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  • Wisconsin, flag of (United States state flag)

    U.S. state flag consisting of a dark blue field (background) with a central coat of arms, the name of the state, and the date 1848.On March 25, 1863, Wisconsin adopted a blue flag bearing the state coat of arms on the obverse side and the national arms on the reverse. When the flag was readopted on

  • Wisconsin, University of (university system, Wisconsin, United States)

    University of Wisconsin, system of higher education of the state of Wisconsin, U.S. It comprises 13 four-year institutions and 13 two-year colleges. The four-year campuses are located in Eau Claire, Green Bay, Kenosha (Parkside), La Crosse, Madison, Menomonie (Stout), Milwaukee, Oshkosh,

  • Wisconsin–Madison, University of (university system, Wisconsin, United States)

    University of Wisconsin, system of higher education of the state of Wisconsin, U.S. It comprises 13 four-year institutions and 13 two-year colleges. The four-year campuses are located in Eau Claire, Green Bay, Kenosha (Parkside), La Crosse, Madison, Menomonie (Stout), Milwaukee, Oshkosh,

  • Wisdom (religion)

    Christianity: The doctrine of the Virgin Mary and holy Wisdom: The doctrine of the heavenly Wisdom (Sophia) represents an Eastern Church particularity. In late Judaism, speculations about the heavenly Wisdom—a figure beside God that presents itself to humanity as mediator in the work of creation as well as mediator of the knowledge of God—abounded. In Roman Catholic doctrine, Mary, the…

  • wisdom (philosophy)

    ethics: Aristotle: …distinguished between theoretical and practical wisdom. His conception of practical wisdom is significant, for it involves more than merely choosing the best means to whatever ends or goals one may have. The practically wise person also has the right ends. This implies that one’s ends are not purely a matter…

  • Wisdom Bridge Theatre (American theatrical ensemble)

    Robert Falls: …and Men in 1977 at Wisdom Bridge Theatre (founded 1974), Falls was asked to become the ensemble’s artistic director, a position he held until 1985.

  • wisdom literature

    biblical literature: Proverbs: Wisdom literature flourished throughout the ancient Near East, with Egyptian examples dating back to before the middle of the 3rd millennium bce. It revolved around the professional sages, or wise men, and scribes in the service of the court, and consisted primarily in maxims about…

  • Wisdom of Amenemope (ancient Egyptian literature)

    Middle Eastern religion: Literary sources of knowledge of ancient Middle Eastern religion: The Egyptian Wisdom of Amenemope, first published in modern times in 1923, for example, parallels Proverbs 22:17–24:22 so closely that it effectively opened up the field of the comparative study of ancient Middle Eastern wisdom literature.

  • Wisdom of God Manifested in the Works of the Creation, The (book by Ray)

    John Ray: Important publications: The Wisdom of God Manifested in the Works of the Creation (1691), an essay in natural religion that called on the full range of his biological learning, was his most popular and influential book. It argued that the correlation of form and function in organic…

  • Wisdom of the Sands, The (work by Saint-Exupéry)

    Antoine de Saint-Exupéry: …man appears in Citadelle (1948; The Wisdom of the Sands), a posthumous volume of reflections that show Saint-Exupéry’s persistent belief that man’s only lasting reason for living is as repository of the values of civilization.

  • Wisdom Overcoming the Vices (work by Mantegna)

    Andrea Mantegna: Years as court painter in Mantua: …Francesco Gonzaga in 1490, and Wisdom Overcoming the Vices (1502) for Isabella’s studiolo (a small room in the Gonzaga palace at Mantua embellished with fine paintings and carvings of mythological subjects intended to display the erudition and advanced taste of its patron). A third canvas intended for this program, with…

  • Wisdom, Book of (biblical literature)

    Wisdom of Solomon, an example of the “wisdom” genre of religious literature, which commends a life of introspection and reflection on human existence, especially from an ethical perspective. It is an apocryphal work (noncanonical for Jews and Protestants) but is included in the Septuagint (Greek

  • Wisdom, House of (historical site, Baghdad, Iraq)

    information processing: Inventory of recorded information: The Bayt al-?ikmah (“House of Wisdom”), founded in ad 830 in Baghdad, contained a public library with a large collection of materials on a wide range of subjects, and the 10th-century library of Caliph al-?akam in Cordova, Spain, boasted more than 400,000 books.

  • Wisdom, Jack (American physicist)

    celestial mechanics: Chaotic orbits: …region in the asteroid belt, Jack Wisdom, an American dynamicist who developed a powerful means of analyzing chaotic motions, found that the chaotic zone around this gap precisely matched the physical extent of the gap. There are no observable asteroids with orbits within the chaotic zone, but there are many…

  • Wisdom, John Minor (American jurist)

    John Minor Wisdom, American federal judge and legal scholar whose opinions in the 1950s and ’60s helped end racial segregation; appointed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit in 1957, he became widely known for his 1962 ruling that ordered the University of Mississippi to register and

  • Wisdom, Sir Norman (British comic)

    Sir Norman Wisdom, British comic (born Feb. 4, 1915, London, Eng.—died Oct. 4, 2010, Isle of Man, Eng.), was a master of physical knockabout comedy whose hapless but undaunted character delighted audiences for decades, most notably in the 1950s and ’60s, in movies, on television, and onstage. After

  • WISE (United States satellite)

    Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), U.S. satellite that observed astronomical objects at infrared wavelengths. It was launched on December 14, 2009, by a Delta II launch vehicle from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, into a polar orbit 500 km (310 miles) above Earth. WISE contained a

  • WISE 1049-5319 (astronomy)

    Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer: It discovered a brown-dwarf binary, WISE 1049?5319, which was the third nearest star system after Alpha Centauri and Barnard’s star; these two objects were also the closest brown dwarfs to the Sun. WISE was also sensitive to emissions from young distant galaxies in which stars are forming. Because these galaxies…

  • Wise Blood (film by Huston [1979])

    John Huston: Last films: …the screen another favourite project, Wise Blood (1979). Brad Dourif played a fanatical Southern evangelist in this adaptation of Flannery O’Connor’s darkly comic novel of the same name. Huston’s next film, the low-budget Hitchcockian thriller Phobia (1980), was arguably the nadir of his directorial career. Much better received was the…

  • Wise Blood (novel by O’Connor)

    Wise Blood, first novel by Flannery O’Connor, published in 1952. This darkly comic and disturbing novel about religious beliefs was noted for its witty characterizations, ironic symbolism, and use of Southern dialect. Wise Blood centres on Hazel Motes, a discharged serviceman who abandons his

  • Wise Guys (film by De Palma [1986])

    Brian De Palma: The 1980s and ’90s: …shifted gears with the comic Wise Guys (1986). Lacking the excesses or themes that were often criticized in his other works, it offered only the modest premise of Danny DeVito and Joe Piscopo as low-level New Jersey hoods who botch a job, earning the ire of the boss (Harvey Keitel).

  • Wise Men (biblical figures)

    Magi, in Christian tradition, the noble pilgrims “from the East” who followed a miraculous guiding star to Bethlehem, where they paid homage to the infant Jesus as king of the Jews (Matthew 2:1–12). Christian theological tradition has always stressed that Gentiles as well as Jews came to worship

  • Wise Men of Gotham (English legend)

    Wise Men of Gotham, in English legend, wise fools, villagers of Gotham, Nottinghamshire, Eng. The story is that, threatened by a visit from King John (reigned 1199–1216), they decided to feign stupidity and avoid the expense entailed by the residence of the court. Royal messengers found them

  • Wise Up Ghost and Other Songs (album by Costello and The Roots)

    Elvis Costello: … (2008); National Ransom (2010); and Wise Up Ghost, and Other Songs (2013), a collaboration with the band the Roots. He also cowrote (with Burnett) the Academy Award-nominated song “The Scarlet Tide” for the 2003 film Cold Mountain.

  • Wise Virgin (novel by Wilson)

    A.N. Wilson: …of The Healing Art (1980), Wise Virgin (1982), The Vicar of Sorrows (1993), and My Name Is Legion (2004). His other novels included works set in the past, such as Gentleman in England (1985); Love Unknown (1986); The Lampitt Papers, a novel sequence about a well-known biographer that included Incline…

  • Wise, Ernie (British entertainer)

    Ernie Wise, (Ernest Wiseman), British comedian and actor who, as a member (the one with “short, fat, hairy legs”) of Morecambe and Wise, one of the most beloved comedy teams on British television, played straight man to partner Eric Morecambe for over 40 years; the two were created O.B.E. in 1976

  • Wise, Isaac Mayer (American rabbi)

    Isaac Mayer Wise, rabbi whose goal of uniting American Jewry made him the greatest organizer of Reform Jewish institutions in the United States. After serving as a rabbi for two years in Radnice, Bohemia, Wise immigrated in 1846 to Albany, N.Y., where he was a rabbi for eight years. His

  • Wise, John (American colonial minister)

    John Wise, colonial American Congregational minister, theologian, and pamphleteer in support of liberal church and civil government. After graduating from Harvard College in 1673, Wise preached at Branford, Conn., and Hatfield, Mass. In 1680 he accepted a call to the newly organized church at

  • Wise, Robert (American director and producer)

    Robert Wise, American movie director and producer whose many works include successful films of nearly every genre, though he is best remembered for the two musicals for which he won Academy Awards as best director, West Side Story (1961) and The Sound of Music (1965), Demonstrating an unusual

  • Wise, Stephen Samuel (American Zionist leader)

    Stephen Samuel Wise, Reform rabbi, a leader of the Zionist movement in the United States, and a liberal activist who influenced the development of Reform Judaism in that country. Wise earned his Ph.D. at Columbia University in 1901 and received his rabbinical training from private teachers. After

  • Wise, Thomas James (British forger)

    forgery: Instances of literary forgery: Thomas James Wise (1859–1937) had the reputation of being one of the most distinguished private book collectors on either side of the Atlantic, and his Ashley Library in London became a place of pilgrimage for scholars from Europe and the United States. He constantly exposed…

  • Wiseman, Ernest (British entertainer)

    Ernie Wise, (Ernest Wiseman), British comedian and actor who, as a member (the one with “short, fat, hairy legs”) of Morecambe and Wise, one of the most beloved comedy teams on British television, played straight man to partner Eric Morecambe for over 40 years; the two were created O.B.E. in 1976

  • Wiseman, Frederick (American filmmaker)

    Frederick Wiseman, American filmmaker noted for his documentaries that examine the functioning of American institutions. Wiseman was educated at Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts (B.A., 1951), and at Yale Law School (L.L.B., 1954.). He practiced and taught law thereafter but remained

  • Wiseman, Joseph (Canadian-American actor)

    Dr. No: No (Joseph Wiseman), who owns a bauxite mine off the island’s coast. After arriving in Kingston, Bond meets CIA agent Felix Leiter (Jack Lord), who, with the help of local boatman Quarrel (John Kitzmiller), has been investigating Dr. No. After several attempts on Bond’s life, he…

  • Wiseman, Nicholas (English cardinal)

    Nicholas Wiseman, first cardinal resident in England since the Reformation and first archbishop of Westminster. He was one of the chief architects of the 19th-century revival of Roman Catholicism in England. Wiseman’s Irish parents emigrated to Spain, but after his father died, he and his mother

  • Wiseman, Nicholas Patrick Stephen (English cardinal)

    Nicholas Wiseman, first cardinal resident in England since the Reformation and first archbishop of Westminster. He was one of the chief architects of the 19th-century revival of Roman Catholicism in England. Wiseman’s Irish parents emigrated to Spain, but after his father died, he and his mother

  • wisent (mammal)

    Belovezhskaya Forest: …I, the European bison, or wisent, was reintroduced to the Belovezhskaya with zoo-bred animals. The forest remains the European bison’s most notable home, though the animals are now also found again in other parts of Europe, including Lithuania, Russia, and Ukraine. Once the hunting grounds of kings and tsars, the…

  • Wish You Were Here (album by Pink Floyd)

    Pink Floyd: The follow-up, Wish You Were Here (1975), included “Shine On You Crazy Diamond,” a song for Barrett, and, though it went to number one in both the United States and Britain, it was considered anticlimactic and pompous by many critics.

  • Wish You Were Here (novel by Swift)

    Graham Swift: Wish You Were Here (2011) concerns familial relations as well. Set in the aftermath of the death of a young man in the Iraq War, the novel investigates the ways in which changing geopolitics have intruded on the bucolic life of the English countryside. Mothering…

  • Wish, The (work by Cowley)

    tenor and vehicle: …stanza of Abraham Cowley’s poem “The Wish,” the tenor is the city and the vehicle is a beehive:

  • Wishart, George (Scottish religious reformer)

    George Wishart, an early martyr of the Reformation in Scotland. While a teacher of Greek at Montrose, Wishart was accused of heresy and went to Cambridge (1538), where he became acquainted with the Reformer Hugh Latimer, himself later martyred. In 1539 Wishart was sent to preach in Bristol, where

  • Wishaw (Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Motherwell and Wishaw: …neighbouring towns of Motherwell and Wishaw, North Lanarkshire council area, historic county of Lanarkshire, west-central Scotland, on the southeastern periphery of the Glasgow metropolitan area.

  • wishbone (anatomy)

    bird: Skeleton: …pectoral girdle consist of the wishbone (furcula) and the paired coracoids and shoulder blades (scapulae). The sword-shaped scapula articulates with the coracoid and upper “armbone” (humerus) and lies just dorsal to the rib basket. The coracoid articulates with the forward edge of the sternum and with the scapula, humerus, and…

  • Wisibada (Germany)

    Wiesbaden, city, capital of Hesse Land (state), southern Germany. It is situated on the right (east) bank of the Rhine River at the southern foot of the Taunus Mountains, west of Frankfurt am Main and north of Mainz. The settlement was known as a spa (Aquae Mattiacae) in Roman times. Its earthen

  • Wiskijan (American Indian mythology)

    American Subarctic peoples: Religious beliefs: …subject of many myths; and Wiskijan (Whiskeyjack), an amusing trickster (see trickster tale). “Wiitiko psychosis” refers to a condition in which an individual would be seized by the obsessive idea that he was turning into a cannibal with a compulsive craving for human flesh.

  • Wis?a (river, Poland)

    Vistula River, largest river of Poland and of the drainage basin of the Baltic Sea. With a length of 651 miles (1,047 kilometres) and a drainage basin of some 75,100 square miles (194,500 square kilometres), it is a waterway of great importance to the nations of eastern Europe; more than 85 percent

  • Wi?lanie (Slavic tribe)

    Kraków: History: …of the Wi?lanie tribe (Vistulans), who occupied Ma?opolska (Little Poland) until the 10th century. From 988 to 990 Mieszko I, prince of Poland, united the southern and northern territories to form a powerful kingdom, and his son, Boles?aw I (the Brave), later made Kraków the seat of a Polish…

  • Wi?lany, Zalew (lagoon, Baltic Sea)

    Vistula Lagoon, shallow, marsh-fringed lagoon on the Baltic coast, bisected by the Polish-Russian border and considered part of the Gulf of Gdańsk. Covering 330 square miles (855 square km), it is 56 miles (90 km) long, 6 to 15 miles (10 to 19 km) wide, and up to 17 feet (5 m) deep. The Nogat, the

  • Wi?lica, Statute of (Polish history)

    Poland: Casimir the Great: …that is often called the Statute of Wi?lica. In need of trained lawyers, he founded a university in Kraków (1364) modeled largely on that of Bologna. It was the second university east of the Rhine River and north of the Alps.

  • Wislicenus, Johannes Adolph (German chemist)

    Johannes Wislicenus, German chemist whose pioneering work led to the recognition of the importance of the spatial arrangement of atoms within a molecule. Wislicenus’s education included study at Harvard and Zürich, where he taught, prior to professorships elsewhere. He anticipated the structural

  • Wismar (Germany)

    Wismar, city, Mecklenburg–West Pomerania Land (state), northern Germany. It lies along Wismar Bay (Wismarbucht), an inlet of the Baltic Sea, east of Lübeck. First mentioned in 1229, it was chartered before 1250. Wismar was a member of the Hanseatic League, with most of its trade in herring and

  • Wi?niowiecki, Michael (king of Poland)

    Michael Wi?niowiecki, king of Poland (1669–73), whose reign was marked by struggles between the pro-Habsburg and pro-French political factions. A native Pole and descendant of Korybut, brother of King W?adys?aw II Jagie??o, Michael was freely elected by the unanimous vote of the Polish nobility;

  • Wispelaere, Paul de (Belgian-Flemish author and critic)

    Paul de Wispelaere, Flemish novelist, essayist, and critic whose avant-garde works examined the individual’s search for identity and the relationship between literature and life. De Wispelaere began his career as an editor for several literary periodicals. From 1972 to 1992 he was professor of

  • WISPEN–Africa (African organization)

    Leymah Gbowee: …of the founders of the Women Peace and Security Network–Africa (WISPEN-Africa), an organization active in several western African countries that encouraged the involvement of women in peace, security, and governance issues. She was named executive director of WISPEN-Africa the next year. Also in 2007 she received a master’s degree in…

  • Wissahickon schist (rock)
  • wisse (unit of measurement)

    Stere, metric unit of volume equal to one cubic metre, or 1,000 litres. The stere (from Greek stereos, “solid”) was originally defined by law and used in France in 1793, primarily as a measure for firewood. It is thus the metric counterpart of the cord, one standard cord (128 cubic feet of stacked

  • Wissel Lakes (lakes, Indonesia)

    Wissel Lakes, chain of three highland lakes located in the Sudirman Range of the Indonesian province of Papua (in western New Guinea). They comprise Paniai, the largest and northernmost; Tage, to its south; and Tigi, the southernmost. Situated at an elevation of about 5,750 feet (1,750 metres),

  • Wissembourg Gate (gate, Haguenau, France)

    Haguenau: …retains two 13th-century gates, the Wissembourg and Fishermen’s. The 12th-century church of Saint-Georges and the Gothic church of Saint-Nicolas (14th century) survive. A wide range of light manufacturing has developed in and around the town, including the manufacture of machine parts, precision engineering, and confections. Haguenau has become an administrative…

  • Wissenbacherschiefer (shale deposits, Germany)

    Devonian Period: Sediment types: …Europe the German Hunsrückschiefer and Wissenbacherschiefer are similar. The latter are frequently characterized by distinctive fossils, though rarely of the benthic variety, indicating that they were formed when seafloor oxygen levels were very low. Distinctive condensed pelagic limestones rich in fossil cephalopods occur locally in Europe and the Urals; these…

  • Wissenformen und die Gesellschaft, Die (work by Scheler)

    Max Scheler: …Wissenformen und die Gesellschaft (1924; The Forms of Knowledge and Society) was an introduction to his projected philosophical anthropology and metaphysics. His Die Stellung des Menschen im Kosmos (1928; Man’s Place in Nature) is a sketch for these projected major works. It offers a grandiose vision of a gradual, self-becoming…

  • Wissenschaft der Logik (work by Hegel)

    history of logic: Other 18th-century logicians: …refers early in his massive Science of Logic (1812–16) to the centuries of work in logic since Aristotle as a mere preoccupation with “technical manipulations.” He took issue with the claim that one could separate the “logical form” of a judgment from its substance—and thus with the very possibility of…

  • Wissenschaft des Judentums (German Jewish movement)

    Judaism: Developments in scholarship: …of scholars dedicated to the Wissenschaft des Judentums (“science of Judaism”).

  • Wissenschaftlich-humanit?res Komitee (gay rights organization)

    gay rights movement: The beginning of the gay rights movement: …with the founding of the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee (Wissenschaftlich-humanit?res Komitee; WhK) in Berlin. Their first activity was a petition to call for the repeal of Paragraph 175 of the Imperial Penal Code (submitted 1898, 1922, and 1925). The committee published emancipation literature, sponsored rallies, and campaigned for legal reform throughout Germany,…

  • Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung: Der Wiener Kreis (pamphlet published by Vienna Circle)

    positivism: The earlier positivism of Viennese heritage: …Viennese positivists published a pamphlet, Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung: Der Wiener Kreis (1929; “Scientific Conception of the World: The Vienna Circle”), which was to be their declaration of independence from traditional philosophy—and, in the minds of its authors (Carnap, Hahn, and Neurath, aided by Friedrich Waismann and Feigl), a “philosophy to end…

  • Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift für jüdische Theologie (Jewish publication)

    Abraham Geiger: …1835 helped to found the Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift für jüdische Theologie (“Scientific Journal of Jewish Theology”), which he then edited. In 1838 he became junior rabbi in Breslau (now Wroc?aw, Pol.), where his known Reform leanings aroused Orthodox opposition. Remaining in Breslau until 1863 (he became senior rabbi in 1843), Geiger…

  • Wissenschaftslehre (work by Bolzano)

    metalogic: Satisfaction of a theory by a structure: finite and infinite models: …to the book Wissenschaftslehre (1837; Theory of Science) by Bernhard Bolzano, a Bohemian theologian and mathematician, and, in a more concrete context, to the introduction of models of non-Euclidean geometries about that time. In the mathematical treatment of logic, these concepts can be found in works of the late 19th-century…

  • Wissler, Clark (American anthropologist)

    Clark Wissler, American anthropologist who developed the concept of culture area. Though educated as a psychologist (Ph.D., Columbia University, 1901), Wissler was drawn to anthropology through the influence of Franz Boas. Wissler was curator of the American Museum of Natural History in New York

  • Wissmann, Hermann von (German explorer)

    Hermann von Wissmann, German explorer who twice crossed the continent of Africa and added to the knowledge of the upper Congo River basin. His explorations led to the establishment of German colonies in East Africa. Wissmann left Luanda, Angola, in 1880 and traversed Africa to Sadani, Tanganyika,

  • Wissowa, Georg (German classical philologist)

    encyclopaedia: Other topics: …by another German Classical philologist, Georg Wissowa, in 1893. This enormous work on Classical studies has no equal in any part of the world, though it can be supplemented in some areas by the encyclopaedic series Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft (“Handbook of Antiquities”) begun in 1887.

  • Wistar, Caspar (American craftsman)

    South Jersey glass: …1870, following the example of Caspar Wistar. Though Wistar’s factory had closed in 1780, it had provided the impetus for the “South Jersey tradition.” The workmen were descendants of Wistar’s own German and Polish workers or new immigrants from Europe, and their style had its roots in the glass made…

  • wistaria (plant)

    Wisteria, (genus Wisteria), genus of 8–10 species of twining, usually woody vines of the pea family (Fabaceae). Wisterias are mostly native to Asia and North America but are widely cultivated in other regions for their attractive growth habit and beautiful profuse flowers. In some places outside

  • Wister, Owen (American novelist)

    Owen Wister, American novelist whose novel The Virginian (1902) helped establish the cowboy as a folk hero in the United States and the western as a legitimate genre of literature. The Virginian is the prototypical western novel and, arguably, the work most responsible for the romanticized view of

  • wisteria (plant)

    Wisteria, (genus Wisteria), genus of 8–10 species of twining, usually woody vines of the pea family (Fabaceae). Wisterias are mostly native to Asia and North America but are widely cultivated in other regions for their attractive growth habit and beautiful profuse flowers. In some places outside

  • Wisteria (plant)

    Wisteria, (genus Wisteria), genus of 8–10 species of twining, usually woody vines of the pea family (Fabaceae). Wisterias are mostly native to Asia and North America but are widely cultivated in other regions for their attractive growth habit and beautiful profuse flowers. In some places outside

  • Wisteria floribunda (plant)
  • Wisteria frutescens (plant)
  • Wisteria sinensis (plant)
  • Wiszniewski, Jack Beresford (British athlete)

    Jack Beresford, English sculler and oarsman who accumulated an outstanding record in the Olympics and at the Henley Royal Regatta. During World War I, Beresford was wounded in France in 1918. He then returned to London and joined his father’s furniture-manufacturing business. As a member of the

  • wit (human behaviour)

    Humour, communication in which the stimulus produces amusement. In all its many-splendoured varieties, humour can be simply defined as a type of stimulation that tends to elicit the laughter reflex. Spontaneous laughter is a motor reflex produced by the coordinated contraction of 15 facial muscles

  • Wit (television adaption of play)

    Mike Nichols: Later projects: Wit, Angels in America, Spamalot, and Death of a Salesman: Wit (2001), made for HBO, was a likelier project for Nichols. An adaptation of the Pulitzer Prize-winning play by Margaret Edson, it starred Thompson (who coscripted with Nichols) as a cancer-stricken English professor who reflects on key moments of her life as she undergoes chemotherapy…

  • Wit and its Relation to the Unconscious (work by Freud)

    comedy: The role of wit: Sigmund Freud, for example, in Wit and its Relation to the Unconscious (1905), said that wit is made, but humour is found. Laughter, according to Freud, is aroused at actions that appear immoderate and inappropriate, at excessive expenditures of energy: it expresses a pleasurable sense of the superiority felt on…

  • Wit Lavendel (Dutch dramatic society)

    rederijkerskamer: … (Dutch: Wild Briar) and the Wit Lavendel (Dutch: White Lavender), however, remained popular into the 17th century because of the leading Renaissance poets associated with them in Amsterdam.

  • Wit Works Woe (work by Griboyedov)

    Aleksandr Sergeyevich Griboyedov: …comedy Gore ot uma (Wit Works Woe) is one of the finest in Russian literature.

  • WITA (international sports organization)

    tennis: The open era: …which in 1986 became the Women’s International Tennis Association (WITA). Previous player unions had been ineffective, but the ATP showed itself a potent political force when the majority of its members boycotted Wimbledon in 1973 in a dispute over the eligibility of the Yugoslav pro Nikki Pilic. The women’s union…

  • witan (Anglo-Saxon council)

    Witan, the council of the Anglo-Saxon kings in and of England; its essential duty was to advise the king on all matters on which he chose to ask its opinion. It attested his grants of land to churches or laymen, consented to his issue of new laws or new statements of ancient custom, and helped h

  • Witbank (South Africa)

    Witbank, town, Mpumalanga province, South Africa, east of Pretoria. Established in 1890, it is at the centre of a coal-mining area in which more than 20 collieries operate. During the South African War, the young soldier-journalist Winston Churchill hid in a colliery near Witbank after his escape

  • Witbooi, Hendrik (South African chief)

    Southern Africa: Germans in South West Africa: …opponent of the Germans was Hendrik Witbooi, a Nama chief who tried unsuccessfully to unite the Herero and Nama against the Germans. After a lengthy guerrilla war, he was defeated in 1894.

  • witch (occultism)

    witchcraft: Meanings: The terms witchcraft and witch derive from Old English wiccecraeft: from wicca (masculine) or wicce (feminine), pronounced “witchah” and “witchuh,” respectively, denoting someone who practices sorcery; and from craeft meaning “craft” or “skill.” Roughly equivalent words in other European languages—such as sorcellerie (French), Hexerei (German), stregoneria (Italian), and brujería…

  • witch alder (plant)

    Fothergilla: …the species are also called witch alder, but especially F. gardenii, up to 1 m (3 feet) tall. The leaves of fothergillas turn brilliant shades of orange to crimson in autumn.

  • witch ball (glass sphere)

    Witch ball, a hollow glass sphere, sometimes as large as 7 inches (18 cm) in diameter. Witch balls are made in several colours, among which green and blue predominate. Its name is possibly a corruption of the 18th-century term watch ball. References to witch balls are found from the 18th century

  • witch doctor

    Witch doctor, a healer or benevolent worker of magic in a nonliterate society. The term originated in England in the 18th century and is generally considered to be pejorative and anthropologically inaccurate. See also medicine man;

  • witch eel (fish)

    eel: Annotated classification: Family Nettastomatidae (witch eels) No pectoral fins. 6 genera with about 40 species. Deepwater. Family Derichthyidae (longneck eels) Relatively long snout. 2 genera with 3 species. Bathypelagic. Family Ophichthidae (snake eels

  • witch hazel (plant)

    Witch hazel, (genus Hamamelis), any of five species of the genus Hamamelis (family Hamamelidaceae), all of which are shrubs and small trees that are native to eastern North America and eastern Asia. Some are grown for their yellow flowers, with four narrow, twisted ribbonlike petals, borne on warm

  • witch hazel family (plant family)

    Hamamelidaceae, the witch hazel family (order Saxifragales), comprising about 30 genera and about 100 species of shrubs and trees native to both tropical and warm temperate regions. Several species are cultivated as ornamentals. Members of the family are characterized by alternate simple leaves and

  • Witch of Agnesi (curve)

    Maria Gaetana Agnesi: …into English as the “Witch of Agnesi.” The French Academy of Sciences, in its review of the Instituzioni, stated that: “We regard it as the most complete and best made treatise.” Pope Benedict XIV was similarly impressed and appointed Agnesi professor of mathematics at the University of Bologna in…

  • Witch of Atlas, The (poem by Shelley)

    Percy Bysshe Shelley: …Gisborne” in heroic couplets and “The Witch of Atlas” in ottava rima (both 1820; published 1824) combine the mythopoeic mode of Prometheus Unbound with the urbane self-irony that had emerged in Peter Bell the Third, showing Shelley’s awareness that his ideals might seem naive to others. Late that year, Oedipus…

  • Witch of Buchenwald (German war criminal)

    Ilse Koch, German wife of a commandant (1937–41) of Buchenwald concentration camp, notorious for her perversion and cruelty. On May 29, 1937, she married Karl Otto Koch, a colonel in the SS who was commander of the Sachsenhausen camp. In the summer of 1937 he was transferred to Buchenwald, then a

  • Witch of Endor (biblical figure)

    Witch of Endor, in the Old Testament (1 Samuel 28:3–25), a female sorcerer who was visited by Saul, the first king of Israel. Although Saul had banished all sorcerers and conjurers from his kingdom, his concern about the final outcome of Israel’s battle against the Philistines caused him to seek

  • Witch of the North (fictional character)

    The Wonderful Wizard of Oz: Summary: The Witch of the North informs her that she is in the land of the Munchkins, who are grateful to her for having killed the Wicked Witch of the East (the house having landed on the witch), thus freeing them. The Witch of the North gives…

  • Witch of the Wave (American ship)

    ship: Shipping in the 19th century: Subsequently the Witch of the Wave (an American clipper) sailed from Canton to Deal, England, in 1852 in just 90 days. Similar feats of sailing were accomplished in Atlantic crossings. In 1854 the Lightning sailed 436 miles in a day, at an average speed of 18 12…

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