera, Francesca da Rimini (1877; completed by Ernst Frank), chamber and choral works, an overture, a piano concerto, and a symphony.

  • Widerstand und Ergebung (work by Bonhoeffer)

    Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Ethical and religious thought: …in 1951 (Widerstand und Ergebung; Letters and Papers from Prison, 1953, enlarged ed., 1997), are of interest both for their theological themes, especially as developed in the letters to his friend and later editor and biographer, Eberhard Bethge, and for their remarkable reflection on cultural and spiritual life. Reviewing the…

  • Widerstandsnester (military fortification)

    Omaha Beach: The landing beach: …there were 13 strongpoints called Widerstandsnester (“resistance nests”). Numerous other fighting positions dotted the area, supported by an extensive trench system. The defending forces consisted of three battalions of the veteran 352nd Infantry Division. Their weapons were fixed to cover the beach with grazing enfilade fire as well as plunging…

  • widgeon (bird)

    Wigeon, any of four species of dabbling ducks (family Anatidae), popular game birds and excellent table fare. The European wigeon (Anas, or Mareca, penelope) ranges across the Palaearctic and is occasionally found in the Nearctic regions. The American wigeon, or baldpate (A. americana), breeds in

  • widget (software)

    Widget, widely used type of Internet-based consumer software, particularly popular on social networking sites, that runs within a member’s profile page. Widgets include games, quizzes, photo-manipulation tools, and news tickers. In their simplest form, they provide such features as videos, music

  • Widin (Bulgaria)

    Vidin, port town, extreme northwestern Bulgaria, on the Danube River. An agricultural and trade centre, Vidin has a fertile hinterland renowned for its wines and is the site of an annual fair. A regular ferry service connects it with Calafat, across the Danube in Romania. Vidin occupies the site of

  • Widmann, Joseph Viktor (Swiss author)

    Joseph Viktor Widmann, Swiss writer, editor, and critic. Widmann settled in Switzerland early in life. As literary editor of the Bern daily newspaper Der Bund from 1880 to 1910, he occupied an authoritative position in Swiss letters and promoted many talented writers. He was himself an accomplished

  • Widmanst?tten figure (astronomy)

    Widmanst?tten pattern, lines that appear in some iron meteorites when a cross section of the meteorite is etched with weak acid. The pattern is named for Alois von Widmanst?tten, a Viennese scientist who discovered it in 1808. It represents a section through a three-dimensional octahedral structure

  • Widmanst?tten pattern (astronomy)

    Widmanst?tten pattern, lines that appear in some iron meteorites when a cross section of the meteorite is etched with weak acid. The pattern is named for Alois von Widmanst?tten, a Viennese scientist who discovered it in 1808. It represents a section through a three-dimensional octahedral structure

  • Widmark, Richard (American actor)

    Richard Widmark, American actor (born Dec. 26, 1914, Sunrise, Minn.—died March 24, 2008, Roxbury, Conn.), became an overnight Hollywood sensation following his film debut in Kiss of Death (1947), in which he portrayed a maniacal gangster who giggles as he ties up an older woman in a wheelchair and

  • Widmer, Arthur (American film technician)

    Arthur Widmer, American film innovator (born July 25, 1914, Washington, D.C.—died May 28, 2006, Hollywood, Calif.), was the inventor of “blue-screen technology,” a composite process that enabled two different images shot at different times and places to be merged into one. He also developed the U

  • Widmer, Robert Henry (American aeronautical engineer)

    Robert Henry Widmer, American aeronautical engineer (born May 17, 1916, Hawthorne, N.J.—died June 20, 2011, Fort Worth, Texas), designed innovative military aircraft, notably the B-58 bomber, the world’s first long-range aircraft capable of sustained supersonic flight. He began working on

  • Widmer-Schlumpf, Eveline (Swiss government official)

    Swiss People's Party: …and was replaced there by Eveline Widmer-Schlumpf, from the party’s moderate wing. In protest, the party withdrew from the country’s governing coalition. By going into opposition, the party suspended Switzerland’s consensus style of government, which had been in effect since 1959. The withdrawal was only temporary, however: in 2008 a…

  • Widnes (England, United Kingdom)

    Widnes, town in the unitary authority of Halton, historic county of Lancashire, northwestern England. It is situated on the north bank of the River Mersey at its lowest bridging point and on the southern periphery of the Liverpool metropolitan region. The modern town is a result of 19th-century

  • Widodo, Joko (president of Indonesia)

    Joko Widodo, Indonesian businessman, politician, and government official who served as governor of Jakarta (2012–14) and as president of Indonesia (2014– ). Joko Widodo, commonly called Jokowi, who attracted international attention with his populist style of campaigning and his anticorruption

  • Widor, Charles-Marie (French organist and composer)

    Charles-Marie Widor, French organist, composer, and teacher. The son and grandson of organ builders, Widor began his studies under his father and at the age of 11 became organist at the secondary school of Lyon. After studies in organ and composition in Brussels, he returned to Lyon (1860) to

  • Widor, Charles-Marie-Jean-Albert (French organist and composer)

    Charles-Marie Widor, French organist, composer, and teacher. The son and grandson of organ builders, Widor began his studies under his father and at the age of 11 became organist at the secondary school of Lyon. After studies in organ and composition in Brussels, he returned to Lyon (1860) to

  • Widow and Orphans Friendly Society (American organization)

    John Fairfield Dryden: …a few backers founded the Widows and Orphans Friendly Society in Newark, N.J. It was succeeded in 1875 by the Prudential Friendly Society, which took the name Prudential Insurance Company of America in 1877. Dryden was secretary of the company from 1875 to 1881 and president from 1881 until his…

  • Widow Norton, the (American drag performer and activist)

    José Sarria, Latino American drag performer and political activist who was the first openly gay person to run for public office in the United States. (He ran unsuccessfully for a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors—the legislative body of the city and county—in 1961). Sarria was the only

  • widow orchid (plant)

    Pleurothallis: The widow orchid (P. macrophylla) is a dark, deep purple.

  • widow spider (arachnid)

    spider: Venom: Widows exhibit warning coloration as a red hourglass-shaped mark on the underside of the abdomen; some have a red stripe. Because the spider hangs upside down in its web, the hourglass mark is conspicuous. The venom contains a nerve toxin that causes severe pain in…

  • Widow’s Story, A (memoir by Oates)

    Joyce Carol Oates: …2011 Oates published the memoir A Widow’s Story, in which she mourned her husband’s death. The Lost Landscape: A Writer’s Coming of Age (2015) is a memoir elliptically documenting her childhood.

  • widow’s tears (plant)

    spiderwort: Major species: …in the garden is the common spiderwort, or widow’s tears (T. virginiana), an upright juicy-stemmed plant with white to pink or purple flowers.

  • widowbird (bird)

    Whydah, any of several African birds that have long dark tails suggesting a funeral veil. They belong to two subfamilies, Viduinae and Ploceinae, of the family Ploceidae (order Passeriformes). The name is associated with Whydah (Ouidah), a town in Benin where the birds are common. In the Viduinae,

  • Widowers’ Houses (play by Shaw)

    dramatic literature: Drama and communal belief: …themes as slum landlordism (Widowers’ Houses, 1892) and prostitution (Mrs. Warren’s Profession, 1902), resulted only in failure, but Shaw quickly found a comic style that was more disarming. In his attack on false patriotism (Arms and the Man, 1894) and the motives for middle-class marriage (Candida, 1897), he does…

  • widowhood (marriage and society)

    Christianity: Care for widows and orphans: The Christian congregation has traditionally cared for the poor, the sick, widows, and orphans. The Letter of James says: “Religion that is pure and undefiled before God is this: to visit orphans and widows in their affliction.” Widows formed a special group…

  • Widowmaker (aircraft)

    B-26, U.S. medium bomber used during World War II. It was designed by the Glenn L. Martin Company Aviation in response to a January 1939 Army Air Forces requirement calling for a fast heavily-armed medium bomber; the result was an exceptionally clean design with a high wing, a torpedo-shaped

  • Widows (film by McQueen [2018])

    Gillian Flynn: …Flynn cowrote the screenplay for Widows with director Steve McQueen. The movie received wide acclaim for transcending the heist genre to offer a complex narrative of race, class, and gender.

  • Widows of Eastwick, The (novel by Updike)

    John Updike: …of witches, was followed by The Widows of Eastwick (2008), which trails the women into old age. Bech: A Book (1970), Bech Is Back (1982), and Bech at Bay (1998) humorously trace the tribulations of a Jewish writer.

  • Widsith (Old English literature)

    Widsith, Old English poem, probably from the 7th century, that is preserved in the Exeter Book, a 10th-century collection of Old English poetry. “Widsith” is an idealized self-portrait of a scop (minstrel) of the Germanic heroic age who wandered widely and was welcomed in many mead halls, where he

  • width (dimension)

    ship: Naval architecture: The beam is the greatest breadth of the ship. The depth is measured at the middle of the length, from the top of the keel to the top of the deck beam at the side of the uppermost continuous deck. Draft is measured from the keel to the waterline, while…

  • Widukind (Saxon leader)

    Germany: Charlemagne: …unity under the leadership of Widukind, who succeeded longer than any other leader in holding together a majority of chieftains in armed resistance to the Franks. Ultimately, internal feuding led to the capitulation even of Widukind. He surrendered, was baptized, and, like Tassilo, was imprisoned in a monastery for the…

  • Widvile Rivers, Anthony (English noble)

    Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers, English noble, a leading supporter of his brother-in-law, the Yorkist king Edward IV. Anthony and his father, Sir Richard Woodville (afterward 1st Earl Rivers), fought for the Lancastrians against the Yorkists in the early years of the Wars of the Roses

  • Wie Gertrud ihre Kinder lehrt (work by Pestalozzi)

    Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi: …Gertrud ihre Kinder lehrt (1801; How Gertrude Teaches Her Children) contains the main principles of intellectual education: that the child’s innate faculties should be evolved and that he should learn how to think, proceeding gradually from observation to comprehension to the formation of clear ideas. Although the teaching method is…

  • Wiebe, Rudy (Canadian author)

    Canadian literature: Fiction: …A Discovery of Strangers (1994), Rudy Wiebe constructed fictional and spiritual epics based on historical events in the west and the precarious relations between First Nations and European explorers and settlers. In The Wars (1977), Timothy Findley’s narrator, through letters, clippings, and photographs, re-creates the effects of World War I…

  • Wieber, Jordyn (American gymnast)

    Gabby Douglas: …lost the all-around gold to Jordyn Wieber, the reigning world and national all-around champion. In addition to taking the all-around silver medal, Douglas claimed gold on the uneven bars and bronze in the floor exercise. Weeks later, at the U.S. Olympic trials, Douglas narrowly edged out Wieber to claim the…

  • Wiechert–Gutenberg Discontinuity (Earth science)

    Earth exploration: Conclusions about the deep Earth: The mantle–core boundary is the Gutenberg discontinuity at a depth of about 2,800 kilometres. The outer core is thought to be liquid because shear waves do not pass through it.

  • Wieck, Clara Josephine (German pianist)

    Clara Schumann, German pianist, composer, and wife of composer Robert Schumann. Encouraged by her father, she studied piano from the age of five and by 1835 had established a reputation throughout Europe as a child prodigy. In 1838 she was honoured by the Austrian court and also was elected to the

  • Wieck, Friedrich (German piano teacher)

    Robert Schumann: The early years: …seriously with a celebrated teacher, Friedrich Wieck, and thus got to know Wieck’s nine-year-old daughter Clara, a brilliant pianist who was just then beginning a successful concert career.

  • Wied, Gustav (Danish author)

    Gustav Wied, Danish dramatist, novelist, and satirist chiefly remembered for a series of what he called satyr-dramas. Wied was the son of a well-to-do farmer. He spent most of his life in provincial surroundings, which provide the usual background for his works. He was a private tutor for years,

  • Wied, Gustav Johannes (Danish author)

    Gustav Wied, Danish dramatist, novelist, and satirist chiefly remembered for a series of what he called satyr-dramas. Wied was the son of a well-to-do farmer. He spent most of his life in provincial surroundings, which provide the usual background for his works. He was a private tutor for years,

  • Wied, Wilhelm zu (German prince)

    Albania: Creating the new state: …also appointed a German prince, Wilhelm zu Wied, as ruler of Albania. Wilhelm arrived in Albania in March 1914, but his unfamiliarity with Albania and its problems, compounded by complications arising from the outbreak of World War I, led him to depart from Albania six months later. The war plunged…

  • Wied-Neuwied, Alexander Philipp Maximilian, Prinz zu (German naturalist and explorer)

    Maximilian, prince zu Wied-Neuwied, German aristocratic naturalist, ethnographer, and explorer whose observations on a trip to the American West in the 1830s provide valuable information about the Plains Indians at that time. Maximilian was the prince of the small state of Neuwied and served in the

  • Wied-Neuwied, Maximilian, Prinz zu (German naturalist and explorer)

    Maximilian, prince zu Wied-Neuwied, German aristocratic naturalist, ethnographer, and explorer whose observations on a trip to the American West in the 1830s provide valuable information about the Plains Indians at that time. Maximilian was the prince of the small state of Neuwied and served in the

  • Wiegand, Clyde E. (American physicist)

    Clyde E. Wiegand, U.S. physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project, which produced the atomic bomb, and later, in the 1950s, was part of a team that discovered the antiproton, using the bevatron particle accelerator at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif. Although his

  • Wiegand, Willy (German printer)

    typography: The private-press movement: …Bremer Presse (1911–39), conducted by Willy Wiegand, like the Doves Press, rejected ornament (except for initials) and relied upon carefully chosen types and painstaking presswork to make its effect. The most cosmopolitan of the German presses was the Cranach, conducted at Weimar by Count Harry Kessler. It produced editions of…

  • Wiegmann, Marie (German dancer)

    Mary Wigman, German dancer, a pioneer of the modern expressive dance as developed in central Europe. A pupil of émile Jaques-Dalcroze and Rudolf Laban, she subsequently formulated her own theories of movement, often dancing without music or to percussion only. Although she made her debut as a

  • Wiejska Solidarno?? (Polish labour union)

    Solidarity: …composed of private farmers, named Rural Solidarity (Wiejska Solidarno??), was founded in Warsaw on December 14, 1980. By early 1981 Solidarity had a membership of about 10 million people and represented most of the work force of Poland.

  • Wieland (novel by Brown)

    Wieland, Gothic novel by Charles Brockden Brown, published in 1798. The story concerns Theodore Wieland, whose father has died by spontaneous combustion, apparently for violating a vow to God. The younger Wieland, also a religious enthusiast seeking direct communication with divinity, misguidedly

  • Wieland, Christoph Martin (German poet)

    Christoph Martin Wieland, poet and man of letters of the German Rococo period whose work spans the major trends of his age, from rationalism and the Enlightenment to classicism and pre-Romanticism. Wieland was the son of a Pietist parson, and his early writings from the 1750s were sanctimonious and

  • Wieland, Heinrich Otto (German chemist)

    Heinrich Otto Wieland, German chemist, winner of the 1927 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his determination of the molecular structure of bile acids. Wieland obtained his doctorate at the University of Munich in 1901 and remained in that city to teach and conduct research. He became professor of

  • Wieland, Joyce (Canadian artist and filmmaker)

    Joyce Wieland, Canadian artist (born June 30, 1931, Toronto, Ont.—died June 27, 1998, Toronto), was one of Canada’s most influential woman artists and produced works in a variety of media, including sculptures, quilts, tapestries, paintings, and films, all celebrating her joy for life and r

  • Wieland; or, The Transformation (novel by Brown)

    Wieland, Gothic novel by Charles Brockden Brown, published in 1798. The story concerns Theodore Wieland, whose father has died by spontaneous combustion, apparently for violating a vow to God. The younger Wieland, also a religious enthusiast seeking direct communication with divinity, misguidedly

  • Wieliczka salt mine (mine, Poland)

    Kraków: The contemporary city: …outside the city lies the Wieliczka salt mine, operational for at least 700 years. Its 190 miles (300 km) of underground tunnels now contain a functioning sanatorium, a museum, and several chapels. UNESCO added the salt mine to the World Heritage list in 1978. Also on the list is the…

  • Wielki, Witold (Lithuanian leader)

    Vytautas the Great, Lithuanian national leader who consolidated his country’s possessions, helped to build up a national consciousness, and broke the power of the Teutonic Knights. He exercised great power over Poland. Vytautas was the son of K?stutis, who for years had waged a struggle with his

  • Wielkopolska (historical region, Poland)

    Partitions of Poland: …portion of the region of Great Poland (Wielkopolska). Austria acquired the regions of Little Poland (Ma?opolska) south of the Vistula River, western Podolia, and the area that subsequently became known as Galicia.

  • Wielkopolska, Nizina (geographical region, Poland)

    Poland: The lake region and central lowlands: …the upper Oder; the southern Great Poland Lowland, which lies in the middle Warta River basin; and the Mazovian (Mazowiecka) and Podlasian (Podlaska) lowlands, which lie in the middle Vistula basin. Lower Silesia and Great Poland are important agricultural areas, but many parts of the central lowlands also have large…

  • Wielkopolskie (province, Poland)

    Wielkopolskie, województwo (province), west-central Poland. One of 16 provinces created in 1999 when Poland underwent administrative reorganization, it is bordered by the provinces of Zachodniopomorskie to the northwest, Pomorskie and Kujawsko-Pomorskie to the northeast, ?ódzkie to the east,

  • Wielkopolskie Lakeland (geographical region, Poland)

    Great Poland Lakeland, lake district in west-central Poland that covers more than 20,000 square miles (55,000 square km). It crosses the provinces of Lubuskie, Wielkopolski, and, in part, Kujawsko-Pomorskie. The district is a north- to south-trending valley that lies between the middle Oder and

  • Wielkopolskie Uprising (Polish history)

    Wielkopolskie: History: …effort was countered by the Wielkopolskie Uprising (1918–19), when Polish insurgents triumphed over the Germans, and under the Treaty of Versailles almost the whole area of the province was reannexed to Poland, forcing hundreds of thousands of Germans to leave. In 1939, when the Nazi and Soviet armies invaded, Wielkopolskie…

  • Wielopolski, Count Aleksander (Polish statesman)

    Count Aleksander Wielopolski, Polish statesman who undertook a program of major internal reforms coupled with full submission to Russian domination in order to gain maximum national autonomy. Born into an impoverished noble family, he studied law as a young man in Warsaw and philosophy in Germany.

  • Wieman, Carl E. (American physicist)

    Carl E. Wieman, American physicist who, with Eric A. Cornell and Wolfgang Ketterle, won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2001 for creating a new ultracold state of matter, the so-called Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). After studying at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (B.S., 1973), Wieman

  • Wieman, Henry Nelson (American theologian)

    religious experience: Study and evaluation: …theologians Douglas Clyde Macintosh and Henry Nelson Wieman sought to build an “empirical theology” on the basis of religious experience understood as involving a direct perception of God. Unlike Macintosh, Wieman held that such a perception is sensory in character. Personalist philosophers, such as Edgar S. Brightman and Peter Bertocci,…

  • Wien (national capital, Austria)

    Vienna, city and Bundesland (federal state), the capital of Austria. Of the country’s nine states, Vienna is the smallest in area but the largest in population. Modern Vienna has undergone several historical incarnations. From 1558 to 1918 it was an imperial city—until 1806 the seat of the Holy

  • Wien (work by Bahr)

    Hermann Bahr: In 1907 he published Wien, a remarkable essay on the soul of Vienna, which, however, was banned. Later, under the influence of Maurice Maeterlinck, Bahr became a champion of mysticism and Symbolism. His comedies, including Wienerinnen (1900; “Viennese Women”), Der Krampus (1901), and Das Konzert (1909), are superficially amusing.

  • Wien w?rtlich (work by Weinheber)

    Josef Weinheber: Other important works included Wien w?rtlich (1935; “Vienna Revealed in Words”), which cast the poet in the role of the people’s singer; O Mensch, gib acht (1937; “Hearken, Ye Men”), a series of vignettes and songs using folk tunes; and Zwischen G?ttern und D?monen (1938; “Between Gods and Demons”),…

  • Wien’s displacement law (physics)

    Wien’s law, relationship between the temperature of a blackbody (an ideal substance that emits and absorbs all frequencies of light) and the wavelength at which it emits the most light. It is named after German physicist Wilhelm Wien, who received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1911 for discovering

  • Wien’s law (physics)

    Wien’s law, relationship between the temperature of a blackbody (an ideal substance that emits and absorbs all frequencies of light) and the wavelength at which it emits the most light. It is named after German physicist Wilhelm Wien, who received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1911 for discovering

  • Wien, Universit?t (university, Vienna, Austria)

    University of Vienna, state-financed coeducational institution for higher learning at Vienna. Founded in 1365, it is the oldest university in the German-speaking world. The university was first chartered, following the model of the University of Paris, by the Habsburg duke Rudolf IV of Austria, as

  • Wien, Wilhelm (German physicist)

    Wilhelm Wien, German physicist who received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1911 for his displacement law concerning the radiation emitted by the perfectly efficient blackbody (a surface that absorbs all radiant energy falling on it). Wien obtained his doctorate at the University of Berlin in 1886

  • Wien, Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz (German physicist)

    Wilhelm Wien, German physicist who received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1911 for his displacement law concerning the radiation emitted by the perfectly efficient blackbody (a surface that absorbs all radiant energy falling on it). Wien obtained his doctorate at the University of Berlin in 1886

  • Wien, Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz (German physicist)

    Wilhelm Wien, German physicist who received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1911 for his displacement law concerning the radiation emitted by the perfectly efficient blackbody (a surface that absorbs all radiant energy falling on it). Wien obtained his doctorate at the University of Berlin in 1886

  • Wienbarg, Ludolf (German author)

    Young Germany: …name was first used in Ludolf Wienbarg’s ?sthetische Feldzüge (“Aesthetic Campaigns,” 1834). Members of Young Germany, in spite of their intellectual and literary gifts and penetrating political awareness, failed to command the enthusiasm of their countrymen but, rather, excited widespread animosity. This was partly due to their lack of social…

  • Wiene, Robert (German film director)

    film noir: Lighting: Robert Wiene’s Das Kabinett des Doktor Caligari (1920; The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari) contains one of the best early examples of the lighting techniques used to inspire the genre. Wiene used visual elements to help define the title character’s madness, including tilted cameras to present…

  • wiener (sausage)

    Frankfurter, highly seasoned sausage, traditionally of mixed pork and beef. Frankfurters are named for Frankfurt am Main, Ger., the city of their origin, where they were sold and eaten at beer gardens. Frankfurters were introduced in the United States in about 1900 and quickly came to be considered

  • Wiener Kreis (philosophy)

    Vienna Circle, a group of philosophers, scientists, and mathematicians formed in the 1920s that met regularly in Vienna to investigate scientific language and scientific methodology. The philosophical movement associated with the Circle has been called variously logical positivism, logical e

  • Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    Wiener Neustadt, city, northeastern Austria. It lies near the Leitha River south of Vienna. Founded in 1194 by the Babenberg duke Leopold V, it was chartered in 1277 and had a mint at that time. It was most prosperous in the 15th century, when it was the residence of the Holy Roman emperor

  • Wiener pfennig (medieval Austrian coin)

    Austria: Later Babenberg period: …a new coin, the so-called Wiener pfennig. The road connecting Vienna and Steiermark was improved, and the new town of Wiener Neustadt was established on its course to protect the newly opened route across the Semmering.

  • Wiener process (mathematics)

    probability theory: Brownian motion process: …is the Brownian motion or Wiener process. It was first discussed by Louis Bachelier (1900), who was interested in modeling fluctuations in prices in financial markets, and by Albert Einstein (1905), who gave a mathematical model for the irregular motion of colloidal particles first observed by the Scottish botanist Robert…

  • Wiener Salonblatt (Austrian newspaper)

    Hugo Wolf: …became music critic of the Wiener Salonblatt; his weekly reviews provide considerable insight into the Viennese musical world of his day.

  • Wiener schnitzel (food)

    Chicken-fried steak: …who adapted the dish from wiener schnitzel, which is similarly cooked but uses veal and breadcrumbs.

  • Wiener Sezession (Austrian art group)

    Western architecture: Art Nouveau: …his classicism and formed the Sezessionists. Joseph Olbrich joined the art colony at Darmstadt, in Germany, where his houses and exhibition gallery of about 1905 were boxlike, severe buildings. Josef Hoffmann left Wagner to found the Wiener Werkst?tte, an Austrian equivalent of the English Arts and Crafts Movement; his best

  • Wiener Wald (forest, Austria)

    Klosterneuburg: …the north edge of the Vienna Woods (Wienerwald), just northwest of Vienna. It was originally the site of a Roman fortress (Asturis). Later, a settlement called Neuburg developed around a castle on the Leopoldsberg and an Augustinian abbey, both of which were founded in about 1100 by the Babenberg margrave…

  • Wiener Werkst?tte (Austrian enterprise for crafts and design)

    Wiener Werkst?tte, cooperative enterprise for crafts and design founded in Vienna in 1903. Inspired by William Morris and the English Arts and Crafts Movement, it was founded by Koloman Moser and Josef Hoffmann with the goal of restoring the values of handcraftsmanship to an industrial society in

  • Wiener Zeitung (Austrian newspaper)

    history of publishing: Commercial newsletters in continental Europe: In Austria the Wiener Zeitung was started in 1703 and is considered to be the oldest surviving daily newspaper in the world. The oldest continuously published weekly paper was the official Swedish gazette, the Post-och Inrikes Tidningar; begun in 1645, it adopted an Internet-only format in 2007. Sweden…

  • Wiener, Norbert (American mathematician)

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