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  • worsted knitting yarn (textile)

    Worsted knitting yarn, wool yarn made of long-staple fibres that have been combed to remove undesirable short fibres and make them lie parallel. In the spinning operation, which imparts the necessary twist to hold the fibres together, worsted yarns are more tightly twisted than are the bulkier

  • wort (malt extract)

    beer: Mixing the mash: …brewing, in which highly concentrated worts are made, fermented, and then diluted, allowing more beer to be brewed on the same equipment.

  • Wortels, Abraham (Flemish cartographer)

    Abraham Ortelius, Flemish cartographer and dealer in maps, books, and antiquities, who published the first modern atlas, Theatrum orbis terrarum (1570; “Theatre of the World”). Trained as an engraver, Ortelius about 1554 set up his book and antiquary business. About 1560, under the influence of

  • Worth Island (island, Pacific Ocean)

    Howland Island, coral atoll, unincorporated territory of the United States. It lies in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, about 1,650 miles (2,650 km) southwest of Honolulu. The atoll rises to 20 feet (6 metres), is 1.5 miles (2.4 km) long by 0.5 mile (0.8 km) wide, and has a land area of less than

  • Worth of Women, The (work by Fonte)

    feminism: The ancient world: …Il merito delle donne (1600; The Worth of Women), a feminist broadside by another Venetian author, Moderata Fonte, was published posthumously. Defenders of the status quo painted women as superficial and inherently immoral, while the emerging feminists produced long lists of women of courage and accomplishment and proclaimed that women…

  • W?rth, Battle of (1870, Franco-German War)

    Franco-German War: The French collapse and the siege of Paris: …suffering a check at the Battle of W?rth on August 6, 1870, the commander of the French right (south) wing, Marshal Patrice Mac-Mahon, retreated westward. That same day, about 40 miles (65 km) to the northeast, the commander of the French left wing, Marshal Achille Bazaine, was dislodged from near…

  • Worth, Charles Frederick (English designer)

    Charles Frederick Worth, pioneer fashion designer and one of the founders of Parisian haute couture. In 1845 Worth left London, where he had worked in a yard-goods firm, for Paris, where he was employed in a dress accessories shop. His timing was propitious, as the creation of the Second Empire

  • Worth, Irene (American actress)

    Irene Worth, American actress noted for her versatility and aristocratic bearing. Although she had her greatest success on the stages of London’s West End, she also earned three Tony awards for her work on Broadway. Worth trained as a teacher at the University of California, Los Angeles (B.Ed.,

  • Worth, Lake (lake, Florida, United States)

    Palm Beach: …the Atlantic Ocean (east) and Lake Worth (west). The latter, actually a lagoon (part of the Intracoastal Waterway), is bridged to West Palm Beach. In 1878 a shipwrecked cargo of coconuts was washed onto the barren, sandy beach and took root. Early settlers also gathered the nuts and planted them…

  • Worthenia (fossil gastropod genus)

    Worthenia, genus of extinct gastropods (snails) preserved as common fossils in rocks of Devonian to Triassic age (416 million to 200 million years old) but especially characteristic of Late Carboniferous deposits (318 million to 299 million years old) in the midcontinent region of North America.

  • Worthing (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Worthing, borough (district), administrative county of West Sussex, historic county of Sussex, England, on the English Channel. Shoreham-by-Sea, in neighbouring Adur district to the east, is the administrative centre. Road and railway links to London, 58 miles (93 km) northwest, have spurred

  • Worthington (Ohio, United States)

    Worthington, city, Franklin county, central Ohio, U.S. It lies along the Olentangy River and is a northern suburb of Columbus. Planned in 1803 by the Scioto Land Company, it was first settled by New England families led by James Kilbourne, who named it for Thomas Worthington, U.S. senator and

  • Worthington (North Dakota, United States)

    Valley City, city, seat (1879) of Barnes county, southeastern North Dakota, U.S. It lies in the Sheyenne River valley, about 60 miles (100 km) west of Fargo. Before settlement, Cheyenne, Sioux, Cree, and Ojibwa Indians hunted in the area. The community was founded in 1872 with the coming of the

  • Worthington, Thomas (English editor)

    Douai-Reims Bible: …Martin (the chief translator), and Thomas Worthington, who provided the Old Testament annotations, was instrumental in its production. They undertook the work—initiated by Allen—in order to provide English-speaking Roman Catholics with an authoritative Roman Catholic version of the Bible, as an alternative to the several Protestant translations then in existence.…

  • Wosera (people)

    Oceanic art and architecture: The Sepik River regions: …form was repeated among the Wosera on a huge scale as a ritual headpiece made of feathers.

  • Wosien, Bernard (German dancer)

    folk dance: Dancing for enlightenment: …developed by the German dancer Bernard Wosien, who encountered circle-type folk dances in his European travels and was impressed with the spirituality they inspired in him. He found an established spiritual and ecological community at Findhorn, Scot., and joined the group in 1976. More dance groups formed in Scotland and…

  • Wotan (Norse deity)

    Odin, one of the principal gods in Norse mythology. His exact nature and role, however, are difficult to determine because of the complex picture of him given by the wealth of archaeological and literary sources. The Roman historian Tacitus stated that the Teutons worshiped Mercury; and because

  • WOTE (Canadian music group)

    Walk off the Earth, Canadian music group that gained a reputation for their playful videos of cover songs and unique blend of folk, rock, pop, and reggae. The band gained an international following in 2012 with their cover of the Gotye song “Somebody That I Used to Know,” which the five band

  • Wotruba, Fritz (Austrian sculptor)

    Fritz Wotruba, Austrian sculptor of spare, architectonic images of the human form. Wotruba learned engraving at age 14; in 1925–26 he was the student of sculptor Anton Hanak. Wrought in hard stone with a coarse texture, his early works were representational, but they became more abstract as he

  • Wottitz, Walter (French cinematographer)
  • Wottle, Dave (American athlete)

    Dave Wottle, American runner who won a gold medal at the 1972 Olympics in Munich. Wottle was a member of the Bowling Green (Ohio) State University track team, winning the 1,500-metre race at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) championships in 1972. Two weeks later, he won the

  • Wotton, Sir Henry (English poet)

    Sir Henry Wotton, English poet, diplomat, and art connoisseur who was a friend of the poets John Donne and John Milton. Of his few surviving poems, “You Meaner Beauties of the Night,” written to Elizabeth of Bohemia, is the most famous. Izaak Walton’s biography of Wotton was prefixed to the

  • Wouk, Herman (American author)

    Herman Wouk, American novelist best known for his epic war novels. During World War II Wouk served in the Pacific aboard the destroyer-minesweeper Zane. One of his best-known novels, The Caine Mutiny (1951), grew out of these years. This drama of naval tradition presented the unforgettable

  • Wouldn’t It Be Great (album by Lynn)

    Loretta Lynn: …2017, Lynn released the album Wouldn’t It Be Great (2018). Her half sister, Crystal Gayle, also had a successful recording career. In 2013 Lynn was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

  • wound (medicine)

    Wound, a break in the continuity of any bodily tissue due to violence, where violence is understood to encompass any action of external agency, including, for example, surgery. Within this general definition many subdivisions are possible, taking into account and grouping together the various forms

  • Wound and the Bow, The (literary criticism by Wilson)

    The Wound and the Bow, book of literary criticism by Edmund Wilson, published in 1941. Employing psychological and historical analysis, Wilson examines the childhood psychological traumas experienced by such writers as Charles Dickens, Ernest Hemingway, James Joyce, Rudyard Kipling, and Edith

  • wound ballistics

    ballistics: Wound ballistics is mainly concerned with the mechanisms and medical implications of trauma caused by bullets and explosively driven fragments. Upon penetration, the momentum given to the surrounding tissues generates a large temporary cavity. The extent of local injury is related to the size of…

  • wound-rotor induction motor (machine)

    electric motor: Wound-rotor induction motors: Some special induction motors are constructed with insulated coils in the rotor similar to those in the stator winding. The rotor windings are usually of a three-phase type with three connections made to insulated conducting rings (known as slip rings) mounted on…

  • Wounded Knee (hamlet, South Dakota, United States)

    Wounded Knee, hamlet and creek on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in southwestern South Dakota, U.S. It was the site of two conflicts between Native Americans and representatives of the U.S. government. On December 29, 1890, more than 200 Sioux men, women, and children were massacred by U.S.

  • Wounded Knee Massacre (United States history [1890])

    Wounded Knee Massacre, (December 29, 1890), the slaughter of approximately 150–300 Lakota Indians by United States Army troops in the area of Wounded Knee Creek in southwestern South Dakota. The massacre was the climax of the U.S. Army’s late 19th-century efforts to repress the Plains Indians. It

  • Wounded Knee, Second Battle of (United States [1973])

    Anna Mae Aquash: …the site of the 1890 Wounded Knee massacre. The purpose of the protest was to end a corrupt administration on the nearby Pine Ridge Reservation. After 70 days, federal intervention ended the occupation. Aquash and Nogeeshik Aquash (whom she married in 1973) were instrumental in supplying food and other goods…

  • woundwort (herb genus)

    Lamiaceae: …the genus Stachys, or the woundworts generally, had supposed value as folk remedies. Self-heal, or heal-all (Prunella vulgaris), provided another important source of herbal medicine. The 40 to 50 species of the genus Lamium are known as dead nettles; they are low weedy plants that are sometimes cultivated as medicinal…

  • Wouri Bridge (bridge, Cameroon)

    Douala: The Wouri Bridge, 5,900 feet (1,800 metres) long, joins Douala to the port of Bonabéri and carries both road and rail traffic to western Cameroon. The city is connected by road to all major towns in Cameroon, has rail links to Kumba, Nkongsamba, Yaoundé, and Ngaoundéré,…

  • Wouri River (river, Cameroon)

    Wouri River, stream in southwestern Cameroon whose estuary on the Atlantic Ocean is the site of Douala, the country’s major industrial centre and port. Two headstreams—the Nkam and the Makombé—join to form the Wouri, 20 miles (32 km) northeast of Yabassi. The river then flows in a southwesterly

  • Wouwerman, Philips (Dutch painter)

    Philips Wouwerman, Dutch Baroque painter of animals, landscapes, and genre scenes, best known for his studies of horses. First trained under his father, Paul Joosten Wouwerman, a painter from Alkmaar, he may also have studied with Pieter Cornelisz., Pieter Verbeeck, and Frans Hals. He appears,

  • Wouwermans, Philips (Dutch painter)

    Philips Wouwerman, Dutch Baroque painter of animals, landscapes, and genre scenes, best known for his studies of horses. First trained under his father, Paul Joosten Wouwerman, a painter from Alkmaar, he may also have studied with Pieter Cornelisz., Pieter Verbeeck, and Frans Hals. He appears,

  • woven wattle (basketry)

    Oceanic art and architecture: The Hawaiian Islands: With the cloaks, chiefs wore wicker helmets, shaped as caps with crescentic crests, which were also covered in feathers. Heads of the war god were also made of wickerwork covered with red feathers; the mouths on such heads were set with dog’s teeth, and the eyes were made of large…

  • Wovoka (American Indian prophet)

    Wovoka, Native American religious leader who spawned the second messianic Ghost Dance cult, which spread rapidly through reservation communities about 1890. Wovoka’s father, Tavibo, was a Paiute shaman and local leader; he had assisted Wodziwob, a shaman whose millenarian visions inspired the Round

  • wow (sound distortion)

    flutter and wow: wow, in sound reproduction, waver in a reproduced tone or group of tones that is caused by irregularities in turntable or tape drive speed during recording, duplication, or reproduction. Low-frequency irregularities (as one per revolution of a turntable, referred to as “once arounds”) cause wow…

  • WoW (online role-playing game)

    World of Warcraft (WoW), massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) created by the American company Blizzard Entertainment and released on November 14, 2004. Massively multiplayer refers to games in which thousands, even millions, of players may participate online together, typically

  • Wow signal (signal)

    extraterrestrial intelligence: Results and two-way communication: …these was the so-called “Wow” signal, measured by a SETI experiment at Ohio State University in 1977. Subsequent observations failed to find this signal again, and so the Wow signal, as well as other similar detections, is not considered a good candidate for being extraterrestrial.

  • Woyda, Witold (Polish fencer)

    Witold Woyda, Polish fencer (born May 10, 1939, Poznan, Pol.—died May 5, 2008, Bronxville, N.Y.), competed for Poland in fencing’s foil division in four consecutive Olympic Games (1960–72); he shared the team silver in 1964, team bronze in 1968, and team gold in 1972 and captured an individual gold

  • Woyengi (Ijo deity)

    Woyengi, (Ijo: “Great Mother”) in the indigenous religion of the Ijo people of Nigeria, the female deity who created the earth. The creation story of Woyengi tells of her standing on the edge of the universe and observing an earth filled with animals and vegetation, but nothing else. Through the

  • woylie (marsupial)

    rat kangaroo: The brush-tailed bettong, or woylie (B. penicillata), has a similar crest, but the tail tip is not white; it is found in several small isolated pockets in Western Australia. The burrowing rat kangaroo, or boodie (B. lesueur), which has a thicker, non-crested tail, is the only member of the…

  • Woyo (people)

    African art: Lower Congo (Kongo) cultural area: …the coastal peoples, especially the Woyo, is a wooden pot lid carved with pictorial narratives representing proverbs. The pot lid, which covered the meal served by a wife to her husband, illustrates a particular complaint about their marital relationship—a wife’s displeasure with her husband, for example; when that lid was…

  • Woyzeck (dramatic fragment by Büchner)

    Woyzeck, dramatic fragment by Georg Büchner, written between 1835 and 1837; it was discovered and published posthumously in 1879 as Wozzek and first performed in 1913. Best known as the libretto for Alban Berg’s opera Wozzeck (performed 1925), the work was published in a revised version in 1922

  • Woz (American electronics engineer)

    Steve Wozniak, American electronics engineer, cofounder, with Steve Jobs, of Apple Computer, and designer of the first commercially successful personal computer. Wozniak—or “Woz,” as he was commonly known—was the son of an electrical engineer for the Lockheed Missiles and Space Company in

  • Woza Albert! (play by Ngema and Mtwa)

    Mbongeni Ngema: …he wrote the satirical play Woza Albert! (1981), which imagines that the second coming of Jesus Christ takes place in South Africa. The government first tries to exploit him and then banishes him to a notorious prison for blacks. Ngema’s next show, the musical Asinamali! (1983), deals with police violence,…

  • Wozniak, Stephen Gary (American electronics engineer)

    Steve Wozniak, American electronics engineer, cofounder, with Steve Jobs, of Apple Computer, and designer of the first commercially successful personal computer. Wozniak—or “Woz,” as he was commonly known—was the son of an electrical engineer for the Lockheed Missiles and Space Company in

  • Wozniak, Steve (American electronics engineer)

    Steve Wozniak, American electronics engineer, cofounder, with Steve Jobs, of Apple Computer, and designer of the first commercially successful personal computer. Wozniak—or “Woz,” as he was commonly known—was the son of an electrical engineer for the Lockheed Missiles and Space Company in

  • Wozzeck (opera by Berg)

    Wozzeck, opera in three acts by Austrian composer Alban Berg, who also wrote its German libretto, deriving the story from the unfinished play Woyzeck (the discrepancy in spelling was the result of a misreading of the manuscript) by Georg Büchner. The opera premiered in Berlin on December 14, 1925.

  • WP (political party, Turkey)

    Welfare Party, Turkish political party noted for its Islamic orientation. It was founded in 1983 by Necmettin Erbakan. After doing well in local elections in the early 1990s, it won nearly one-third of the seats (the largest single bloc) in the 1995 national legislative elections, becoming the

  • WP&YR (Canadian railway)

    Yukon: The gold rush and territorial status: …110-mile (177-km) narrow-gauge railway, the White Pass and Yukon Route (WP&amp;YR), extending from the port of Skagway, Alaska, to Whitehorse, on the upper reaches of the Yukon River. In 1898 the Canadian Parliament separated the rapidly growing area from the Northwest Territories and gave it separate territorial status.

  • WPA (political party, United States)

    Communist Party of the United States of America: …create the legal and aboveground Workers Party of America (WPA). When the United Toilers of America, a group that adopted the same tactics as the WPA, combined with the latter organization, the party renamed itself the Workers (Communist) Party, finally settling on the name Communist Party of the United States…

  • WPA (United States history)

    Works Progress Administration (WPA), work program for the unemployed that was created in 1935 under U.S. Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal. Although critics called the WPA an extension of the dole or a device for creating a huge patronage army loyal to the Democratic Party, the stated purpose

  • WPA Federal Art Project (United States history)

    WPA Federal Art Project, first major attempt at government patronage of the visual arts in the United States and the most extensive and influential of the visual arts projects conceived during the Depression of the 1930s by the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. It is often confused

  • WPA Federal Music Project (United States history)

    Great Depression: Federal arts programs: …the Federal Art Project, the Federal Music Project, the Federal Writers’ Project, and the Federal Theatre Project as part of the WPA; thousands of artists, architects, and educators found work in American museums, which flourished during the Great Depression.

  • WPA Federal Theatre Project (United States history)

    WPA Federal Theatre Project, national theatre project sponsored and funded by the U.S. government as part of the Works Progress Administration (WPA). Founded in 1935, it was the first federally supported theatre in the United States. Its purpose was to create jobs for unemployed theatrical people

  • WPA Federal Writers’ Project (United States history)

    WPA Federal Writers’ Project, a program established in the United States in 1935 by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) as part of the New Deal struggle against the Great Depression. It provided jobs for unemployed writers, editors, and research workers. Directed by Henry G. Alsberg, it

  • WPA/FAP (United States history)

    WPA Federal Art Project, first major attempt at government patronage of the visual arts in the United States and the most extensive and influential of the visual arts projects conceived during the Depression of the 1930s by the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. It is often confused

  • WPATH

    World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH), interdisciplinary professional association founded in 1978 to improve understandings of gender identities and to standardize treatment of transsexual, transgender, and gender-nonconforming people. WPATH was formed by Doctor Harry

  • WPBL (American sports organization)

    basketball: U.S. women’s basketball: …occasionally formed, such as the Women’s Professional Basketball League (WPBL); begun in 1978, the WPBL lasted only three years. Eventually filling the void was the Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA). Aligned with the powerful NBA, the WNBA held its inaugural season in 1997 with eight teams. By 2006 the WNBA…

  • WPE (political organization, Ethiopia)

    Ethiopia: Land reform and famine: In 1984 the Workers’ Party of Ethiopia was formed, with Mengistu as secretary-general, and in 1987 a new parliament inaugurated the People’s Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, with Mengistu as president.

  • WPGA (American organization)

    Ladies Professional Golf Association: The first, the Women’s Professional Golf Association (WPGA), was chartered in 1944. Standout players soon emerged, including Patty Berg, Louise Suggs, Betty Jameson, and, especially, the multisport legend Babe Didrikson Zaharias. Even Zaharias’s popularity, however, could not ensure success for the WPGA, which folded in 1949. Nevertheless, it…

  • WPMSF

    swimming: Distance swimming: …amateur and professional swimmers, the World Professional Marathon Swimming Federation was founded. Throughout the 1960s the latter group sanctioned about eight professional marathons annually, the countries most frequently involved being Canada, Egypt, Italy, Argentina, and the United States. The British Long Distance Swimming Association has sponsored races on inland waters…

  • WPP (American organization)

    Woman’s Peace Party (WPP), American organization that was established as a result of a three-day peace meeting organized by Jane Addams and other feminists in response to the beginning of World War I in Europe in 1914. The conference, held in January 1915 in Washington, D.C., brought together women

  • WPT (political party, Turkey)

    Turkey: The ascendancy of the right, 1961–71: …a socialist political party, the Workers’ Party of Turkey (WPT; 1961); and an armed guerrilla movement, the Turkish People’s Liberation Army (1970). These and similar groups espoused anticapitalist and anti-Western doctrines, and their followers, particularly in the universities, often supported them by violent action. The violence of the left was…

  • WRA (United States government agency)

    Nisei: …military pressure to establish the War Relocation Authority by executive order (March 18, 1942), and this agency administered the mass evacuation mandated by Executive Order 9066.

  • WRAF (British air force branch)

    Florence Green: Patterson joined the newly created Women’s Royal Air Force (WRAF) on September 13, 1918, at age 17 and was assigned to work as a steward in the officers’ mess halls at the Marham and Narborough airfields in Norfolk, England. Prior to the war this job would have been done by…

  • Wrakken (novel by Bom)

    Belgian literature: The turn of the 19th century: …1898 Emmanuel de Bom published Wrakken (“Wrecks”), the first modern Flemish psychological and urban novel, and Starkadd, an early Wagnerian drama by Alfred Hegenscheidt, was produced.

  • Wrangel Island (island, Russia)

    Wrangel Island, island, in Chukotka autonomous okrug (district), far northeastern Russia, lying in the Arctic Ocean and separating the East Siberian Sea from the Chukchi Sea. The long, narrow island is about 78 miles (125 km) wide and occupies an area of some 2,800 square miles (7,300 square km).

  • Wrangel, Ferdinand Petrovich (Russian explorer)

    Ferdinand Petrovich Wrangel, Russian explorer who completed the mapping of the northeastern coast of Siberia (1820–24). Wrangel Island off the Siberian coast was named in his honour. Graduating from the Russian naval academy in 1815, Wrangel sailed around the world in the sloop Kamchatka under V.M.

  • Wrangel, Karl Gustav, Greve (Swedish military officer)

    Karl Gustav, Count Wrangel, Swedish soldier who succeeded Lennart Torstenson as Swedish military and naval commander during the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48) and subsequent Baltic conflicts. Wrangel began his military career in Germany during the Thirty Years’ War and by 1638 was a major general. He

  • Wrangel, Pyotr Nikolayevich, Baron (Russian general)

    Pyotr Nikolayevich, Baron Wrangel, general who led the “White” (anti-Bolshevik) forces in the final phase of the Russian Civil War (1918–20). A member of an old German baronial family, he served in the Russian imperial guards and became commander of a Cossack division during World War I. He

  • Wrangell Mountains (mountains, North America)

    Wrangell Mountains, segment of the Pacific Coast Ranges (see Pacific mountain system), southeastern Alaska, U.S. The mountains are named for Ferdinand P. Wrangel, a 19th-century Russian explorer. Roughly 60 miles (100 km) wide, they extend for about 100 miles (160 km), from the Copper River to the

  • Wrangell, Mount (mountain, Alaska, United States)

    Alaskan mountains: Physiography of the southern ranges: …16,421 feet (5,005 metres), while Mount Wrangell (14,163 feet [4,317 metres]) is still steaming. The Wrangells are some of the most visually striking of the Alaskan mountains because of their rugged topography and perennial snow cover.

  • Wrangell–Saint Elias National Park and Preserve (national park, Alaska, United States)

    Wrangell–Saint Elias National Park and Preserve, vast natural area in southeastern Alaska, U.S., on the Canadian border, adjoining Kluane National Park and Reserve in Yukon. Proclaimed a national monument in 1978, the area was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1979 and was established as a

  • Wrangelschrank (furniture)

    cabinet: …most famous was the “Wrangelschrank,” taken as booty in the Thirty Years’ War by the Swedish count Carl Gustav Wrangel. Made in Augsburg in 1566, it was decorated with boxwood carvings and outstanding pictorial marquetry.

  • wrap dress (clothing)

    Diane von Furstenberg: …to fashion design was the wrap dress.

  • wrapped type (basketry)

    basketry: Wattle construction: (1) The bound, or wrapped, type, which is not very elaborate, has a widespread distribution, being used for burden baskets in the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal, for poultry cages in different parts of Africa and the Near East, and for small crude baskets in Tierra del…

  • wrapped wattle (basketry)

    basketry: Wattle construction: (1) The bound, or wrapped, type, which is not very elaborate, has a widespread distribution, being used for burden baskets in the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal, for poultry cages in different parts of Africa and the Near East, and for small crude baskets in Tierra del…

  • wrapping (packaging)

    baking: Wrapping: Most American consumers prefer wrapped bread, and the trend toward wrapping is growing in other countries. Sanitary and aesthetic considerations dictate protection of the product from environmental contamination during distribution and display. Waxed paper was originally the only film used to package bread, after…

  • wrasse (fish)

    Wrasse, any of nearly 500 species of marine fishes of the family Labridae (order Perciformes). Wrasses range from about 5 cm (2 inches) to 2 metres (6.5 feet) or more in length. Most species are elongated and relatively slender. Characteristic features of the wrasses include thick lips, smooth

  • Wrath of God, Operation (Israeli assassination campaign)

    Operation Wrath of God, covert assassination campaign carried out by Israel to avenge the kidnapping and murder of 11 Israeli athletes by Palestinian militants in September 1972 at the Munich Olympics. Although Israel had historically targeted the leaders of organizations such as Fatah, the

  • Wrath of God, The (film by Nelson [1972])

    Rita Hayworth: …appeared in her final film, The Wrath of God, in 1972.

  • Wrath of Superstorm Sandy, The

    In late October 2012, a massive storm brought significant wind and Flooding damage to Jamaica, Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, The Bahamas, and the U.S. Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern states. Flash flooding generated by the storm’s relentless rainfall, high winds, and coastal storm surges

  • Wrath of the Ancestors, The (work by Jordan)

    A.C. Jordan: His novel Ingqumbo yeminyanya (1940; The Wrath of the Ancestors) goes much beyond earlier Xhosa novels in its attempt to reveal the workings of a modern black African mind in its fight against conservative tribal forces. In developing his theme of the conflict between traditional and Western ways, Jordan denies…

  • Wratislavia Cantans (festival, Poland)

    Dolno?l?skie: Geography: …centre, Wroc?aw, hosts the “Wratislavia Cantans,” an oratorio and cantata festival that ranks as one of the most important music events in Poland, and the “Jazz on the Oder” festival. The Frédéric Chopin Festival attracts pianists to Duszniki Zdrój. Notable museums include the Museum of Copper in Legnica and…

  • Wray, Fay (Canadian-American actress)

    Fay Wray, Canadian-born actress (born Sept. 15, 1907, near Cardston, Alta.—died Aug. 8, 2004, New York, N.Y.), appeared in more than 90 motion pictures, including a number of silent films, and acted opposite some of Hollywood’s most notable male stars, but it was for her performance as the love o

  • Wray, Frederick Lincoln (American musician)

    Link Wray, (Frederick Lincoln Wray), American guitarist (born May 2, 1929, Dunn, N.C.—died Nov. 5, 2005, Copenhagen, Den.), pioneered the use of feedback and fuzz-tone techniques and invented the power chord—a harsh sound created by playing fifths (two notes, five tones apart)—which became the l

  • Wray, John (English naturalist)

    John Ray, leading 17th-century English naturalist and botanist who contributed significantly to progress in taxonomy. His enduring legacy to botany was the establishment of species as the ultimate unit of taxonomy. Ray was the son of the village blacksmith in Black Notley and attended the grammar

  • Wray, Link (American musician)

    Link Wray, (Frederick Lincoln Wray), American guitarist (born May 2, 1929, Dunn, N.C.—died Nov. 5, 2005, Copenhagen, Den.), pioneered the use of feedback and fuzz-tone techniques and invented the power chord—a harsh sound created by playing fifths (two notes, five tones apart)—which became the l

  • Wray, Vina Fay (Canadian-American actress)

    Fay Wray, Canadian-born actress (born Sept. 15, 1907, near Cardston, Alta.—died Aug. 8, 2004, New York, N.Y.), appeared in more than 90 motion pictures, including a number of silent films, and acted opposite some of Hollywood’s most notable male stars, but it was for her performance as the love o

  • WRB (United States government agency)

    War Refugee Board (WRB), United States agency established January 22, 1944, to attempt to rescue victims of the Nazis—mainly Jews—from death in German-occupied Europe. The board began its work after the Nazis had already killed millions in concentration and extermination camps. A late start, a lack

  • WRC (auto racing)

    Sébastien Loeb: …having won a record nine World Rally Championship (WRC) titles (2004–12).

  • wreath (floral decoration)

    Wreath, circular garland, usually woven of flowers, leaves, and foliage, that traditionally indicates honour or celebration. The wreath in ancient Egypt was most popular in the form of a chaplet made by sewing flowers to linen bands and tying them around the head. In ancient Greece, wreaths,

  • wreath (heraldry)

    heraldry: The reading of heraldry: In formal blazons the wreath (also called the torse) is given as well; thus, crest—on a wreath of the colours, a wolf passant proper (Trelawny). The wreath is not usually mentioned, however, because like the helmet it is always assumed to be there. The term colours refers to the…

  • Wreath for the Maidens, A (work by Munonye)

    John Munonye: …Man of Obange (1971) and A Wreath for the Maidens (1973). His novel A Dancer of Fortune (1974) is a satire of modern Nigerian business. Munonye returned to the family of his first two novels in Bridge to a Wedding (1978). Thereafter he published little.

  • Wreath sūtra (Buddhist text)

    Avatamsaka-sutra, voluminous Mahayana Buddhist text that some consider the most sublime revelation of the Buddha’s teachings. Scholars value the text for its revelations about the evolution of thought from early Buddhism to fully developed Mahayana. The sutra speaks of the deeds of the Buddha and

  • Wreath-sūtra (Buddhist text)

    Avatamsaka-sutra, voluminous Mahayana Buddhist text that some consider the most sublime revelation of the Buddha’s teachings. Scholars value the text for its revelations about the evolution of thought from early Buddhism to fully developed Mahayana. The sutra speaks of the deeds of the Buddha and

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