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  • x (letter)

    Romance languages: Orthography: The Latin letter x, an abbreviation for ks, was also put to other uses in Romance; in Portuguese, Catalan, Sicilian, and Old Spanish it represents a /sh/ sound, in modern Spanish a strong /h/ sound, more commonly spelled with a j, and in northern Italian dialects, the /z/…

  • X (novel by Grafton)

    Sue Grafton: X (2015), about Millhone’s efforts to find a serial killer, was the first entry in the series to feature only a letter in the title. Y Is for Yesterday (2017), the 25th book in the series, was published just months before Grafton’s death.

  • X (American rock band)

    X, American band whose tales of urban decay, corruption, and sleaze, delivered with skilled musicianship and unique vocal harmonies, marked them as important contributors to the punk movement. The original members were singer Exene Cervenka (original name Christine Cervenka; b. February 1, 1956,

  • X (letter)

    Romance languages: Orthography: The Latin letter x, an abbreviation for ks, was also put to other uses in Romance; in Portuguese, Catalan, Sicilian, and Old Spanish it represents a /sh/ sound, in modern Spanish a strong /h/ sound, more commonly spelled with a j, and in northern Italian dialects, the /z/…

  • X & Y (album by Coldplay)

    Coldplay: …album Live 2003 (2003) with X &amp; Y (2005), a collection of guitar-driven, arena-friendly rock anthems (including the hit single “Speed of Sound”) that elevated the group to the rank of such “big bands” as U2 and Radiohead. Meanwhile, Martin’s 2003–16 marriage to American actress Gwyneth Paltrow earned him celebrity…

  • X band (frequency band)

    satellite communication: How satellites work: …high frequency) L-, S-, C-, X-, Ku-, Ka-, and V-bands. Signals in the lower range (L-, S-, and C-bands) of the satellite frequency spectrum are transmitted with low power, and thus larger antennas are needed to receive these signals. Signals in the higher end (X-, Ku-, Ka-, and V-bands) of…

  • X boson (physics)

    subatomic particle: Toward a grand unified theory: …new gauge bosons, generally called X, which must have masses comparable to the energy scale of grand unification. The mean life for the proton, according to the GUTs, depends on this mass; in the simplest GUTs based on SU(5), the mean life varies as the fourth power of the mass…

  • X chromosome (genetics)

    blood group: Blood groups and genetic linkage: …in being located on the X chromosome. Genes carried by the X chromosome are said to be sex-linked. Since the blood groups are inherited in a regular fashion, they can be used as genetic markers in family studies to investigate whether any two particular loci are sited on the same…

  • X Club (British science organization)

    X Club, private scientific dining club of Victorian London, remarkable for the power that its nine members exerted on the scientific and cultural climate of late-19th-century England. Dining clubs were common in gentlemanly society of the time. The X Club met monthly in the London “season” (October

  • X Corps (United States armed forces)

    Inch'?n landing: …entire force was designated the X Corps and was placed under the command of Maj. Gen. Edward M. Almond, MacArthur’s chief of staff. The landing force became part of Joint Task Force 7, directed by Vice Adm. Arthur D. Struble, the U.S. Navy’s Seventh Fleet commander.

  • X cranial nerve (anatomy)

    Vagus nerve, longest and most complex of the cranial nerves. The vagus nerve runs from the brain through the face and thorax to the abdomen. It is a mixed nerve that contains parasympathetic fibres. The vagus nerve has two sensory ganglia (masses of nerve tissue that transmit sensory impulses): the

  • X Factor, The (British television program)

    Simon Cowell: In 2006 The X Factor (2004– ), a talent competition cojudged by Cowell and coproduced by his company, Syco Productions, won the award for best entertainment program from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. That same year he became executive producer of three new American…

  • x Fatshedera lizei (plant)

    fatsia: …(Hedera helix) to produce the tree ivy, or aralia ivy (× Fatshedera lizei), an intergeneric cross, a most uncommon botanical occurrence.

  • X Games

    extreme sports: … is generally attributed to the X Games, a made-for-television sports festival created by the cable network ESPN in 1995. The success of the X Games raised the profile and economic viability of these sports. The extreme sports of mountain biking and snowboarding debuted at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games…

  • X inactivation (genetics)

    human genetic disease: Abnormalities of the sex chromosomes: …sperm) via a process called X inactivation. The phenomenon of X inactivation prevents a female who carries two copies of the X chromosome in every cell from expressing twice the amount of gene products encoded exclusively on the X chromosome, in comparison with males, who carry a single X. In…

  • X Olympiad, Games of the

    Los Angeles 1932 Olympic Games, athletic festival held in Los Angeles that took place July 30–Aug. 14, 1932. The Los Angeles Games were the ninth occurrence of the modern Olympic Games. Only about 1,300 athletes, representing 37 countries, competed in the 1932 Games. The poor participation was the

  • X Olympic Winter Games

    Grenoble 1968 Olympic Winter Games, athletic festival held in Grenoble, France, that took place Feb. 6–18, 1968. The Grenoble Games were the 10th occurrence of the Winter Olympic Games. The 1968 Winter Games, opened by French Pres. Charles de Gaulle, were a triumph for France but were not without

  • X Playpen (work by Gober)

    Robert Gober: …bars on one side, while X Playpen (1987) effectively reduces the “play” area to one of two tiny triangular spaces—those sculptures seemed exercises in wistful memory, exposing a stark poetry embedded within the mundane and the domestic.

  • X-1 (airplane)

    Bell X-1, U.S. rocket-powered supersonic research airplane built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound in level flight. On October 14, 1947, an X-1 launched from the bomb bay of a B-29 bomber and piloted by U.S. Air Force Captain Chuck Yeager over the Mojave

  • X-13 Vertijet (aircraft)

    helicopter: Fixed jet: An early example, the Ryan X-13 Vertijet, was launched from a trailer bed that was erected vertically prior to takeoff. The aircraft flew successfully in vertical and horizontal modes, including takeoff and “tail-sitter” landings, but the operational limitations in terms of speed, range, and payload were too great for further…

  • X-15 (aircraft)

    X-15, rocket-powered research aircraft built in the 1950s by North American Aviation, Inc., for the U.S. military and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in order to gather information on flight conditions beyond the atmosphere. First flown in 1959, the X-15 set separate unofficial

  • X-15 (film by Donner [1961])

    Richard Donner: Early work: …a Cold War drama called X-15, which starred one of the cinema’s least likely couples, Charles Bronson and Mary Tyler Moore. Donner then returned to television, and his credits during this time included Twilight Zone, The Man from U.N.C.L.E., Gilligan’s Island, and Perry Mason.

  • X-45 (military aircraft)

    military aircraft: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs): If the experimental Boeing X-45 and Northrop Grumman X-47 are representative of these vehicles, they will resemble small B-2 Spirit stealth bombers and will vary in size from one-third to one-sixth the gross weight of a single-seat fighter-bomber. They will most likely supplement or even replace piloted fighter-bombers in…

  • X-47 (military aircraft)

    military aircraft: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs): …Boeing X-45 and Northrop Grumman X-47 are representative of these vehicles, they will resemble small B-2 Spirit stealth bombers and will vary in size from one-third to one-sixth the gross weight of a single-seat fighter-bomber. They will most likely supplement or even replace piloted fighter-bombers in the attack role in…

  • X-ALD (pathology)

    metabolic disease: Inheritance: …ammonia and impaired urea formation), X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (a disorder that is characterized by progressive mental and physical deterioration and adrenal insufficiency), and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (a disorder of purine metabolism that is characterized by the excretion of large amounts of uric acid in the urine, neurological disturbances, and self-mutilation).

  • X-chair

    Scissors chair, chair supported by two crossed and curved supports either at the sides or at the back and front. Because of its basic simplicity, it is one of the oldest forms of chair or stool, with examples reaching back to the 2nd millennium bc. The seat, which was originally made of leather or

  • X-disease (veterinary science)

    Hyperkeratosis, in cattle, a disease characterized by inflammation and thickening of the horny covering of the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. Other symptoms include weight loss, wartlike swellings in the mouth, drooling, and a runny nose. Severely afflicted animals usually die.

  • x-efficiency (economics)

    efficiency: …measured via the concept of x-efficiency, which is defined as the degree to which a group of inputs achieves the maximal level of outputs possible with those inputs. Market theory predicts that all firms will be x-efficient under perfect competition, because competitors would drive x-inefficient firms out of business over…

  • X-Files, The (American television series)

    The X-Files, American science-fiction television series that aired on the Fox Broadcasting Company network (1993–2002, 2016, and 2018). The show attracted a huge cult following and won three Golden Globe Awards for best drama. The X-Files focused on the professional lives of two FBI special agents,

  • X-Files: Fight the Future, The (film by Bowman [1998])

    Gillian Anderson: In 1998 the motion picture The X-Files: Fight the Future took in more than $30 million in its first weekend. Although the television series ended in 2002, a second movie, The X-Files: I Want to Believe, was released in 2008.

  • X-Files: I Want to Believe, The (film by Carter [2008])

    Gillian Anderson: …in 2002, a second movie, The X-Files: I Want to Believe, was released in 2008.

  • X-Force (Chinese military unit)

    China: Conflicts within the international alliance: …regiments (this became known as X-Force). Also in training were Chinese instructors to help retrain other divisions in China. Both air development and army modernizing were being pushed in early 1943, with a training centre created near Kunming to reenergize and reequip select Chinese divisions (called Y-Force), and a network…

  • X-Group (Nubian people)

    Sudan: Medieval Christian kingdoms: …by a people called the Nobatae by the ancient geographers and the X-Group by modern archaeologists, who are still at a loss to explain their origins. The X-Group were clearly, however, the heirs of Kush, for their whole cultural life was dominated by Meroitic crafts and customs, and occasionally they…

  • X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (pathology)

    metabolic disease: Inheritance: …ammonia and impaired urea formation), X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (a disorder that is characterized by progressive mental and physical deterioration and adrenal insufficiency), and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (a disorder of purine metabolism that is characterized by the excretion of large amounts of uric acid in the urine, neurological disturbances, and self-mutilation).

  • X-linked infantile agammaglobulinemia (disease)

    immune system disorder: Hereditary and congenital deficiencies: …the rare hereditary disorder called X-linked infantile agammaglobulinemia, which affects only males, B lymphocytes are unable to secrete all classes of immunoglobulins. (An immunoglobulin is a type of protein, also called an antibody, that is produced by B cells in response to the presence of a foreign substance called an…

  • X-linked mutation (genetics)

    metabolic disease: Inheritance: …male offspring who inherit an X-linked mutation are affected, because the Y chromosome of the XY pair does not have a compensating normal gene. Because the mutation is on the X chromosome and males transmit only the Y chromosome to their sons during fertilization, fathers do not transmit the disease…

  • X-Men (film by Singer [2000])

    Hugh Jackman: …making his Hollywood debut in X-Men (2000), in which his portrayal of the tortured antihero Wolverine established him as a bankable action star. He demonstrated his range with a pair of romantic comedies, Someone like You (2001) and Kate &amp; Leopold (2001), before once again unsheathing Wolverine’s trademark razor claws…

  • X-Men (fictional superhero team)

    X-Men, American comic strip team consisting of a rotating ensemble cast of mutants born with superhuman powers. Created in 1963 by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby, the team became one of Marvel Comics’s most successful properties. The original version of the X-Men was a group of teenagers

  • X-Men 2 (film by Singer [2003])

    Ian McKellen: …included the X-Men series (2000, 2003, 2006, 2014), in which he was cast as supervillain Magneto, and The Da Vinci Code (2006). McKellen’s subtlety and exactitude as an actor were showcased in the character study Mr. Holmes (2015), about the attempts of a nonagenarian Sherlock Holmes to resolve a case…

  • X-Men Origins: Wolverine (film by Hood [2009])

    Hugh Jackman: …as Wolverine in the prequel X-Men Origins: Wolverine and adopted the speech and mannerisms of an aging Chicago police officer to star opposite Daniel Craig in the Broadway play A Steady Rain.

  • X-Men: Apocalypse (film by Singer [2016])

    Nicholas Hoult: …of Future Past (2014), and X-Men: Apocalypse (2016). He underwent another transformation for his role in George Miller’s Mad Max: Fury Road (2015). In the futuristic thriller he was cast as Nux, a bald-headed, pasty-faced War Boy and fanatic follower in the army of villainous Immortan Joe. In 2015 Holt…

  • X-Men: Days of Future Past (film by Singer [2014])

    Peter Dinklage: …Trask in the comic-book blockbuster X-Men: Days of Future Past (2014) and a supporting part in the Adam Sandler vehicle Pixels (2015). He then gave voice to the Mighty Eagle in the animated Angry Birds (2016) and its sequel (2019). Dinklage also appeared as Renault in a star-studded cast featuring…

  • X-Men: First Class (film by Vaughn [2011])

    Nicholas Hoult: …to play the Beast in X-Men: First Class (2011), X-Men: Days of Future Past (2014), and X-Men: Apocalypse (2016). He underwent another transformation for his role in George Miller’s Mad Max: Fury Road (2015). In the futuristic thriller he was cast as Nux, a bald-headed, pasty-faced War Boy and fanatic…

  • X-Men: The Last Stand (film by Ratner [2006])

    Hugh Jackman: …Prestige (2006) as well as X-Men: The Last Stand (2006). In 2008 he starred opposite Nicole Kidman in Baz Luhrmann’s lush historical epic Australia. While the film itself met with mixed reviews, Jackman’s performance was widely praised. As host of the Academy Awards ceremony in 2009, he showcased his skills…

  • X-organ

    crustacean: Hormones: The X-organ passes its secretions to the sinus gland, which acts as a release centre into the blood. Hormones liberated from the sinus gland have been shown to influence molting, gonad development, water balance, blood glucose, and the expansion and contraction of pigment cells both in…

  • X-organ–sinus-gland complex (anatomy)

    crustacean: Hormones: The X-organ–sinus-gland complex is located in the eyestalk. The X-organ passes its secretions to the sinus gland, which acts as a release centre into the blood. Hormones liberated from the sinus gland have been shown to influence molting, gonad development, water balance, blood glucose, and the…

  • X-radiation (radiation beam)

    X-ray, electromagnetic radiation of extremely short wavelength and high frequency, with wavelengths ranging from about 10?8 to 10?12 metre and corresponding frequencies from about 1016 to 1020 hertz (Hz). X-rays are commonly produced by accelerating (or decelerating) charged particles; examples

  • X-ray (radiation beam)

    X-ray, electromagnetic radiation of extremely short wavelength and high frequency, with wavelengths ranging from about 10?8 to 10?12 metre and corresponding frequencies from about 1016 to 1020 hertz (Hz). X-rays are commonly produced by accelerating (or decelerating) charged particles; examples

  • X-ray absorptiometry

    chemical analysis: X-ray absorption: Absorbed X rays cause excitation of electrons from inner orbitals (those near the nucleus) to unoccupied outer orbitals. In some cases, the energy of the incident X ray is sufficient to ionize the analyte by completely removing the electron from the atom or…

  • X-ray astronomy

    X-ray astronomy, Study of astronomical objects and phenomena that emit radiation at X-ray wavelengths. Because Earth’s atmosphere absorbs most X-rays, X-ray telescopes and detectors are taken to high altitudes or into space by balloons and spacecraft. In 1949 detectors aboard sounding rockets

  • X-ray binary system (astronomy)

    accretion disk: quasars, radio galaxies, X-ray binaries (see X-ray astronomy), and probably also Type Ia supernovas all involve accretion disks. The astronomical object whose mass is growing is known as the accretor.

  • X-ray crystallography

    principles of physical science: Symmetry: …is the great triumph of X-ray crystallography to have provided the means for determining experimentally what arrangement is involved in each case.

  • X-ray diffraction (physics)

    X-ray diffraction, a phenomenon in which the atoms of a crystal, by virtue of their uniform spacing, cause an interference pattern of the waves present in an incident beam of X rays. The atomic planes of the crystal act on the X rays in exactly the same manner as does a uniformly ruled grating on

  • X-ray diffraction analysis (physics)

    X-ray diffraction, a phenomenon in which the atoms of a crystal, by virtue of their uniform spacing, cause an interference pattern of the waves present in an incident beam of X rays. The atomic planes of the crystal act on the X rays in exactly the same manner as does a uniformly ruled grating on

  • X-ray diffraction analysis, precession method of (physics)

    Martin Julian Buerger: …of Buerger’s innovations is the precession method of X-ray diffraction analysis (the determination of the spatial arrangement of atoms in crystals by observing the pattern in which they scatter a beam of X rays), one of the two most commonly used methods of recording diffraction intensities.

  • X-ray diffraction spectrometer (instrument)

    spectroscopy: X-ray spectroscopy: The first spectrographs for this radiation were devised in 1912–13 by two British physicists—father and son—William Henry and Lawrence Bragg, who showed that there existed not only continuum X-ray spectra, to be expected from processes involving the stopping of charged particles in motion, but also discrete characteristic…

  • X-ray emission spectrometry

    spectroscopy: X-ray spectroscopy: A penetrating, electrically uncharged radiation was discovered in 1895 by the German physicist Wilhelm Conrad R?ntgen and was named X-radiation because its origin was unknown. This radiation is produced when electrons (cathode rays) strike

  • X-ray fluorescence (radiation beam)

    geology: Chemistry of the Earth: …follows: The X-ray fluorescent (XRF) spectrometer excites atoms with a primary X-ray beam and causes secondary (or fluorescent) X-rays to be emitted. Each element produces a diagnostic X-radiation, the intensity of which is measured. This intensity is proportional to the concentration of the element in the rock, and so…

  • X-ray galaxy (astronomy)

    galaxy: X-ray galaxies: Synchrotron radiation is characteristically emitted at virtually all wavelengths at almost the same intensity. A synchrotron source therefore ought to be detectable at optical and radio wavelengths, as well as at others (e.g., infrared, ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths). For radio galaxies this…

  • X-ray image

    Roentgenogram, photograph of internal structures that is made by passing X-rays through the body to produce a shadow image on specially sensitized film. The roentgenogram is named after German physicist Wilhelm Conrad R?ntgen, who discovered X-rays in 1895. The value of a roentgenogram is

  • X-ray microprobe analyzer (microscopy)

    electron-probe microanalyzer: X-ray microprobe analysis has proved to be so valuable that a majority of SEMs, as well as many TEMs, are now equipped with X-ray spectrometers as accessories. The technique has found wide applications in mineralogy, metallurgy, and solid-state science, as well as in the clinical…

  • X-ray microscope

    X-ray microscope, instrument that uses X-rays to produce enlarged images of small objects. The basic device uses the emission of X-rays from a point source to cast an enlarged image on a phosphor screen. A successful X-ray microscope was made in 1951 by British physicists Ellis Coslett and William

  • X-ray monochromator (instrument)

    spectroscopy: X-ray optics: X-ray monochromators are analogous to grating monochromators and spectrometers in the visible portion of the spectrum. If the lattice spacing for a crystal is accurately known, the observed angles of diffraction can be used to measure and identify unknown X-ray wavelengths. Because of the sensitive…

  • X-Ray of the Pampa (work by Martínez Estrada)

    Ezequiel Martínez Estrada: …Radiografía de la pampa (1933; X-Ray of the Pampa), a comprehensive psychological study of the Argentine character laden with fatalistic overtones. La cabeza de Goliat: Microscopía de Buenos Aires (1940; “The Head of Goliath: A Microscopic Study of Buenos Aires”) treats the people of Buenos Aires and continues the themes…

  • X-ray optics (physics)

    spectroscopy: X-ray optics: X-rays are strongly absorbed by solid matter so that the optics used in the visible and near-infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum cannot be used to focus or reflect the radiation. Over a fairly wide range of X-ray energies, however, radiation hitting a…

  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    surface analysis: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Since the binding energies of the electrons emitted through XPS are discrete and atoms of different elements have different characteristic electron-binding energies, the emitted electron beam can provide a simple method of elemental analysis. The specificity of XPS is very good, since…

  • X-ray scattering (physics)

    spectroscopy: X-ray spectroscopy: …nature (could be polarized) by scattering from certain materials. These properties suggested that the rays were another form of electromagnetic radiation, a possibility that was postulated earlier by the British physicist J.J. Thomson. He noted that the electrons that hit the glass wall of the tube would undergo violent accelerations…

  • X-ray source (astronomy)

    X-ray source, in astronomy, any of a class of cosmic objects that emit radiation at X-ray wavelength. Because the Earth’s atmosphere absorbs X rays very efficiently, X-ray telescopes and detectors must be carried high above it by spacecraft to observe objects that produce such electromagnetic

  • X-ray spectroscopy

    spectroscopy: X-ray spectroscopy: A penetrating, electrically uncharged radiation was discovered in 1895 by the German physicist Wilhelm Conrad R?ntgen and was named X-radiation because its origin was unknown. This radiation is produced when electrons (cathode rays) strike

  • X-ray style (art)

    X-ray style, manner of depicting animals by drawing or painting the skeletal frame and internal organs. It is one of the characteristic styles of the art of some prehistoric hunting cultures. The style can be seen in the Mesolithic art of northern Europe (c. 8000–2700 bc), where early examples have

  • X-ray telescope

    X-ray telescope, instrument designed to detect and resolve X-rays from sources outside Earth’s atmosphere. Because of atmospheric absorption, X-ray telescopes must be carried to high altitudes by rockets or balloons or placed in orbit outside the atmosphere. Balloon-borne telescopes can detect the

  • X-ray treatment

    Radiation therapy, the use of ionizing radiation (high-energy radiation that displaces electrons from atoms and molecules) to destroy cancer cells. Radiation has been present throughout the evolution of life on Earth. However, with the discovery of X-rays in 1895 by German physicist Wilhelm Conrad

  • X-ray tube (electronics)

    X-ray tube, evacuated electron tube that produces X rays by accelerating electrons to a high velocity with a high-voltage field and causing them to collide with a target, the anode plate. The tube consists of a source of electrons, the cathode, which is usually a heated filament, and a thermally

  • X-trisomy (genetics)

    X-trisomy, sex chromosome disorder of human females, in which three X chromosomes are present, rather than the normal pair. More common than Turner’s syndrome, where only one X chromosome is present, X-trisomy usually remains undetected because affected individuals appear normal, experience

  • X2 (film by Singer [2003])

    Hugh Jackman: …Wolverine’s trademark razor claws in X2 (2003). Jackman made his Broadway debut in 2003 as singer-songwriter Peter Allen in the biographical musical The Boy from Oz. For American filmgoers who were unfamiliar with his work in Oklahoma!, Jackman’s flamboyantly spot-on performance was a revelation, and it won him a Tony…

  • Xai-Xai (Mozambique)

    Xai-Xai, port town, southern Mozambique. Located on the eastern bank of the Limpopo River near its mouth, the town is a market centre for cashew nuts, rice, corn (maize), cassava, and sorghum raised in the surrounding area, which is irrigated by the lower Limpopo irrigation project; dairy cattle

  • Xaimaca (work by Güiraldes)

    Ricardo Güiraldes: …Death and of Blood”) and Xaimaca (1923; “Jamaica”). In Don Segundo Sombra, the work considered his masterpiece, he combined poetic description of country life with a subtle portrayal of the cattleman Don Segundo, a re-creation of the mythical gaucho, national symbol and folk hero of Argentina.

  • Xaindi (emperor of Han dynasty)

    museum: Asia and Africa: …and the last Han emperor, Xiandi (abdicated 220 ce), established a gallery containing portraits of his ministers.

  • Xala (film by Sembène [1975])

    Third Cinema: …films of Sembène, such as Xala (1975) and Moolaadé (2004), with their mixture of African and Western elements and their critical approach to local culture. Another example of Third Cinema was Algerian filmmaker Abderrahmane Bouguermouh’s La Colline oubliée (1997; The Forgotten Hillside), which was shot in the Berber language and…

  • Xalapa (Mexico)

    Xalapa, city, capital of Veracruz estado (state), east-central Mexico. About 55 miles (90 km) northwest of Veracruz city, Xalapa is located beneath towering volcanic peaks in the Sierra Madre Oriental, at an elevation of about 4,680 feet (1,425 metres). Known for its scenic backdrop and its lush

  • Xalapa Enríquez (Mexico)

    Xalapa, city, capital of Veracruz estado (state), east-central Mexico. About 55 miles (90 km) northwest of Veracruz city, Xalapa is located beneath towering volcanic peaks in the Sierra Madre Oriental, at an elevation of about 4,680 feet (1,425 metres). Known for its scenic backdrop and its lush

  • Xamar (national capital, Somalia)

    Mogadishu, capital, largest city, and a major port of Somalia, located just north of the Equator on the Indian Ocean. One of the earliest Arab settlements on the East African coast, its origins date to the 10th century. It declined in the 16th century after a period of extensive trade with the Arab

  • Xanadu (film by Greenwald [1980])

    Gene Kelly: Films of the 1960s and beyond: …actor was the cult favourite Xanadu (1980), a musical starring pop sensation Olivia Newton-John. Before retiring, his last roles were in the television miniseries North and South (1985) and Sins (1986).

  • Xanadu (fictional place)

    Xanadu, place in the opium-induced vision that English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge recorded in the poetic fragment “Kubla Khan” (1798). Coleridge’s fantasyland was based on Shangdu (“Upper Capital”), near present-day Duolun in Inner Mongolia, to which the real Kublai Khan moved the seat of Mongol

  • Xanadu Regio (astronomy)

    Titan: The surface: …bright continent-sized region, later named Xanadu Regio, on Titan’s leading face. This region was also discerned from Earth and from the Cassini spacecraft at radar wavelengths, which can penetrate the haze.

  • Xanax (drug)

    Alprazolam, drug used in the treatment of anxiety disorders and panic disorder. Alprazolam is classified as a benzodiazepine (a drug that produces a calming, sedative effect) and is marketed under the brand name Xanax by Pfizer, Inc. Alprazolam was patented in the 1970s, having been developed by

  • Xandrames (ruler of Magadha)

    Nanda dynasty: Dhanananda, the last of this list, possibly figures as Agrammes, or Xandrames, in classical sources, a powerful contemporary of Alexander the Great. The Nanda line ended with him in about 321 bce when Chandragupta laid the foundation for Mauryan power.

  • Xank?ndi (Azerbaijan)

    Xank?ndi, city, southwestern Azerbaijan. Situated at the foot of the eastern slopes of the Karabakh Range, the city was founded after the October Revolution (1917) on the site of the village of Khankendy and was renamed Stepanakert in 1923 for Stepan Shaumyan, a Baku communist leader. After

  • Xanten, Treaty of (Europe [1614])

    Jülich: By the Treaty of Xanten (1614), they agreed to a division of the territories. Cleves-Mark and Ravensberg went to John Sigismund, Jülich-Berg and Ravensstein, to Wolfgang William.

  • xanthate (chemical compound)

    Xanthate, any of a class of organic salts formed by treatment of an alcohol with carbon disulfide in the presence of an alkali. The term is derived from the Greek word xanthos, for “yellow,” in reference to the compound potassium ethyl xanthate (C2H5OCS2K), which gives a yellow precipitate when

  • Xanthē (Greece)

    Xánthi, city and dímos (municipality), East Macedonia and Thrace (Modern Greek: Anatolikí Makedonía kai Thrakí) periféreia region, eastern Greece. The city, which is situated below the Rhodope (Rodópi) massif at the head of the narrow Eskejé (Esketzé) Valley, is the seat of a metropolitan bishop of

  • xanthene (chemical compound)

    dye: Xanthene and related dyes: In 1871 the German chemist Adolph von Baeyer discovered a new dye class closely related to the triphenylmethane series and also without natural counterparts. Heating phthalic anhydride with resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene) produced a yellow compound he named fluorescein,

  • Xánthi (Greece)

    Xánthi, city and dímos (municipality), East Macedonia and Thrace (Modern Greek: Anatolikí Makedonía kai Thrakí) periféreia region, eastern Greece. The city, which is situated below the Rhodope (Rodópi) massif at the head of the narrow Eskejé (Esketzé) Valley, is the seat of a metropolitan bishop of

  • xanthine (chemical compound)

    purine: …in 1776 from urinary calculi; xanthine was obtained from the same source in 1817. Xanthine also occurs in tea, as does caffeine, another purine compound. Guanine, found in guano, the accumulated excrement and dead bodies of birds, bats, and seals, and adenine were identified in 1891 as products of the…

  • xanthinuria (pathology)

    Xanthinuria, rare inherited disorder of purine metabolism that results from a deficiency in the enzyme xanthine oxidase. Normally this enzyme breaks down the purine base xanthine to uric acid, which is then excreted. In the absence of the enzyme, xanthine is not metabolized by the body and its

  • Xanthippus (Greek leader)

    Pericles: Background and education: His father, Xanthippus, a typical member of this generation, almost certainly of an old family, began his political career by a dynastic marriage into the controversial family of the Alcmaeonids. He soon left their political camp, probably on the question of relations with Persia, and took the…

  • Xanthium (plant)

    Cocklebur, weedy annual plant of the genus Xanthium of the family Asteraceae, distributed throughout much of Europe and parts of North America. Some authorities consider that the genus contains about 15 species, others say from 2 to 4. All species have round, short clusters of male flowers, above

  • Xanthium strumarium (plant)

    cocklebur: Cocklebur (X. strumarium) is poisonous to grazing animals and was formerly used in herbal remedies.

  • Xanthomonas (bacterium)

    plant disease: General characteristics: Erwinia, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, Streptomyces, and Xylella. With the exception of Streptomyces species, all are small, single, rod-shaped cells approximately 0.5 to 1.0 micrometre (0.00002 to 0.00004 inch) in width and 1.0 to 3.5 micrometres in length. Streptomycetes develop branched mycelia (narrow, threadlike growth) with curled chains of…

  • Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae (bacterium)

    rice bacterial blight: causal agent, the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae (also referred to as Xoo), was identified in 1911, at that time having been named Bacillus oryzae. Thriving in warm, humid environments, bacterial blight has been observed in rice-growing regions of Asia, the western coast of Africa, Australia, Latin America, and…

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