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  • Wilson, Mount (mountain, California, United States)

    Mount Wilson, peak (5,710 feet [1,740 metres]) in the San Gabriel Mountains of the Angeles National Forest, southern California, U.S. It lies just northeast of Pasadena. A highway leads to the summit, an eroded plateau that is the site of a famous astronomical observatory, the Mount Wilson

  • Wilson, Orlando W. (American police reformer)

    police: The professional crime-fighting model: Ironically, Wilson, Vollmer’s protégé, became the architect of the new crime-fighting model. As chief of police in Fullerton, Calif., and Wichita, Kan. (1928–39), professor and dean of the School of Criminology at the University of California, Berkeley (1939–60), and superintendent of the Chicago Police Department (1960–67),…

  • Wilson, Owen (American actor)

    Wes Anderson: …collaboration with screenwriter and actor Owen Wilson.

  • Wilson, Pete (American politician)

    Dianne Feinstein: Pete Wilson. When Wilson won the election and vacated his Senate position, she was elected to his seat. She was sworn into office in November 1992 for a special two-year term and was reelected to a full six-year term in 1994.

  • Wilson, Peter (British art dealer)

    art market: The internationalization of the European auction houses: In 1956 Peter Wilson of Sotheby’s challenged the status quo by offering a guarantee of sale to the vendor of Nicolas Poussin’s Adoration of the Magi. Soon thereafter he employed advertising firm J. Walter Thompson to promote the 1957 auction of Wilhelm Weinberg’s collection of van Goghs…

  • Wilson, Pudd’nhead (fictional character)

    Pudd’nhead Wilson, fictional character, the protagonist of Mark Twain’s satiric novel Pudd’nhead Wilson

  • Wilson, Raymond Neil (British physicist)

    Raymond Neil Wilson, British physicist who pioneered the field of active optics. Wilson received a bachelor’s degree in physics from Birmingham University. He received a doctoral degree from Imperial College in London. In 1961 he joined the German optical firm Carl Zeiss in Oberkochen and became

  • Wilson, Richard (British painter)

    Richard Wilson, one of the earliest major British landscape painters, whose works combine a mood of classical serenity with picturesque effects. In 1729 Wilson studied portraiture with Thomas Wright in London and after about 1735 worked on his own in this genre. From 1746 his work shows a growing

  • Wilson, Rita (American actress)

    Tom Ford: …Hollywood actresses as Goldie Hawn, Rita Wilson, Gillian Anderson, and Gwyneth Paltrow, as well as that of Lisa Eisner, a prominent wealthy Los Angeles socialite.

  • Wilson, Robert (American playwright, director, and producer)

    Robert Wilson, American playwright, director, and producer who was known for his avant-garde theatre works. Wilson studied business administration at the University of Texas at Austin, but he dropped out in 1962 and moved to New York City to pursue his interest in the arts. After earning a degree

  • Wilson, Robert Kenneth (British surgeon)

    Loch Ness monster: In 1934 English physician Robert Kenneth Wilson photographed the alleged creature. The iconic image—known as the “surgeon’s photograph”—appeared to show the monster’s small head and neck. The Daily Mail printed the photograph, sparking an international sensation. Many speculated that the creature was a plesiosaur, a marine reptile that went…

  • Wilson, Robert Rathbun (American physicist)

    Robert Rathbun Wilson, American physicist (born March 4, 1914, Frontier, Wyo.—died Jan. 16, 2000, Ithaca, N.Y.), was one of the leading scientists on the Manhattan Project, working closely with Enrico Fermi on experiments that led to the development of the atomic bomb; a noted researcher in p

  • Wilson, Robert Woodrow (American astronomer)

    Robert Woodrow Wilson, American radio astronomer who shared, with Arno Penzias, the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physics for a discovery that supported the big-bang model of creation. (Soviet physicist Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa also shared the award, for unrelated research.) Educated at Rice University in

  • Wilson, Russell (American football player)

    Seattle Seahawks: …Thomas and rookie quarterback sensation Russell Wilson, the Seahawks won 11 games in 2012, only to lose a dramatic 30–28 contest to the Atlanta Falcons in the second round of postseason play.

  • Wilson, Sallie (American ballerina)

    Sallie Wilson, American ballerina (born April 18, 1932, Fort Worth, Texas—died April 27, 2008, New York, N.Y.), as a leading dancer with American Ballet Theatre, had an intense stage presence that, coupled with her fine musicality and technique, gained her renown during the 1960s and ’70s as one of

  • Wilson, Samuel (American businessman)

    Troy: …beef were filled by businessman Samuel Wilson (locally called “Uncle Sam”) of Troy. Government purchasers stamped “U.S. Beef” on the barrels, misinterpreted as “Uncle Sam’s beef”; according to tradition, this gave rise to the popular symbol.

  • Wilson, Sandy (British playwright and composer)

    Sandy Wilson, (Alexander Galbraith Wilson), British playwright and composer (born May 19, 1924, Sale, Greater Manchester, Eng.—died Aug. 27, 2014, Taunton, Eng.), achieved fame and fortune as the author, composer, and lyricist of the wistfully nostalgic 1920s-era musical comedy The Boy Friend,

  • Wilson, Scott (American actor)

    In Cold Blood: …Blake) and Dick Hickock (Scott Wilson), who had met in prison, break into a Kansas farmhouse that they have been led to believe contains a safe with $10,000 inside. After killing the parents and children, the two ex-cons discover that there is no safe and flee to Mexico, where…

  • Wilson, Sir Angus Frank Johnstone (British author)

    Sir Angus Wilson, British writer whose fiction—sometimes serious, sometimes richly satirical—portrays conflicts in contemporary English social and intellectual life. Wilson was the youngest of six sons born to an upper-middle-class family who lived a shabby-genteel existence in small hotels and

  • Wilson, Sir Henry Hughes, Baronet (British field marshal)

    Sir Henry Hughes Wilson, Baronet, British field marshal, chief of the British imperial general staff, and main military adviser to Prime Minister David Lloyd George in the last year of World War I. While in the War Office as director of military operations (1910–14), he determined that Great

  • Wilson, Sir Robert (British astrophysicist)

    Sir Robert Wilson, British astrophysicist (born April 16, 1927, South Shields, Durham, Eng.—died Sept. 2, 2002, Chelmsford, Essex, Eng.), was the guiding force behind the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite, an Earth-orbiting astronomical observatory that was the forerunner of the H

  • Wilson, Sir Thomas (English politician)

    diplomatics: The English royal chancery: …second holder of this office, Sir Thomas Wilson, established the division of the state papers into foreign and domestic. As departments of state proliferated during the 18th and 19th centuries, they developed their own archives. In 1838 all the public legal archives were placed in a Public Record Office under…

  • Wilson, Sloan (American author)

    Sloan Wilson, American novelist (born May 8, 1920, Norwalk, Conn.—died May 25, 2003, Colonial Beach, Va.), launched a catchphrase with the title of his best-selling novel The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit (1955; filmed 1956), which captured the mood of the post-World War II suburban families d

  • Wilson, Teddy (American musician)

    Teddy Wilson, American jazz musician who was one of the leading pianists during the big band era of the 1930s and ’40s; he was also considered a major influence on subsequent generations of jazz pianists. Wilson’s family moved to Alabama in 1918, where his father found employment at the Tuskegee

  • Wilson, Thomas (British bishop)

    Celtic literature: Manx: Bishop Thomas Wilson’s Principles and Duties of Christianity appeared in English and Manx in 1699, and 22 of his sermons appeared in a Manx translation in 1783. More interesting are Pargys Caillit, the paraphrase translation of Milton’s Paradise Lost, which was published in 1794 and reprinted…

  • Wilson, Thomas Albert (American cartoonist)

    Tom Wilson, (Thomas Albert Wilson), American cartoonist (born Aug. 1, 1931, Grant Town, W.Va.—died Sept. 16, 2011, Cincinnati, Ohio), was the creator of the hapless rotund cartoon character Ziggy, a short, bald everyman whose wry and self-deprecating comments framed life’s tribulations; Ziggy made

  • Wilson, Thomas Woodrow (president of United States)

    Woodrow Wilson, 28th president of the United States (1913–21), an American scholar and statesman best remembered for his legislative accomplishments and his high-minded idealism. Wilson led his country into World War I and became the creator and leading advocate of the League of Nations, for which

  • Wilson, Tom (American record producer)

    Columbia Records: Folk-Rock Fulcrum: …but it was in-house producer Tom Wilson who produced the turning-point electric single “Like a Rollin’ Stone” in 1965 and who overdubbed drums and bass on Simon and Garfunkel’s previously released “The Sound of Silence,” transforming an album track into a hit single. Wilson went on to produce the Mothers…

  • Wilson, Tom (American cartoonist)

    Tom Wilson, (Thomas Albert Wilson), American cartoonist (born Aug. 1, 1931, Grant Town, W.Va.—died Sept. 16, 2011, Cincinnati, Ohio), was the creator of the hapless rotund cartoon character Ziggy, a short, bald everyman whose wry and self-deprecating comments framed life’s tribulations; Ziggy made

  • Wilson, Tony (British music industry entrepreneur)

    Tony Wilson, British music industry entrepreneur who, as cofounder of Factory Records and founder of the Hacienda nightclub in Manchester, was the ringleader of the so-called “Madchester” postpunk music and club scene of the 1980s and early ’90s. Wilson was a cultural reporter for Manchester’s

  • Wilson, William Griffith (American businessman)

    Alcoholics Anonymous: ” (William Griffith Wilson [1895–1971]), and a surgeon from Akron, Ohio, “Dr. Bob S.” (Robert Holbrook Smith [1879–1950]). Drawing upon their own experiences, they set out to help fellow alcoholics and first recorded their program in Alcoholics Anonymous (1939; 3rd ed., 1976). By the early 21st…

  • Wilson, William Julius (American sociologist)

    William Julius Wilson, American sociologist whose views on race and urban poverty helped shape U.S. public policy and academic discourse. Wilson was educated at Wilberforce University (B.A., 1958) and Bowling Green State University (M.A., 1961) in Ohio, as well as at Washington State University

  • Wilson, Woodrow (president of United States)

    Woodrow Wilson, 28th president of the United States (1913–21), an American scholar and statesman best remembered for his legislative accomplishments and his high-minded idealism. Wilson led his country into World War I and became the creator and leading advocate of the League of Nations, for which

  • Wilson–Gorman Tariff Act (United States [1894])

    Pollock v. Farmers' Loan and Trust Company: …court voided portions of the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act of 1894 that imposed a direct tax on the incomes of American citizens and corporations, thus declaring the federal income tax unconstitutional. The decision was mooted (unsettled) in 1913 by ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment to the federal Constitution, giving Congress the…

  • Wilson-Raybould, Jody (Canadian politician)

    Canada: SNC-Lavalin affair: …his staff had improperly pushed Jody Wilson-Raybould, who was attorney general and justice minister, to take actions to halt the prosecution of SNC-Lavalin, a giant Quebec-based construction and engineering company that had been charged with corruption and fraud. After being reassigned as veterans affairs minister in a cabinet reshuffle in…

  • Wilsonianism (political history)

    20th-century international relations: The idealist vision: Wilsonianism, as it came to be called, derived from the liberal internationalism that had captured large segments of the Anglo-American intellectual elite before and during the war. It interpreted war as essentially an atavism associated with authoritarian monarchy, aristocracy, imperialism, and economic nationalism. Such governments…

  • Wilsons Promontory (peninsula, Victoria, Australia)

    Wilsons Promontory, southernmost point of the Australian mainland. It lies in Victoria, about 110 miles (175 km) southeast of Melbourne. The peninsula, composed of granite, is 22 miles long with a maximum width of 14 miles. It projects into Bass Strait and is almost an island, being linked to the

  • wilt (plant disease)

    Wilt, common symptom of plant disease resulting from water loss in leaves and stems. Affected parts lose their turgidity and droop. Specific wilt diseases—caused by a variety of fungi, bacteria, and viruses—are easily confused with root and crown rots, stem cankers, insect injuries, drought or

  • Wilt Chamberlain argument (philosophy)

    Robert Nozick: The entitlement theory of justice: …be known as the “Wilt Chamberlain” argument. Assume, he says, that the distribution of holdings in a given society is just according to some theory based on patterns or historical circumstances—e.g., the egalitarian theory, according to which only a strictly equal distribution of holdings is just. In this society,…

  • Wilt the Stilt (American basketball player)

    Wilt Chamberlain, professional basketball player, considered to be one of the greatest offensive players in the history of the game. More than 7 feet (2.1 metres) tall, Chamberlain was an outstanding centre. During his 1961–62 season he became the first player to score more than 4,000 points in a

  • Wilton (England, United Kingdom)

    Wilton, town (parish), administrative and historic county of Wiltshire, southern England. It lies just west-northwest of Salisbury. The town is internationally known for its carpets. The Royal Carpet Factory was built there in 1655, and the production of Wilton and Axminster carpets became the

  • Wilton carpet

    floor covering: …woven types as Axminster and Wilton, and also tufted, knitted, and flocked types. Axminsters resemble hand-knotted carpets, but their pile yarn is mechanically inserted and bound and not knotted. Wilton types may have looped (uncut) or cut pile, with designs formed by bringing yarns of the desired colour to the…

  • Wilton House (building, Wiltshire, England, United Kingdom)

    interior design: England: …and kinsman, John Webb, built Wilton House, Wiltshire.

  • Wilton industry (archaeology)

    Copperbelt: …to light remains of the Wilton culture (Late Stone Age culture in southern Africa) dating from 3000 bce. Early, Middle, and Late Stone Age and Early Iron Age sites are in the province, as well as a number of rock paintings (c. 500–1750 ce). Chiefdoms dominated by the Lamba, Lima,…

  • Wilton, James Brydges, Viscount (British noble)

    James Brydges, 1st duke of Chandos, English nobleman, patron of composer George Frideric Handel. The son and heir of James Brydges, 8th Baron Chandos of Sudeley, he was a member of Parliament from 1698 to 1714. For eight years (1705–13) during the War of the Spanish Succession, he was paymaster

  • Wilton, John (British sculptor)

    Western sculpture: Relation to the Baroque and the Rococo: …early British Neoclassical sculptors included John Wilton, Joseph Nollekens, John Bacon the Elder, John Deare, and Christopher Hewetson, the last two working mostly in Rome. The leading artist of the younger generation was John Flaxman, professor of sculpture at the Royal Academy and one of the few British artists of…

  • Wilton, Marie Effie (British actress)

    Sir Squire Bancroft: He married the theatre manager Marie Effie Wilton in 1867. At the Prince of Wales’s Theatre, they produced all the better-known comedies of Thomas William Robertson, among them Society (1865) and Caste (1867). These productions swept away the old crude methods of writing and staging. Later they produced new plays…

  • Wiltshire (county, England, United Kingdom)

    Wiltshire, geographic and historic county and unitary authority of southern England. It is situated on a low plateau draining into the basins of the Bristol Channel, the English Channel, and the eastward-flowing River Thames. Trowbridge, on the western side of Wiltshire, is the administrative

  • Wiltwyck (New York, United States)

    Kingston, city, seat (1683) of Ulster county, southeastern New York, U.S. It lies on the west bank of the Hudson River (there bridged), at the mouth of Rondout Creek, 54 miles (87 km) south of Albany. A fur-trading post was established on the site about 1615. The first permanent settlement, called

  • WIM (astronomy)

    Diffuse ionized gas, dilute interstellar material that makes up about 90 percent of the ionized gas in the Milky Way Galaxy. It produces a faint emission-line spectrum that is seen in every direction. It was first detected from a thin haze of electrons that affect radio radiation passing through

  • Wiman (ruler of Chos?n)

    Wiman, Chinese general, or possibly a Korean in Chinese service, who took advantage of the confusion that existed around the time of the founding of the Han dynasty in China to usurp the throne of the Korean state of Chos?n. He moved the capital to the present-day site of P’y?ngyang on the Taedong

  • Wiman (ancient state, Korea)

    Nangnang: …the ancient Korean state of Wiman (later named Chos?n). Nangnang, which occupied the northwestern portion of the Korean peninsula and had its capital at P’y?ngyang, was the only one of the four colonies to achieve success. It lasted until 313 ce, when it was conquered by the expanding northern Korean…

  • Wimare (Germany)

    Weimar, city, ThuringiaLand (state), eastern Germany. Weimar lies along the Ilm River, just east of Erfurt. First mentioned in documents in 975 as Wimare, it was declared a town in 1254 and was chartered in 1348. Ruled by the counts of Weimar-Orlamünde from 1247 to 1372, it then passed to the Saxon

  • WiMax (technology)

    WiMax, communication technology for wirelessly delivering high-speed Internet service to large geographical areas. Part of a “fourth generation,” or 4G, of wireless-communication technology, WiMax far surpasses the 30-metre (100-foot) wireless range of a conventional Wi-Fi local area network (LAN),

  • Wimbledon (neighbourhood, Merton, Greater London, England, United Kingdom)

    Wimbledon, neighbourhood in Merton, an outer borough of London. Located about 8 miles (13 km) southwest of the City of London, it is the site of the annual All-England Championships, better known as the Wimbledon Championships, in lawn tennis. The district also includes Wimbledon Stadium, which is

  • Wimbledon Championships (tennis)

    Wimbledon Championships, internationally known tennis championships played annually in London at Wimbledon. The tournament, held in late June and early July, is one of the four annual “Grand Slam” tennis events—along with the Australian, French, and U.S. Opens—and is the only one still played on

  • Wimborne (district, England, United Kingdom)

    East Dorset, district, administrative county of Dorset, southern England. It is located in the northeastern corner of the county directly north of the English Channel resorts of Bournemouth and Poole. The old parish (town) of Wimborne Minster is the administrative centre. Most of the district is

  • Wimborne Minster (England, United Kingdom)

    Wimborne Minster, town (parish), East Dorset district, administrative and historic county of Dorset, southern England. It is situated on the River Allen at its confluence with the Stour, about 5 miles (8 km) north of Poole. Cuthburga and Cwenburh, sisters of King Ine of Wessex, founded a convent

  • Wimmera (region, Victoria, Australia)

    Wimmera, region, west-central Victoria, Australia. Thomas Mitchell first surveyed the area in 1836 and named it for an Aboriginal term meaning boomerang, throwing stick, or spear thrower. The area was settled in the 1860s. Its generally level terrain, in the basin of the north-flowing, dissipative

  • WIMP (astrophysics)

    Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), heavy, electromagnetically neutral subatomic particle that is hypothesized to make up most dark matter and therefore some 22 percent of the universe. These particles are thought to be heavy and slow moving because if the dark matter particles were light

  • Wimperis, Arthur (British writer)
  • wimple (headdress)

    Wimple, headdress worn by women over the head and around the neck, cheeks, and chin. From the late 12th until the beginning of the 14th century, it was worn extensively throughout medieval Europe, and it survived until recently as a head covering for women in religious orders. The wimple

  • wimple piranha (fish)

    piranha: Some 12 species called wimple piranhas (genus Catoprion) survive solely on morsels nipped from the fins and scales of other fishes, which then swim free to heal completely.

  • Wimsatt, William Kurtz, Jr. (American critic)

    intentional fallacy: Introduced by W.K. Wimsatt, Jr., and Monroe C. Beardsley in The Verbal Icon (1954), the approach was a reaction to the popular belief that to know what the author intended—what he had in mind at the time of writing—was to know the correct interpretation of the work.…

  • Wimsey, Lord Peter (fictional character)

    Lord Peter Wimsey, fictional character, a monocled aristocratic dilettante turned professional detective, created by English writer Dorothy L. Sayers in Whose Body? (1923). After his graduation from the University of Oxford, Wimsey, who is the second son of the duke of Denver, finds that he has a

  • Win Ben Stein’s Money (American television program)

    Jimmy Kimmel: … on the television game show Win Ben Stein’s Money. Kimmel’s adolescent sense of humour complemented Stein’s dry delivery, and the cohosts were awarded the Daytime Emmy Award for outstanding game-show host in 1999.

  • Win Shares (work by James)

    sabermetrics: Bill James and the advent of sabermetrics: …2002 James published the 729-page Win Shares, in which he outlined a method that resulted in the performance of every player in major-league history being summed up by a single number for each season based on his contributions as a hitter, fielder, base runner, or pitcher. James’s method had been…

  • Win Tin (Burmese journalist and human rights activist)

    Win Tin, Burmese journalist and human rights activist (born March 12, 1929/30?, Pegu, Burma [now Bego, Myanmar]—died April 21, 2014, Yangon [Rangoon], Myanmar), endured 19 years (1989–2008) of imprisonment, brutal living conditions, and torture under Myanmar’s military government. After studying

  • Win Win (film by McCarthy [2011])

    Paul Giamatti: …he starred in the comedy-drama Win Win as a hapless lawyer moonlighting as a high-school wrestling coach, and he appeared in the political thriller The Ides of March as the wily campaign manager of a presidential candidate (George Clooney). That year he also portrayed U.S. Federal Reserve chairman Ben Bernanke…

  • Winam Bay (bay, Kenya)

    Winam Gulf, gulf of the northeastern corner of Lake Victoria, southwestern Kenya, East Africa. It is a shallow inlet, 35 mi (56 km) long and 15 mi wide, and is connected to the main lake by a channel 3 mi wide. The port of Kisumu stands on its northeastern

  • Winam Gulf (bay, Kenya)

    Winam Gulf, gulf of the northeastern corner of Lake Victoria, southwestern Kenya, East Africa. It is a shallow inlet, 35 mi (56 km) long and 15 mi wide, and is connected to the main lake by a channel 3 mi wide. The port of Kisumu stands on its northeastern

  • Winaq (Guatemalan political movement)

    Rigoberta Menchú: …created the Indian-led political movement Winaq (Mayan: “The Wholeness of the Human Being”) in February 2007. That September, as the candidate of a coalition between Winaq and the left-wing Encounter for Guatemala party, she ran for president of Guatemala but earned less than 3 percent of the vote. Her 2011…

  • Winbergh, G?sta (Swedish opera singer)

    G?sta Winbergh, Swedish opera singer (born Dec. 30, 1943, Stockholm, Swed.—died March 18, 2002, Vienna, Austria), abandoned a career in structural engineering for one in music and for almost 30 years was a leading tenor in most of the major opera houses across Europe and the U.S. Winbergh worked f

  • Wincanton (England, United Kingdom)

    pottery: Tin-glazed ware: One of them—Wincanton in Somerset—made frequent use of manganese, which produces purple and purplish-black colours. The tin glaze fell into disuse about the turn of the 18th century, its place having been taken by Wedgwood’s creamware. (In the mid-20th century manufacture has been successfully revived at Rye,…

  • Winchcombe (England, United Kingdom)

    Winchcombe, village (parish), Tewkesbury borough, administrative and historic county of Gloucestershire, England. It is situated on the River Isbourne, near the western edge of the Cotswolds. The site was first settled when Cenwulf, king of Mercia (reigned 796–821), founded a Benedictine abbey

  • Winchel, Walter (American journalist)

    Walter Winchell, U.S. journalist and broadcaster whose newspaper columns and radio broadcasts containing news and gossip gave him a massive audience and much influence in the United States in the 1930s, ’40s, and ’50s. Winchell was raised in New York City, and when he was 13 he left school to go

  • Winchell, Alexander (American geologist)

    geochronology: Completion of the Phanerozoic time scale: …conducted by another American geologist, Alexander Winchell, in the upper Mississippi valley area. Eventually the overlying strata, the coal-bearing rocks originally described from Pennsylvania, were formalized as Pennsylvanian in 1891 by the paleontologist and stratigrapher Henry Shaler Williams.

  • Winchell, Paul (American ventriloquist)

    Paul Winchell, (Paul Wilchin), American ventriloquist and voice-over artist (born Dec. 21, 1922, New York, N.Y.—died June 24, 2005, Moorpark, Calif.), was a familiar presence on television in the 1950s and ’60s, appearing first with his wisecracking dummy Jerry Mahoney and later adding the d

  • Winchell, Walter (American journalist)

    Walter Winchell, U.S. journalist and broadcaster whose newspaper columns and radio broadcasts containing news and gossip gave him a massive audience and much influence in the United States in the 1930s, ’40s, and ’50s. Winchell was raised in New York City, and when he was 13 he left school to go

  • Winchelsea (historic place, England, United Kingdom)

    Winchelsea, place in Rother district, administrative county of East Sussex, historic county of Sussex, England, with historical importance as a former English Channel port and as an example of medieval town planning. Old Winchelsea, reputed to have consisted of 700 houses, 50 inns, and numerous

  • Winchelsey, Robert (archbishop of Canterbury)

    Robert Winchelsey, archbishop of Canterbury who was a champion of clerical privilege and a leading opponent of kings Edward I and Edward II of England. Winchelsey became chancellor of Oxford University by 1288, and in 1293 he was elected archbishop of Canterbury. He clashed with Edward I by

  • Winchester (Virginia, United States)

    Winchester, city, seat (1738) of Frederick county (though administratively independent of it), northern Virginia, U.S. It lies at the northern end of the Shenandoah Valley, 70 miles (113 km) northwest of Washington, D.C. Pennsylvania Quakers first settled in the area in 1732. Fredericktown (as it

  • Winchester (England, United Kingdom)

    Winchester, town and city (district), in the central part of the administrative and historic county of Hampshire, England. It is best known for its medieval cathedral. The town lies in the valley of the River Itchen. Although few traces of the ancient Venta Belgarum remain, its central position in

  • Winchester (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Winchester: Winchester, town and city (district), in the central part of the administrative and historic county of Hampshire, England. It is best known for its medieval cathedral.

  • Winchester ’73 (film by Mann [1950])

    Anthony Mann: The 1950s: westerns: The Universal production Winchester ’73 (1950) signaled the beginning of a new phase in both his career and that of its star James Stewart, who did eight films with Mann. The plot was simple but sturdy: Lin McAdam (Stewart) must hunt down his brother, who has killed their…

  • Winchester Bible (Romanesque manuscript)

    Western painting: Late 12th century: …responsible for illuminating the great Winchester Bible in the 1170s. There, all traces of the elaborately patterned damp-fold drapery of mid-century painting have vanished, to be replaced by material that falls in tiny ripples and soft irregular undulations to reveal firm limbs beneath. A later, simplified, mannered, and frenzied version…

  • Winchester bushel (measurement)

    measurement system: The United States Customary System: …was derived from the “Winchester bushel,” a surviving standard dating to the 15th century, which had been replaced in the British Act of 1824. It might be said that the U.S. gallon and bushel, smaller by about 17 percent and 3 percent, respectively, than the British, remain more truly…

  • Winchester Cathedral (cathedral, Winchester, Hampshire, United Kingdom)

    art conservation and restoration: Techniques of building conservation: …ancient buildings had piled foundations—at Winchester, the cathedral was supported on oak piles, which rotted over the centuries. In order to underpin the structure, a diver worked for months in the waterlogged soil. Framed structures can move a great deal. The skeleton of a timber-framed medieval house can be extremely…

  • Winchester College (school, Winchester, England, United Kingdom)

    Winchester College, one of the oldest of the great public schools of England, in Winchester, Hampshire. Its formal name, St. Mary College of Winchester near Winchester, dates from 1382, when it was founded by Bishop William of Wykeham (q.v.) to prepare boys for his New College, Oxford, known as

  • Winchester disk (electronics)

    computer: Secondary memory: …with fixed platters known as Winchester disks—perhaps because the first ones had two 30-megabyte platters, suggesting the Winchester 30-30 rifle. Not only was the sealed disk protected against dirt, the R/W head could also “fly” on a thin air film, very close to the platter. By putting the head closer…

  • Winchester fives (sport)

    fives: Winchester fives: Winchester fives is a game confined to a few schools, there being no association or championships and few courts. The court is similar to the Rugby one, but a change of direction of the left-hand wall makes the court slightly narrower at the…

  • Winchester Mystery House (museum, San Jose, California, United States)

    San Jose: The contemporary city: The Winchester Mystery House, a 160-room Victorian mansion filled with unusual architectural features, was under construction continuously between 1884 and 1922 by the eccentric widow Sarah Winchester, heir to the fortune of the firearms-manufacturing company. It is maintained as a museum, as are Peralta Adobe (1797),…

  • Winchester Profession (Universalism)

    Winchester Profession, statement of Universalist faith adopted in 1803 by the General Convention of Universalists in the New England States at Winchester, N.H., U.S. The declaration was phrased in general terms to embrace differing Universalist views about the nature of God, God’s relationship to

  • Winchester Repeating Arms Company (American company)

    Oliver Fisher Winchester: … and ammunition who made the Winchester Repeating Arms Company a worldwide success by the shrewd purchase and improvement of the patented designs of other arms designers.

  • Winchester school (English art)

    Winchester school, painting style of English illuminated manuscripts produced primarily at Winchester but also at Canterbury and in various southern monasteries in the 10th and early 11th centuries. The Winchester style is characterized by boldness, incisiveness, and sumptuous ornament, many of

  • Winchester System (measurement)

    Imperial units: Early origins: …enforce uniformity took the name Winchester, after the ancient capital of Britain, where the 10th-century Saxon king Edgar the Peaceable kept a royal bushel measure and quite possibly others. Fourteenth-century statutes recorded a yard (perhaps based originally on a rod or stick) of 3 feet, each foot containing 12

  • Winchester Troper (music manuscript)

    canonical hours: Thus the Winchester Troper, a 10th- or 11th-century manuscript copied for services for Winchester Cathedral, contains one of the largest body of early two-part settings of the responsories for Matins. The Spanish Codex Calixtinus (about the 12th century) also includes two-part polyphony for the Matins responsories.

  • Winchester, Elhanan (American preacher and revivalist)

    Elhanan Winchester, American preacher and revivalist who helped to spread Universalism in the United States. Urged by the French-British theologian George de Benneville (1703–93) to read Universalist works, Winchester converted from Baptism to Universalism. He preached throughout the North American

  • Winchester, James Ridout (American-born Canadian singer-songwriter)

    Jesse Winchester, (James Ridout Winchester), American-born Canadian singer-songwriter (born May 17, 1944, Bossier City, La.—died April 11, 2014, Charlottesville, Va.), fled to Canada in 1967, after receiving a U.S. military draft notice, and subsequently lamented the loss of his homeland in

  • Winchester, Jesse (American-born Canadian singer-songwriter)

    Jesse Winchester, (James Ridout Winchester), American-born Canadian singer-songwriter (born May 17, 1944, Bossier City, La.—died April 11, 2014, Charlottesville, Va.), fled to Canada in 1967, after receiving a U.S. military draft notice, and subsequently lamented the loss of his homeland in

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