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  • Wood, John Turtle (British archaeologist)

    Ephesus: Excavations and extant remains: J.T. Wood, working at Ephesus for the British Museum between 1863 and 1874, excavated the odeum and theatre. In May 1869 he struck a corner of the Artemiseum. His excavation exposed to view not only the scanty remains of the latest edifice (built after 350…

  • Wood, John, the Elder (English architect)

    John Wood the Elder, English architect and town planner who established the physical character of the resort city of Bath. Wood the Elder transformed Bath by adapting the town layout to a sort of Roman plan, emphasizing the processional aspect of social life during the period. Though some of his

  • Wood, John, the Younger (British architect)

    John Wood the Younger , British architect whose work at Bath represents the culmination of the Palladian tradition initiated there by his father, John Wood the Elder. Bath is one of the most celebrated achievements in comprehensive town design. The younger Wood apparently served as assistant to his

  • Wood, Katharine Page (Irish nationalist)

    William Henry O'Shea and Katharine O'Shea: In 1867 he married Katharine, sixth daughter of the Rev. Sir John Page Wood of Rivenhall Place, Essex. The O’Sheas had one son, Gerard, and two daughters. It is not clear when O’Shea became aware of the existence of intimate relations between his wife and Parnell, though he and…

  • Wood, Leonard (United States general)

    Leonard Wood, medical officer who became chief of staff of the U.S. Army and governor general of the Philippine Islands (1921–27). A graduate of Harvard Medical School (1884), Wood began his military career the next year as a civilian contract surgeon with the U.S. Army in the Southwest, achieving

  • Wood, Lucy Maria (English author)

    Lucy Boston, English writer whose 12th-century country home became the setting of her children’s books. Boston left the University of Oxford after only two terms to train as a nurse; she worked at a military hospital in France during World War I and married Harold Boston, a cousin and flying corps

  • Wood, Margaret (United States senator)

    Maggie Hassan, American politician who was elected to the U.S. Senate as a Democrat in 2016 and began representing New Hampshire the following year. She previously served as the state’s governor (2013–17). Wood’s father, Robert Coldwell Wood, taught political science at the Massachusetts Institute

  • Wood, Mary Elizabeth (American librarian and missionary)

    Mary Elizabeth Wood, American librarian and missionary, whose efforts brought numerous libraries to China and established a strong program in that country to train librarians. Wood grew up and attended public schools in Batavia, New York, where she was later librarian of the Richmond Library

  • Wood, Matilda Alice Victoria (British actress)

    Marie Lloyd, foremost English music-hall artiste of the late 19th century, who became well known in the London, or Cockney, low comedy then popular. She first appeared in 1885 at the Eagle Music Hall under the name Bella Delmare. Six weeks later she adopted her permanent stage name. T.S. Eliot

  • Wood, Maud (American suffragist)

    Maud Wood Park, American suffragist whose lobbying skills and grasp of legislative politics were successfully deployed on behalf of woman suffrage and welfare issues involving women and children. Park attended St. Agnes School in Albany, New York, and after graduating in 1887 she taught school for

  • Wood, Mervyn Thomas (Australian rower and police commissioner)

    Mervyn Thomas Wood, Australian rower and police commissioner (born April 30, 1917, Sydney, Australia—died Aug. 19?, 2006, Australia), won three medals at four Olympic Games over a 20-year career; he was the only person to carry the Australian national flag in the opening ceremony twice (1952 and 1

  • Wood, Mrs. Henry (British author)

    Mrs. Henry Wood, English novelist who wrote the sensational and extremely popular East Lynne (1861), a melodramatic and moralizing tale of the fall of virtue. Translated into many languages, it was dramatized with great success, and its plot has been frequently imitated in popular fiction. Other

  • Wood, Natalie (American actress)

    Natalie Wood, American film actress who transitioned from child stardom to a successful movie career as an adult. She was best known for ingenue roles that traded on her youthful appeal. Zackharenko was born to Russian immigrant parents. She began appearing in movies at age five and received her

  • Wood, Ralph, III (English potter)

    Wood Family: Ralph Wood III (1781–1801) continued the firm after his father’s death.

  • Wood, Ralph, Jr. (English potter)

    Staffordshire figure: , and Ralph Wood, Jr., and the modeler Jean Voyez. Nineteenth-century figures, mostly portraits of English and American personages, such as Queen Victoria and George Washington, were often vivacious and colourful but rather crude. Most 19th-century figures were theatrical in origin, and these are very much sought, but…

  • Wood, Ralph, Sr. (English potter)

    pottery: 18th-century developments: …glazes were also used by Ralph Wood I (1715–72) of Burslem, Staffordshire, for decorating an excellently modelled series of figures in a creamware (lead-glazed earthenware) body, the finest, perhaps, a mounted Hudibras in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Many of these figures are attributed to the modeller Jean Voyez, who…

  • Wood, Robert (British architect)

    Western architecture: Origins and development: …Roman and Greek antiquities was Robert Wood’s Ruins of Palmyra (1753), which was followed in 1757 by the same author’s Ruins of Balbec and by the Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalatro in Dalmatia, written in 1764 by the English Neoclassical architect and designer Robert Adam.

  • Wood, Robert E. (American executive)

    Robert E. Wood, U.S. business executive under whose leadership Sears, Roebuck and Co. grew to become the world’s largest merchandising company. Wood, a graduate of the U.S. Military Academy in 1900, was sent in 1905 to the Panama Canal Zone and worked with Gen. George W. Goethals, then in charge of

  • Wood, Robert Elkington (American executive)

    Robert E. Wood, U.S. business executive under whose leadership Sears, Roebuck and Co. grew to become the world’s largest merchandising company. Wood, a graduate of the U.S. Military Academy in 1900, was sent in 1905 to the Panama Canal Zone and worked with Gen. George W. Goethals, then in charge of

  • Wood, Robert Williams (American physicist)

    Robert Williams Wood, American physicist who extended the technique of Raman spectroscopy, a useful method of studying matter by analyzing the light scattered by it. In 1897 Wood was the first to observe field emission, charged particles emitted from a conductor in an electric field. This

  • Wood, Ron (British musician)

    Jeff Beck: vocalist Rod Stewart and bassist Ron Wood. On Truth (1968) and Beck-Ola (1969), the band pioneered a fierce, overdriven approach to the blues that lay the groundwork for early heavy metal.

  • Wood, Sam (American director)

    Sam Wood, American filmmaker who was one of Hollywood’s leading directors in the 1930 and ’40s, during which time he made such classics as A Night at the Opera (1935), Goodbye, Mr. Chips (1939), and The Pride of the Yankees (1942). After trying his hand as a gold prospector in Nevada and a

  • Wood, Samuel Grosvenor (American director)

    Sam Wood, American filmmaker who was one of Hollywood’s leading directors in the 1930 and ’40s, during which time he made such classics as A Night at the Opera (1935), Goodbye, Mr. Chips (1939), and The Pride of the Yankees (1942). After trying his hand as a gold prospector in Nevada and a

  • Wood, Sir Charles (British politician)

    education: Indian universities: …Indian education is marked by Sir Charles Wood’s epoch-making Dispatch of 1854, which led to (1) the creation of a separate department for the administration of education in each province, (2) the founding of the universities of Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras in 1857, and (3) the introduction of a system…

  • Wood, Sir Henry J. (British musician)

    Sir Henry J. Wood, conductor, the principal figure in the popularization of orchestral music in England in his time. Originally an organist, Wood studied composition at the Royal Academy of Music, London, from 1886. In 1889 he toured as a conductor with the Arthur Rousbey Opera Company and later

  • Wood, Sir Henry Joseph (British musician)

    Sir Henry J. Wood, conductor, the principal figure in the popularization of orchestral music in England in his time. Originally an organist, Wood studied composition at the Royal Academy of Music, London, from 1886. In 1889 he toured as a conductor with the Arthur Rousbey Opera Company and later

  • Wood, Victoria (British comedian, actress, screenwriter, and producer)

    Victoria Wood, British comedian, actress, screenwriter, and producer (born May 19, 1953, Prestwich, Lancashire, Eng.—died April 20, 2016, London, Eng.), was one of Britain’s most-popular stand-up comics and TV stars for more than 40 years. Although Wood’s droll humour could be perceived as biting

  • Wood, William (English ironmaster [circa 1648])

    Boston: Settlement and growth: …was described in 1634 by William Wood in his New England’s Prospect as “fittest for such as can Trade into England, for such commodities as the Country wants, being the chiefe place for shipping and Merchandize.” With the triumph of the Puritan Party in England in 1648, people moved freely…

  • Wood, William (English ironmaster [circa 1723])

    Ireland: The 18th century: ” William Wood, an English manufacturer, had been authorized to mint coins for Ireland; the outcry against this alleged exploitation by the arbitrary creation of a monopoly became so violent that it could be terminated only by withdrawing the concession from Wood.

  • wood-block print (art)

    Woodcut, technique of printing designs from planks of wood incised parallel to the vertical axis of the wood’s grain. It is one of the oldest methods of making prints from a relief surface, having been used in China to decorate textiles since the 5th century ce. In Europe, printing from wood blocks

  • wood-core kanshitsu (craftwork)

    kanshitsu: …hollow; and wood-core kanshitsu (mokushin), in which a hemp-cloth coating is applied over a core carved of wood. Vessels are made by the hollow kanshitsu method, sculpture by either method.

  • Wood–Forbes Mission (United States history)

    Wood–Forbes Mission, (1921), fact-finding commission sent to the Philippines by newly elected U.S. president Warren Harding in March 1921, which concluded that Filipinos were not yet ready for independence from the United States. In 1913 Woodrow Wilson had appointed the liberal Francis B. Harrison

  • wood-swallow (bird genus)

    Woodswallow, (genus Artamus), any of about 16 species of songbirds constituting the family Artamidae (order Passeriformes). Woodswallows are found from eastern India, Southeast Asia, and the Philippines southward to Australia and Tasmania. They resemble swallows in wing shape and aerial feeding

  • Woodall Mountain (mountain, Mississippi, United States)

    Woodall Mountain, highest point in Mississippi, U.S., reaching an elevation of 806 feet (246 metres) above sea level. It lies in Tishomingo county in the extreme northeastern part of the state, just southwest of Iuka in the westernmost foothills of the southern Appalachians. During the American

  • Woodard, Alfre (American actress)

    Martin Ritt: Last films: …Torn (best supporting actor) and Alfre Woodard (best supporting actress).

  • Woodard, Mary (American philanthropist)

    Albert Lasker: …Lasker and his third wife, Mary Lasker (née Woodard), set up a foundation, the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation, to distribute medical research grants and awards. Mary Lasker, an art dealer, carried on his philanthropies in medicine and public health after her husband’s death.

  • Woodard, Nathaniel (British priest)

    Nathaniel Woodard, Anglican priest and founder of middle class public schools. An Oxford graduate (1840), he was ordained a priest in 1842. Although he was not an outstanding scholar, he possessed a genius for organization and for attracting funds. He saw the need for good schools for the middle

  • woodbine (common name of several species of vine)

    Woodbine, any of many species of vines belonging to a number of flowering-plant families, especially the Virginia creeper (q.v.; Parthenocissus quinquefolia) of North America and a Eurasian species of honeysuckle (q.v.; Lonicera

  • woodbine honeysuckle (plant)

    sweetbrier: …denote, it is thought, the woodbine honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum), which is still called eglantine in northeastern Yorkshire.

  • woodblock (art)

    Woodcut, technique of printing designs from planks of wood incised parallel to the vertical axis of the wood’s grain. It is one of the oldest methods of making prints from a relief surface, having been used in China to decorate textiles since the 5th century ce. In Europe, printing from wood blocks

  • Woodbridge (New Jersey, United States)

    Woodbridge, township, Middlesex county, eastern New Jersey, U.S. It lies across the Arthur Kill (a narrow channel) that separates New Jersey from Staten Island, New York City, and is 4 miles (6 km) north of Perth Amboy, New Jersey. The community was settled in 1665 by Puritans from Massachusetts

  • Woodbridge (England, United Kingdom)

    Woodbridge, town (parish) in Suffolk Coastal district, administrative and historic county of Suffolk, eastern England. It lies at the head of the River Deben estuary, about 10 miles (16 km) from the North Sea. The community was originally a Saxon settlement near the site of the Sutton Hoo ship

  • Woodbridge, George Charles (American cartoonist and illustrator)

    George Charles Woodbridge, American cartoonist and illustrator (born Oct. 3, 1930, Flushing, Queens, N.Y.—died Jan. 20, 2004, Staten Island, N.Y.), had his beautifully detailed cross-hatched pen-and-ink drawings—caricatures and satiric works—featured in nearly every issue of Mad magazine for a

  • Woodbury, Helen Laura Sumner (American economist)

    Helen Laura Sumner Woodbury, American economist whose investigative work centred largely on historical and contemporary labour issues, particularly in relation to women and children. Helen Sumner grew up in Wisconsin and Colorado. In 1898 she graduated from Wellesley (Massachusetts) College, where

  • Woodbury, Levi (United States jurist)

    Levi Woodbury, American politician who was an associate justice of the Supreme Court from 1846 to 1851. Woodbury graduated from Dartmouth College in 1809, and after studying law he was admitted to the bar in 1812. He thereafter served as an associate justice of the New Hampshire Superior Court

  • woodburytype process (photography)

    history of photography: Social documentation: Thomson’s images were reproduced by Woodburytype, a process that resulted in exact, permanent prints but was costly because it required hand mounting for each individual print. This pursuit was continued by John Barnardo, who, beginning in the 1870s, photographed homeless children in London for the purpose of both record keeping…

  • woodcarving

    lacquerwork: Chinese carved lacquer: The carved lacquer of China (diaoqi) is particularly noteworthy. In this the lacquer was built up in the method described above, but to a considerable thickness. When several colours were used, successive layers of each colour of uniform thickness were arranged in the order in which…

  • woodchuck (rodent)

    Groundhog, (Marmota monax), one of 14 species of marmots (Marmota), considered basically a giant North American ground squirrel. It is sometimes destructive to gardens and pasturelands. Classified as a marmot, the groundhog is a member of the squirrel family, Sciuridae, within the order Rodentia.

  • woodcock (bird)

    Woodcock, any of five species of squat-bodied, long-billed birds of damp, dense woodlands, allied to the snipes in the waterbird family Scolopacidae (order Charadriiformes). The woodcock is a startling game bird: crouched among dead leaves, well camouflaged by its buffy-brown, mottled plumage, a

  • Woodcock, George (English labour leader)

    George Woodcock, English labour leader who was general secretary of the Trades Union Congress (TUC) from 1960 to 1969. A weaver at the age of 12, Woodcock won a scholarship to Ruskin College in 1929 and then received high honours in philosophy and political economy at Oxford in 1933. He joined the

  • Woodcock, George (Canadian writer)

    George Woodcock, Canadian poet, critic, historian, travel writer, playwright, scriptwriter, and editor, whose work, particularly his poetry, reflects his belief that revolutionary changes would take place in society. Woodcock’s family returned to England soon after he was born. Too poor to attend

  • Woodcock, Leonard Freel (American labour leader and diplomat)

    Leonard Freel Woodcock, American labour leader and diplomat (born Feb. 15, 1911, Providence, R.I.—died Jan. 16, 2001, Ann Arbor, Mich.), served as president of the United Automobile Workers (UAW) from 1970 to 1977. Woodcock dropped out of Detroit City College for financial reasons in 1933 and w

  • woodcreeper (bird)

    Woodcreeper, any of about 50 species of tropical American birds constituting the subfamily Dendrocolaptinae, family Furnariidae, order Passeriformes. Some authorities classify the birds as a separate family (Dendrocolaptidae). Woodcreepers work their way up the trunks of trees, probing the bark and

  • woodcut (art)

    Woodcut, technique of printing designs from planks of wood incised parallel to the vertical axis of the wood’s grain. It is one of the oldest methods of making prints from a relief surface, having been used in China to decorate textiles since the 5th century ce. In Europe, printing from wood blocks

  • wooded steppe

    Russia: Wooded steppe and steppe: The southward succession is continued by the wooded steppe, which, as its name suggests, is transitional between the forest zone and the steppe proper. Forests of oak and other species (now largely cleared for agriculture) in the European section and birch…

  • wooded tundra (ecosystem)

    Russia: Tundra: …birch, and shrub willow; and wooded tundra, with more extensive areas of stunted birch, larch, and spruce. There are considerable stretches of sphagnum bog. Apart from reindeer, which are herded by the indigenous population, the main animal species are the Arctic foxes, musk oxen, beavers, lemmings, snowy owls, and ptarmigan.

  • Wooden, John (American basketball coach)

    John Wooden, American basketball coach who directed teams of the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) to 10 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) championships in 12 seasons (1964–65, 1967–73, 1975). Several of his UCLA players became professional basketball stars, notably Lew

  • Wooden, John Robert (American basketball coach)

    John Wooden, American basketball coach who directed teams of the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) to 10 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) championships in 12 seasons (1964–65, 1967–73, 1975). Several of his UCLA players became professional basketball stars, notably Lew

  • Wooderson, Sydney Charles (British athlete)

    Sydney Charles Wooderson, British athlete (born Aug. 30, 1914, London, Eng.—died Dec. 21, 2006, Wareham, Dorset, Eng.), was one of the great middle-distance runners of the 1930s and ’40s, setting world records in the 800 m (1 min 48.4 sec; set in 1938), 880 yd (1 min 49.2 sec; in 1938), t

  • Woodfall Films Productions (British company)

    history of the motion picture: Great Britain: …budgets (many of them for Woodfall Film Productions, the company founded in 1958 by Richardson and playwright John Osborne, one of the principal Angry Young Men, to adapt the latter’s Look Back in Anger), but their freshness of both content and form attracted an international audience. Some of the most…

  • Woodford Shale (shale basin, Oklahoma, United States)

    shale gas: Shale gas resources of the United States: …mainly in northern Arkansas; the Woodford Shale, mainly in Oklahoma; and the Haynesville Shale, straddling the Texas-Louisiana state line. The Barnett Shale was the proving ground of horizontal drilling and fracking starting in the 1990s; more than 10,000 wells have been drilled in that basin. Other shale basins are found…

  • Woodford, Jeanne (American warden)

    San Quentin State Prison: Reforms and renovations: San Quentin’s first female warden, Jeanne Woodford, served from 1999 to 2004. A vocal advocate of rehabilitation, she instituted a wide range of programs.

  • Woodger, Joseph H. (British biologist and logician)

    axiomatic method: Woodger has done in The Axiomatic Method in Biology (1937) and Clark Hull (for psychology) in Principles of Behaviour (1943). See also axiom.

  • Woodhead Commission (British history)

    Palestine: The Arab Revolt: The Woodhead Commission, under Sir John Woodhead, was set up to examine the practicality of partition. In November 1938 it recommended against the Peel Commission’s plan—largely on the ground that the number of Arabs in the proposed Jewish state would be almost equal to the number…

  • Woodhead Tunnel (United Kingdom)

    tunnels and underground excavations: Canal and railroad tunnels: 5-mile tunnel (the Woodhead) of the Manchester-Sheffield Railroad (1839–45) was driven from five shafts up to 600 feet deep. In the United States, the first railroad tunnel was a 701-foot construction on the Allegheny Portage Railroad. Built in 1831–33, it was a combination of canal and railroad systems,…

  • Woodhead, Samuel (British hoaxer)

    Piltdown man: …that a friend of Dawson’s, Samuel Woodhead, was a confederate, having access to bones and to chemicals for supplying and doctoring the specimens. Another possible participant in the scheme was Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, a French Jesuit priest and paleontologist who accompanied Dawson on his first joint excavations at Piltdown…

  • woodhewer (bird)

    Woodcreeper, any of about 50 species of tropical American birds constituting the subfamily Dendrocolaptinae, family Furnariidae, order Passeriformes. Some authorities classify the birds as a separate family (Dendrocolaptidae). Woodcreepers work their way up the trunks of trees, probing the bark and

  • Woodhouse, Emma (fictional character)

    Emma Woodhouse, fictional character, the attractive and intelligent but meddlesome heroine of Jane Austen’s Emma

  • Woodhull and Claflin’s Weekly (American magazine)

    Victoria Woodhull: …profits they founded in 1870 Woodhull and Claflin’s Weekly, a women’s rights and reform magazine that espoused such causes as a single moral standard for men and women, legalized prostitution, and dress reform. Much of each issue was written by Stephen Pearl Andrews, promoter of the utopian social system he…

  • Woodhull, Abraham (American patriot and master spy)

    Culper Spy Ring: …of two of its members: Abraham Woodhull (code-named Samuel Culper) and Robert Townsend (code-named Culper, Jr.). It comprised several other agents, including Caleb Brewster, Austin Roe, Anna Strong, Hercules Mulligan, and Townsend’s paramour, known today only by her code name “355.”

  • Woodhull, Nancy Jane (American journalist)

    Nancy Jane Woodhull, American journalist who began as a reporter and worked her way up to become one of the founding editors of USA Today, president of the Gannett News Service, and editor in chief of Time Warner’s Southern Progress Corp.; an avid champion of equal rights for women, she was a

  • Woodhull, Victoria (American social reformer)

    Victoria Woodhull, unconventional American reformer, who at various times championed such diverse causes as woman suffrage, free love, mystical socialism, and the Greenback movement. She was also the first woman to run for the U.S. presidency (1872). Born into a poor and eccentric family, Victoria

  • woodie (bird)

    Wood duck, (Aix sponsa), small colourful North American perching duck (family Anatidae), a popular game bird. Once in danger of extinction from overhunting and habitat destruction, the species has been saved by diligent conservation efforts. Wood ducks nest in tree cavities up to 15 metres (50

  • Woodiwiss, Kathleen (American novelist)

    Kathleen Woodiwiss, (Kathleen Erin Hogg), American romance novelist (born June 3, 1939, Alexandria, La.—died July 6, 2007, Princeton, Minn.), was the author of 14 hefty bodice rippers, and she was credited with being the first to salt historical fiction with steamy sex scenes. Her paperbacks,

  • woodland

    Africa: Human influences: Within the tropical forests and woodlands, fire undoubtedly has been the great human agent of clearance and degradation, of far greater efficacy than felling, bark-ringing, or uprooting—at least until the introduction of modern plantation agriculture and logging. Hunters, pastoralists, and cultivators have all fired the land for centuries and have…

  • Woodland (California, United States)

    Woodland, city, seat (1862) of Yolo county, central California, U.S. It lies in the Sacramento Valley, 20 miles (30 km) northwest of Sacramento. It was founded in 1853 by Henry Wyckoff and was first known as Yolo City; the present name, suggested by its location in a grove of oak trees, was adopted

  • Woodland Cree (people)

    Cree: Traditionally, the Woodland Cree, also called Swampy Cree or Maskegon, relied for subsistence on hunting, fowling, fishing, and collecting wild plant foods. They preferred hunting larger game such as caribou, moose, bear, and beaver but relied chiefly on hare for subsistence because of the scarcity of the…

  • Woodland Crematorium (Stockholm, Sweden)

    Gunnar Asplund: His Woodland Crematorium (1935–40) in Stockholm, a modern masterpiece, makes extensive use of columns that, though starkly modern, convey a feeling of classical dignity and serenity.

  • Woodland cultures (ancient North American Indian cultures)

    Woodland cultures, prehistoric cultures of eastern North America dating from the 1st millennium bc. A variant of the Woodland tradition was found on the Great Plains. Over most of this area these cultures were replaced by the Mississippian culture (q.v.) in the 1st millennium ad, but in some

  • woodland garden

    gardening: Woodland gardens: The informal woodland garden is the natural descendant of the shrubby “wilderness” of earlier times. The essence of the woodland garden is informality and naturalness. Paths curve rather than run straight and are of mulch or grass rather than pavement. Trees are thinned…

  • woodland jumping mouse (rodent)

    jumping mouse: The woodland jumping mouse (Napaeozapus insignis) lives in moist forests of eastern North America. The meadow, Pacific, and western jumping mice (Zapus hudsonius, Z. trinotatus, and Z. princeps, respectively) range over much of North America, in grasslands as well as riverine and wet meadow habitats of…

  • woodland reindeer (mammal)

    reindeer: …or ecotypes: tundra reindeer and forest (or woodland) reindeer. Tundra reindeer migrate between tundra and forest in huge herds numbering up to half a million in an annual cycle covering as much as 5,000 km (3,000 miles). Forest reindeer are much less numerous.

  • woodland strawberry (plant)

    strawberry: Major species: The woodland, or alpine, strawberry (F. vesca) can be found throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere and bears small intensely flavourful fruits. Common North American species include the Virginia wild strawberry (F. virginiana) and the beach, or coastal, strawberry (F. chiloensis).

  • woodland vole (rodent)

    Woodland vole, (Microtus pinetorum), a small mouselike rodent of the eastern United States that is well adapted to burrowing, as reflected by its slender, cylindrical body, strong feet, and large front claws. The very small eyes and ears are hidden in short, dense molelike fur; prominent whiskers

  • Woodland, N. Joseph (American inventor)

    N(orman) Joseph Woodland, American inventor (born Sept. 6, 1921, Atlantic City, N.J.—died Dec. 9, 2012, Edgewater, N.J.), conceived and, with Bernard Silver, devised the ubiquitous data-encoding symbol now known as the UPC or bar code. Woodland and Silver were graduate students at the Drexel

  • Woodland, Norman Joseph (American inventor)

    N(orman) Joseph Woodland, American inventor (born Sept. 6, 1921, Atlantic City, N.J.—died Dec. 9, 2012, Edgewater, N.J.), conceived and, with Bernard Silver, devised the ubiquitous data-encoding symbol now known as the UPC or bar code. Woodland and Silver were graduate students at the Drexel

  • Woodlanders, The (novel by Hardy)

    The Woodlanders, novel by Thomas Hardy, published serially in Macmillan’s Magazine from 1886 to 1887 and in book form in 1887. The work is a pessimistic attack on a society that values high status and socially sanctioned behaviour over good character and honest emotions. The story begins as Grace

  • Woodlark Island (island, Papua New Guinea)

    Muyua Island, coral island of Papua New Guinea, southwestern Pacific Ocean, approximately 150 miles (240 km) northeast of the southeasternmost point of the island of New Guinea, Solomon Sea. Muyua’s rough surface of raised coral pinnacles (rising to 1,200 feet [365 metres] in the south) is covered

  • Woodlawn Organization, The (organization, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Saul Alinsky: …his most notable successes with The Woodlawn Organization, one of the first successful efforts in the country to organize black inner-city residents.

  • woodpecker (bird)

    Woodpecker, any of about 180 species of birds that constitute the subfamily Picinae (true woodpeckers) of the family Picidae (order Piciformes), noted for probing for insects in tree bark and for chiseling nest holes in deadwood. Woodpeckers occur nearly worldwide, except in the region of Australia

  • woodpecker finch (bird)

    Woodpecker finch, species of Galápagos

  • Woodpecker, Woody (animated character)

    Walter Lantz: His most famous creation was Woody Woodpecker, who first appeared in a bit part in the cartoon short Knock, Knock (1940) and who became the star of a long-running series of cartoons the following year. Lantz’s wife, Gracie, provided Woody’s voice, and renowned voice artist Mel Blanc originated Woody’s familiar…

  • woodrat (rodent)

    Woodrat, (genus Neotoma), any of 20 species of medium-sized North and Central American rodents. Some species are commonly known as “packrats” for their characteristic accumulation of food and debris on or near their dens. These collections, called “middens,” may include bones, sticks, dry manure,

  • Woodrofe, Nicholas (lord mayor of London)

    Shakespeare and the Liberties: …the city walls evolved what Nicholas Woodrofe, lord mayor of London in 1580, regarded as an “incontinent” form of drama:

  • Woodroffe, Mount (mountain, South Australia, Australia)

    Musgrave Ranges: …3,500 feet (1,100 m), including Mount Woodroffe (4,708 feet [1,435 m]), the state’s highest point. Sighted in 1873 by the English explorer William C. Gosse and crossed in that year by Gosse and Ernest Giles, the hills were named for Sir Anthony Musgrave, then lieutenant governor of South Australia. In…

  • Woodrow Wilson: Life and Letters (work by Baker)

    Ray Stannard Baker: …prolonged ill health, Baker wrote Woodrow Wilson: Life and Letters, 8 vol. (1927–39). He was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for the work in 1940.

  • woodruff (herb)

    Woodruff, any of various species of plants of a genus (Asperula) belonging to the madder family, Rubiaceae. The woodruff is found growing wild in woods and shady places in many countries of Europe, and its leaves are used as herbs. The genus Asperula includes annuals and perennials, usually with

  • Woodruff’s Grove (Michigan, United States)

    Ypsilanti, city, Washtenaw county, southeastern Michigan, U.S. It lies along the Huron River just east of Ann Arbor. The settlement of Woodruff’s Grove was established on the Huron River in 1823, near the site of a French trading post (1809–19). In 1824 surveying crews for a proposed

  • Woodruff, George (American coach)

    gridiron football: Knute Rockne and the influence of coaches: … at the University of Chicago, George Woodruff at Pennsylvania, and Lorin Deland at Harvard, the coaches who developed the V trick, ends back, tackles back, guards back, flying wedge, and other mass formations that revolutionized, and nearly destroyed, the game in the 1890s. The most influential of the early coaches…

  • Woodruff, Hale (American painter, draftsman, printer, and educator)

    Hale Woodruff, American painter, draftsman, printer, and educator who is probably best known for his murals, especially the Amistad mutiny murals (1939) at the Savery Library at Talladega College in Alabama. The murals tell the story of the mutiny aboard the slave ship Amistad, the trial of the

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