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  • Wols (German artist)

    drawing: Pen drawings: …of the 20th-century German artist Wols (Alfred Otto Wolfgang Schulze), which are sensitive to the slightest stirring of the hand, this theme leads to a new dimension transcending all traditional concepts of a representational art of drawing.

  • Wolseley, Garnet Joseph, 1st Viscount Wolseley of Wolseley, Baron Wolseley of Cairo and of Wolseley (British field marshal)

    Garnet Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley, British field marshal who saw service in battles throughout the world and was instrumental in modernizing the British army. The son of an army major, Wolseley entered the army as second lieutenant in 1852 and fought with distinction in the Second

  • Wolseley, Garnet, 1st Viscount Wolseley (British field marshal)

    Garnet Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley, British field marshal who saw service in battles throughout the world and was instrumental in modernizing the British army. The son of an army major, Wolseley entered the army as second lieutenant in 1852 and fought with distinction in the Second

  • Wolsey Gallery (gallery, Ipswich, Suffolk, United Kingdom)

    Christchurch Mansion: The Wolsey Gallery was built in 1931 at the back of the mansion as a memorial to Cardinal Wolsey, a native of Ipswich, on the 400th anniversary of his death. Major works by East Anglian artists hang in the gallery, including works by Thomas Gainsborough, John…

  • Wolsey, Cardinal (fictional character)

    Henry VIII: …duke of Buckingham, having denounced Cardinal Wolsey, lord chancellor to King Henry VIII, for corruption and treason, is himself arrested, along with his son-in-law, Lord Abergavenny. Despite the king’s reservations and Queen Katharine’s entreaties for justice and truth, Buckingham is convicted as a traitor on the basis of the false…

  • Wolsey, Thomas, Cardinal (English cardinal and statesman)

    Thomas, Cardinal Wolsey, cardinal and statesman who dominated the government of England’s King Henry VIII from 1515 to 1529. His unpopularity contributed, upon his downfall, to the anticlerical reaction that was a factor in the English Reformation. The son of a butcher of Ipswich, Wolsey was

  • Wolstenholme, Kenneth (British sports broadcaster)

    Kenneth Wolstenholme, British sports commentator (born July 17, 1920, Worsley, Lancashire [now in Greater Manchester], Eng.—died March 25, 2002, Torquay, Devon, Eng.), covered more than 2,000 association football (soccer) matches, 23 FA Cup finals, and five World Cups between 1948 and 1971, when h

  • Wolverhampton (England, United Kingdom)

    Wolverhampton: The early town was mainly an agricultural centre. With the development of the Staffordshire coal and ironstone deposits, Wolverhampton became known for its metal manufactures, especially from the late 18th century. A wide range of products is produced today, including paints and rubber tires, as well as…

  • Wolverhampton (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Wolverhampton, metropolitan borough, metropolitan county of West Midlands, historic county of Staffordshire, west-central England. It lies in the northwestern part of the industrial Black Country, near the farmlands of Shropshire and Staffordshire. The early town was mainly an agricultural centre.

  • Wolverine (fictional character)

    Wolverine, comic-book character whose gruff, violent disposition set the standard for later antiestablishment comic heroes. The character was created for Marvel Comics by writer Len Wein and artist John Romita, Sr. Wolverine—who possesses razor-sharp claws, the ability to rapidly heal virtually any

  • wolverine (mammal)

    Wolverine, (Gulo gulo), member of the weasel family (Mustelidae) that lives in cold northern latitudes, especially in timbered areas, around the world. It resembles a small, squat, broad bear 65–90 cm (26–36 inches) long, excluding the bushy, 13–26-cm (5–10-inch) tail; shoulder height is 36–45 cm

  • Wolverine, The (film by Mangold [2013])

    Hugh Jackman: The Wolverine, which told of his superhero character’s exploits in Japan, followed in 2013. That year he also starred as the father of a missing girl in Prisoners.

  • Wolves of Midwinter, The (work by Rice)

    Anne Rice: …The Wolf Gift (2012) and The Wolves of Midwinter (2013), represented a return to her Gothic roots. The novels follow a young werewolf as he becomes accustomed to his newly acquired supernatural abilities and metes out vigilante justice in contemporary northern California.

  • Wolves of Willoughby Chase, The (novel by Aiken)

    Joan Aiken: The Wolves of Willoughby Chase (1962) was her first novel to combine elements of history, horror, and adventure. Set in 19th-century England, the children’s book was the first in a series that included Black Hearts in Battersea (1964), The Whispering Mountain (1968), Dido and Pa…

  • Wo?yń (historical principality, Ukraine)

    Volhynia, area of northwestern Ukraine that was a principality (10th–14th century) and then an autonomous component of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and was ruled largely by its own aristocracy (after the late 14th century). The region became prominent during the 12th century, when many emigrants

  • Wolzogen, Baron Ernst von (German entertainer)

    cabaret: … was established in Berlin by Baron Ernst von Wolzogen. It retained the intimate atmosphere, entertainment platform, and improvisational character of the French cabaret but developed its own characteristic gallows humour. By the late 1920s the German cabaret gradually had come to feature mildly risqué musical entertainment for the middle-class man,…

  • Womack, Bobby (American singer, songwriter, and guitarist)

    Bobby Womack, American singer, songwriter, and guitarist whose soulful compositions and accomplished musicianship made him one of the most highly regarded rhythm-and-blues (R&B) performers of the late 20th century. Womack grew up in Cleveland as one of five brothers. When they were children, their

  • Womack, Robert Dwayne (American singer, songwriter, and guitarist)

    Bobby Womack, American singer, songwriter, and guitarist whose soulful compositions and accomplished musicianship made him one of the most highly regarded rhythm-and-blues (R&B) performers of the late 20th century. Womack grew up in Cleveland as one of five brothers. When they were children, their

  • WOMAD (international foundation)

    WOMAD, international music and arts foundation known primarily for its festivals, held in multiple locations across the globe each year. WOMAD was conceived in 1980 by a group of individuals—most notably Peter Gabriel (former leader of the British rock band Genesis)—who shared a love of the world’s

  • woman

    Gender Issues in Malawi: Women, many of whom not only raised children but also tended food crops to support their families—in some cases without the assistance of their husbands—often bore the greater burden. The situation began to change slowly after independence, as even the conservative Pres. Hastings Kamuzu Banda…

  • Woman (series by de Kooning)

    Action painting: …brushstrokes of de Kooning’s “Woman” series, begun in the early 1950s, successfully evolved a richly emotive expressive style. Action painting was of major importance throughout the 1950s in Abstract Expressionism, the most-influential art movement at the time in the United States. By the end of the decade, however, leadership…

  • Woman a Man Walked By, A (album by Harvey)

    PJ Harvey: …another collaboration with Parish—the wide-ranging A Woman a Man Walked By (2009). From the confrontational growl of the album’s title track to the softly spoken lines of “Cracks in the Canvas,” Harvey once again demonstrated that her voice was an instrument capable of conveying dramatic emotional range. She later surfaced…

  • Woman and Her Era (work by Farnham)

    Eliza Wood Burhans Farnham: …the preparation, was published as Woman and Her Era. In this work she expounded the natural superiority of women over men and attributed the disabilities laid on women in the practical spheres to the unconscious recognition by men that women were not meant to labour or serve on an equal…

  • Woman and Labour (work by Schreiner)

    Olive Schreiner: …“bible” of the Women’s Movement, Woman and Labour (1911).

  • Woman and Socialism (work by Bebel)

    August Bebel: …Frau und der Sozialismus (1883; Woman and Socialism), which went through many editions and translations. This book was the most powerful piece of SPD propaganda for decades. Above all, by its combination of science and prophecy, it served as a blueprint for German social democracy in the conditions produced by…

  • Woman and the Ape, The (novel by H?eg)

    Peter H?eg: …and Kvinden og aben (1996; The Woman and the Ape), in which the wife of an esteemed zoologist works to save an ape from death at the hands of the scientists studying him. After a decade during which he virtually disappeared, H?eg published Den stille pige (2006; The Quiet Girl),…

  • Woman and the Priest, The (work by Deledda)

    Grazia Deledda: title, The Mother), the tragedy of a mother who realizes her dream of her son’s becoming a priest only to see him yield to the temptations of the flesh. In these and others of her more than 40 novels, Deledda often used Sardinia’s landscape as a…

  • Woman Citizen, The (American periodical)

    The Woman Citizen, American weekly periodical, one of the most influential women’s publications of the early decades of the 20th century. It came into existence as a result of a substantial bequest from Mrs. Frank Leslie to Carrie Chapman Catt, the head of the National American Woman Suffrage

  • Woman Combing Her Hair (work by Archipenko)

    Western sculpture: Avant-garde sculpture (1909–20): …Alexander Archipenko in his “Woman Combing Her Hair” (1915) rendered the body by means of concavities rather than convexities and replaced the solid head by its silhouette within which there is only space.

  • Woman Holding a Balance (painting by Vermeer)

    Johannes Vermeer: Themes: …quality is particularly evident in Woman Holding a Balance (c. 1664). In this remarkable image, a woman stands serenely before a table that bears a jewelry box draped with strands of gold and pearls while she waits for her small handheld balance to come to rest. Although the subdued light…

  • Woman Holding Flowers (sculpture by Verrocchio)

    Andrea del Verrocchio: Paintings and sculptures: …his marble bust known as Lady with Primroses (also called Woman Holding Flowers) (1475–80). The latter work created a new type of Renaissance bust, in which the arms of the sitter are included in the manner of ancient Roman models. This compositional device allows the hands, as well as the…

  • Woman I Love, The (film by Litvak [1937])

    Anatole Litvak: The Hollywood years: Litvak’s first American film was The Woman I Love (1937), a World War I drama made at RKO. It starred Miriam Hopkins, whom Litvak later married (divorced 1939), and Paul Muni. Litvak then signed with Warner Brothers, and his first film for the studio was Tovarich (1937). The popular comedy…

  • Woman in a Chemise (work by Picasso)

    Pablo Picasso: Surrealism: …specifically pointed to the strange Woman in a Chemise (1913). Moreover, the idea of reading one thing for another, an idea implicit in Synthetic Cubism, seemed to coincide with the dreamlike imagery the Surrealists championed.

  • Woman in Blue Reading a Letter (painting by Vermeer)

    Johannes Vermeer: Themes: 1662/65), and Woman in Blue Reading a Letter (c. 1663), he utilized the laws of perspective and the placement of individual objects—chairs, tables, walls, maps, window frames—to create a sense of nature’s underlying order. Vermeer’s carefully chosen objects are never placed randomly; their positions, proportions, colours, and…

  • Woman in Gold (film by Curtis [2015])

    Helen Mirren: Later films: In Woman in Gold (2015) Mirren portrayed Maria Altmann, a Jewish refugee who successfully sued the Austrian government to recover paintings by Gustav Klimt stolen from her family by the Nazis during World War II. Eye in the Sky (2015) featured Mirren as a British colonel…

  • Woman in Me, The (album by Twain [1995])

    Shania Twain: …Twain released her second album, The Woman in Me. It was a critical and commercial success, selling more than 18 million copies and winning a Grammy Award for country album of the year.

  • Woman in Red, The (film by Wilder [1984])

    Gene Wilder: …films as Hanky Panky (1982), The Woman in Red (1984), and Haunted Honeymoon (1986). Many of Wilder’s later credits were for television. He notably won an Emmy Award (2003) for a guest appearance on the sitcom Will &amp; Grace.

  • Woman in the Dunes (film by Teshigahara)

    motion picture: Intensity, intimacy, ubiquity: …film Suna no onna (1964; Woman in the Dunes), for example, a pervading theme of the film is indicated by shots of grains of sand many times enlarged.

  • Woman in the Dunes, The (novel by Abe Kōbō)

    The Woman in the Dunes, novel by Abe Kōbō, published in Japanese as Suna no onna in 1962. This avant-garde allegory is esteemed as one of the finest Japanese novels of the post-World War II period; it was the first of Abe’s novels to be translated into English. The protagonist of The Woman in the

  • Woman in the Fifth, The (film by Pawlikowski [2011])

    Pawel Pawlikowski: His next film, The Woman in the Fifth (2011), a psychological thriller, received generally positive reviews. Pawlikowski then directed the acclaimed Ida (2013). Set in Poland in 1962, Ida follows a novitiate Roman Catholic nun who—after discovering that she was born Jewish—sets out on a journey with her…

  • Woman in the Nineteenth Century (work by Fuller)

    Margaret Fuller: …remembered for her landmark book Woman in the Nineteenth Century (1845), which examined the place of women within society.

  • Woman in the Window, The (film by Lang [1944])

    Fritz Lang: Films of the 1940s: The Woman in the Window (1944) was one of his most nightmarish dramas. Skillfully adapted by Nunnally Johnson from an obscure novel, it starred Edward G. Robinson as a married college professor who becomes involved with the woman (Joan Bennett) who is the subject of…

  • Woman in White, The (musical by Lloyd Webber)

    Trevor Nunn: …RNT, Nunn directed Lloyd Webber’s The Woman in White (2004), Tom Stoppard’s Rock ’n’ Roll (2006), and Stephen Sondheim’s A Little Night Music (2008). He joined the Theatre Royal Haymarket as resident artistic director for the 2011–12 season and directed four plays, including Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead and…

  • Woman in White, The (novel by Collins)

    The Woman in White, novel by Wilkie Collins, published serially in All the Year Round (November 1859–July 1860) and in book form in 1860. Noted for its suspenseful plot and unique characterization, the successful novel brought Collins great fame; he adapted it into a play in 1871. This dramatic

  • Woman Is a Woman, A (film by Godard [1961])

    Anna Karina: …Femme est une femme (1961; A Woman Is a Woman), a lonely, pathetic prostitute in Vivre sa vie (1962; My Life to Live), and a member of a gang of alienated youths who attempt a robbery in Bande à part (1964; Band of Outsiders). In 1965 she starred in three…

  • Woman Kilde with Kindnesse, A (play by Heywood)

    Thomas Heywood: His masterpiece, A Woman Killed with Kindness (1607), is one of the earliest middle-class tragedies. His plays were so popular that they were sometimes performed at two theatres simultaneously. His charming masque Love’s Mistress (1636) was seen by Charles I and his queen three times in eight…

  • Woman Killed with Kindness, A (play by Heywood)

    Thomas Heywood: His masterpiece, A Woman Killed with Kindness (1607), is one of the earliest middle-class tragedies. His plays were so popular that they were sometimes performed at two theatres simultaneously. His charming masque Love’s Mistress (1636) was seen by Charles I and his queen three times in eight…

  • Woman Musician (painting by Braque)

    Georges Braque: Cubism: …geometric, strongly coloured, nearly abstract Woman Musician and some still lifes in a similar manner. Rapidly, however, he moved away from austere geometry toward forms softened by looser drawing and freer brushwork, as seen in Still Life with Playing Cards (1919). From that point onward his style ceased to evolve…

  • Woman of Andros, The (novel by Wilder)

    The Woman of Andros, play by Terence, produced in 166 bce as Andria. It has also been translated as The Andrian Girl. Terence adapted it from the Greek play Andria by Menander and added material from Menander’s Perinthia (The Perinthian Girl). The relationship of a father, Simo, and his son,

  • Woman of Her Age, A (novel by Ludwig)

    Jack Ludwig: …successful in his third novel, A Woman of Her Age (1973), with his portrait of an 85-year-old former radical whose compassion lends strength to those around her. Many critics, however, thought him unable to sustain plot and characters in his full-length fiction and found his greatest strength to be in…

  • Woman of Means, A (work by Taylor)

    Peter Taylor: In his 1950 novella A Woman of Means, regarded by many as his finest work, a young narrator recalls his wealthy stepmother’s nervous collapse and reveals the tension between her city ways and his father’s rural values.

  • Woman of No Importance, A (teleplay by Bennett)

    English literature: Drama: …dramatic monologues written for television—A Woman of No Importance (1982) and 12 works he called Talking Heads (1987) and Talking Heads 2 (1998). In these television plays, Bennett’s comic genius for capturing the rich waywardness of everyday speech combines with psychological acuteness, emotional delicacy, and a melancholy consciousness of…

  • Woman of No Importance, A (play by Wilde)

    Oscar Wilde: A second society comedy, A Woman of No Importance (produced 1893), convinced the critic William Archer that Wilde’s plays “must be taken on the very highest plane of modern English drama.” In rapid succession, Wilde’s final plays, An Ideal Husband and The Importance of Being Earnest, were produced early…

  • Woman of the Year (film by Stevens [1942])

    George Stevens: Swing Time, Gunga Din, and Woman of the Year: Woman of the Year (1942) was the first teaming of Spencer Tracy and Katharine Hepburn, and some consider it their best vehicle. Garson Kanin came up with the original notion of having a gruff sportswriter (Tracy) woo and marry an upper-crust political columnist (Hepburn). When…

  • Woman of Willendorf (sculpture)

    Venus of Willendorf, Upper Paleolithic female figurine found in 1908 at Willendorf, Austria, that is perhaps the most familiar of some 40 small portable human figures (mostly female) that had been found intact or nearly so by the early 21st century. (Roughly 80 more exist as fragments or partial

  • Woman on Pier 13, The (film by Stevenson [1949])

    Robert Stevenson: Early films: …the decade with the frenetic I Married a Communist (1949; also known as The Woman on Pier 13). Robert Ryan played a businessman being blackmailed by members of the Communist Party, who threaten to expose his earlier involvement with the group if he fails to help them; Laraine Day was…

  • Woman on the Beach (film by Renoir [1947])

    Joan Bennett: …by Jean Renoir’s dark melodrama Woman on the Beach (1947). In 1950 she won acclaim for a comic role as the mother in Father of the Bride.

  • Woman Peeling Apples (painting by Motley)

    Archibald Motley: …of darker-skinned women, such as Woman Peeling Apples, exhibit none of the finery of the Creole women. Motley’s intent in creating those images was at least in part to refute the pervasive cultural perception of homogeneity across the African American community.

  • Woman Reading (painting by Matisse)

    Henri Matisse: Formative years: …the Salon society, and his Woman Reading (1894) was purchased by the government. From this point onward he became increasingly confident and venturesome, both as an artist and as a man. During the next two years he undertook expeditions to Brittany, met the veteran Impressionist Camille Pissarro, and discovered the…

  • Woman Rebel, The (work by Sanger)

    birth control: Early advocates: …she started a magazine, The Woman Rebel, to challenge laws restricting the distribution of information on birth control. She was indicted and fled to Europe, but when she returned to stand trial in 1916 the charges against her were dropped. Later that year she opened a family planning clinic in…

  • Woman Rebels, A (film by Sandrich [1936])

    Mark Sandrich: Sandrich made A Woman Rebels (1936), a proto-feminist period piece with Katharine Hepburn. It was one of Hepburn’s string of mid-1930s commercial failures, though the film later drew praise from contemporary viewers. Sandrich reunited with Astaire and Rogers on Shall We Dance (1937); while the formula was…

  • woman suffrage

    Women’s suffrage, the right of women by law to vote in national or local elections. Women were excluded from voting in ancient Greece and republican Rome, as well as in the few democracies that had emerged in Europe by the end of the 18th century. When the franchise was widened, as it was in the

  • Woman Sweeping (painting by Vuillard)

    édouard Vuillard: …seen in paintings such as Woman Sweeping (1899–1900). Because of their focus on intimate interior scenes, both Vuillard and Bonnard were also called Intimists.

  • Woman Taken in Adultery, The (painting by Rembrandt)

    Rembrandt van Rijn: The myth of Rembrandt’s fall: …highly detailed images, such as The Woman Taken in Adultery (1644) and The Supper at Emmaus (1648), Rembrandt eventually seems to have sought the solution to his artistic “crisis” in a style grafted onto that of the late Titian, a style that was only effective when the painting was seen…

  • Woman Under the Influence, A (film by Cassavetes [1974])

    John Cassavetes: Independent filmmaker: 1960s and ’70s: …Cassavetes returned to psychodrama with A Woman Under the Influence (1974), a harrowing, unrelievedly raw portrait of a Los Angeles housewife’s nervous breakdown. Although the story was originally intended as a stage vehicle for Rowlands, it was brought to the screen instead by Cassavetes’s newly formed Faces International production company.…

  • Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts, The (memoir by Kingston)

    Maxine Hong Kingston: …Kingston published her first book, The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts. It combines myth, family history, folktales, and memories of the experience of growing up within two conflicting cultures. The book was an immediate critical success, winning the 1976 National Book Critics’ Circle Award for nonfiction. In…

  • Woman Who Fell from the Sky, The (poetry by Harjo)

    Joy Harjo: The Woman Who Fell from the Sky (1994) is concerned with the opposing forces of creation and destruction in modern society. Her other poetry collections include What Moon Drove Me to This? (1979); Secrets from the Center of the World (1989), prose poetry, with photographs…

  • Woman Who Had Two Navels, The (novel by Joaquin)

    Nick Joaquin: The novel The Woman Who Had Two Navels (1961) examines his country’s various heritages. A Portrait of the Artist as Filipino (1966), a celebrated play, attempts to reconcile historical events with dynamic change. The Aquinos of Tarlac: An Essay on History as Three Generations (1983) presents a…

  • Woman Who Owned the Shadows, The (work by Allen)

    Paula Gunn Allen: Her first novel, The Woman Who Owned the Shadows (1983), weaves traditional tribal songs, rituals, and legends into the story of a woman of mixed heritage whose struggle for survival is aided by Spider Grandmother, a figure from ancient tribal mythology. In The Sacred Hoop: Recovering the Feminine…

  • Woman Who Walked into Doors, The (novel by Doyle)

    Roddy Doyle: The Woman Who Walked into Doors (1996) and its sequel, Paula Spencer (2006), concern the ramifications of domestic abuse and alcoholism.

  • Woman Who Was Poor, The (novel by Bloy)

    Léon Bloy: …and La Femme pauvre (1897; The Woman Who Was Poor), express his mystical conception of woman as the Holy Spirit and of love as a devouring fire. The eight volumes of his Journal (written 1892–1917; complete edition published 1939) reveal him as a crusader of the absolute, launching onslaughts against…

  • Woman Who Watches Over the World, The (memoir by Hogan)

    Linda Hogan: …World (1995) and the memoir The Woman Who Watches Over the World (2001).

  • Woman with 100 Heads, The (collage novel by Ernst)

    Max Ernst: …returned to collage and created The Woman with 100 Heads, his first “collage novel”—a sequence of illustrations assembled from 19th- and 20th-century reading material and a format which he is credited with having invented. Soon afterward he created the collage novels A Little Girl Dreams of Taking the Veil (1930)…

  • Woman with a Pearl Necklace (painting by Vermeer)

    Johannes Vermeer: Themes: 1662), Woman with a Pearl Necklace (c. 1662/65), and Woman in Blue Reading a Letter (c. 1663), he utilized the laws of perspective and the placement of individual objects—chairs, tables, walls, maps, window frames—to create a sense of nature’s underlying order. Vermeer’s carefully chosen objects are…

  • Woman with Loaves (work by Picasso)

    Pablo Picasso: The move to Paris and the Rose Period: …to Gosol in 1906 (Woman with Loaves).

  • Woman with Pears (work by Picasso)

    Pablo Picasso: Les Demoiselles d’Avignon: …paintings related to it, including Woman with Pears (1909).

  • Woman with Plants (painting by Wood)

    Grant Wood: …his mother in this style, Woman with Plants (1929), did not attract attention, but in 1930 his American Gothic caused a sensation when it was exhibited at the Art Institute of Chicago. The hard, cold realism of this painting and the honest, direct, earthy quality of its subject were unusual…

  • Woman with the Hat (work by Matisse)

    Fauvism: He exhibited his famous Woman with the Hat (1905) at the 1905 exhibition. In this painting, brisk strokes of colour—blues, greens, and reds—form an energetic, expressive view of the woman. The crude paint application, which left areas of raw canvas exposed, was appalling to viewers at the time.

  • Woman Without Eden (work by Conde)

    Spanish literature: Women poets: …and Mujer sin Edén (1947; Woman Without Eden). The latter implicitly equated the fall of the Spanish Republican government with the Fall of Man, also using Cain and Abel motifs to symbolize the country’s Civil War. Slightly younger, María Concepción Zardoya González, who wrote under the name Concha Zardoya, published…

  • Woman’s American Baptist Foreign Mission Society (American organization)

    Lucy Whitehead McGill Waterbury Peabody: …department of the newly unified Woman’s American Baptist Foreign Mission Society (WABFMS), and she was instrumental in transforming the Interdenominational Conference into the more effective Federation of Women’s Boards of Foreign Missions in 1916. She made a world tour of inspection of missions from 1913 to 1914 and another from…

  • Woman’s Board of Home Missions (Methodist organization)

    Belle Harris Bennett: …presidency of the newly organized Woman’s Board of Home Missions. Under her the board became active in the field of urban missions, and a system of more than 40 segregated community houses was established throughout the South. In 1902 she successfully urged the board to set up a program of…

  • Woman’s Building (building, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Sophia Hayden: …of her design for the Woman’s Building of the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago. The building was the only design of Hayden’s that was ever built.

  • Woman’s Christian Temperance Union

    Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), American temperance organization, founded in November 1874 in Cleveland, Ohio, in response to the “Woman’s Crusade,” a series of temperance demonstrations that swept through New York and much of the Midwest in 1873–74. Annie Wittenmyer, an experienced

  • Woman’s Head (sculpture by Picasso)

    Western sculpture: Avant-garde sculpture (1909–20): …revolutionary sculpture is Picasso’s “Woman’s Head” (1909). The sculptor no longer relied upon traditional methods of sculpture or upon his sensory experience of the body; what was given to his outward senses of sight and touch was dominated by strong conceptualizing. The changed and forceful appearance of the head…

  • Woman’s Hospital (hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Ann Preston: …War in 1861, but the Woman’s Hospital opened later that year. The Woman’s Medical College, operating under a new charter, opened the following year. In 1863 Preston worked with Emeline H. Cleveland, chief resident of Woman’s Hospital, to establish a training school for nurses, and in 1866 Preston was chosen…

  • Woman’s Journal (American periodical)

    Woman’s Journal, American weekly suffragist periodical, first published on January 8, 1870, by Lucy Stone and her husband, Henry Blackwell, to address a broad segment of middle-class female society interested in women’s rights. As an official publication of the American Woman Suffrage Association

  • Woman’s Life, A (work by Maupassant)

    Guy de Maupassant: Mature life and works: …his novel Une Vie (1883; A Woman’s Life). This book, which sympathetically treats its heroine’s journey from innocent girlhood through the disillusionment of an unfortunate marriage and ends with her subsequent widowhood, records what Maupassant had observed as a child, the little dramas and daily preoccupations of ordinary people. He…

  • Woman’s Medical College (medical college, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Clara Marshall: …and course offerings at the Women’s Medical College.

  • Woman’s Medical College of the New York Infirmary for Women and Children (medical college, New York City, New York, United States)

    Mary Putnam Jacobi: Elizabeth Blackwell’s Woman’s Medical College of the New York Infirmary for Women and Children. The quality of her own education had highlighted for her the meagreness of that available to most women aiming for a medical career, and in 1872 she organized the Association for the Advancement…

  • Woman’s Missionary Council (Methodist organization)

    Belle Harris Bennett: …became president of the unified Woman’s Missionary Council, responsible for both home and foreign mission work, and she retained the post until her death. She was particularly active in the establishment of a woman’s college (later named for her) in Rio de Janeiro and of the Woman’s Christian Medical College…

  • Woman’s National Liberal Union

    Matilda Joslyn Gage: …former organization to found the Woman’s National Liberal Union (WNLU), of which she was thereafter president. The WNLU reflected in particular Gage’s belief that the established churches were a major bulwark of male supremacist teaching, a view she expanded on in her book Woman, Church, and State (1893).

  • Woman’s National Press Association (American organization)

    Emily Pomona Edson Briggs: …elected first president of the Woman’s National Press Association upon its organization in 1882. In later years she became a noted Washington hostess. In 1906 a collection of her columns was published in volume form as The Olivia Letters.

  • Woman’s Peace Party (American organization)

    Woman’s Peace Party (WPP), American organization that was established as a result of a three-day peace meeting organized by Jane Addams and other feminists in response to the beginning of World War I in Europe in 1914. The conference, held in January 1915 in Washington, D.C., brought together women

  • Woman’s Secret, A (film by Ray [1949])

    Nicholas Ray: First films: …undistinguished second film as director, A Woman’s Secret (1949)—which starred Gloria Grahame, who would become his second wife—came and went largely unnoticed. On loan from RKO, with whom he had signed a long-term contract, Ray then made his next film for Humphrey Bogart’s Santana production company. The earnest but stilted…

  • woman’s tongue tree (plant species)

    albizia: Indian albizia, or siris (A. lebbek), native to tropical Asia and Australia, grows about 24 metres tall and bears pods 23–30 cm long. Both species are common ornamental trees.

  • Woman’s Vengeance, A (film by Korda [1948])

    Zoltan Korda: Also notable is the suspenseful A Woman’s Vengeance (1948), adapted by Aldous Huxley from his story “The Gioconda Smile,” with Charles Boyer as an unfaithful husband on trial for the murder of his wife.

  • Woman’s World (film by Negulesco [1954])

    Jean Negulesco: Millionaire and Three Coins: Woman’s World (1954) was another glossy production, with Webb as an automobile executive whose search for a new manager includes meeting the candidates’ wives; it starred June Allyson, Van Heflin, Fred MacMurray, and Lauren Bacall. Negulesco then directed Fred Astaire in the musical Daddy Long…

  • womb (anatomy)

    Uterus, an inverted pear-shaped muscular organ of the female reproductive system, located between the bladder and the rectum. It functions to nourish and house a fertilized egg until the fetus, or offspring, is ready to be delivered. The uterus has four major regions: the fundus is the broad curved

  • womb envy (psychology)

    Karen Horney: She introduced the concept of womb envy, suggesting that male envy of pregnancy, nursing, and motherhood—of women’s primary role in creating and sustaining life—led men to claim their superiority in other fields.

  • wombat (marsupial)

    Wombat, (family Vombatidae), any of three large terrestrial species of Australian marsupials. Like woodchucks, wombats are heavily built and virtually tailless burrowers with small eyes and short ears. Wombats, however, are larger, measuring 80 to 120 cm (31 to 47 inches) long. Chiefly nocturnal

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