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  • yolk (embryology)

    Yolk, the nutritive material of an egg, used as food by a developing, embryonic animal. Eggs with relatively little, uniformly distributed yolk are termed isolecithal. This condition occurs in invertebrates and in all but the lowest mammals. Eggs with abundant yolk concentrated in one hemisphere

  • yolk gland (zoology)

    flatworm: Reproduction: …vitellaria, often known as the vitelline glands or yolk glands. The cells of the vitellaria form yolk and eggshell components. In some groups, particularly those that live primarily in water or have an aqueous phase in the life cycle, the eggshell consists of a hardened protein known as sclerotin, or…

  • yolk sac (biology)

    animal development: Adaptations in animals other than mammals: …cases a membranous bag, or yolk sac, is formed and remains connected to the embryo by a narrow stalk (the evolutionary precursor of the umbilical cord of mammals). The cellular layers surrounding the yolk sac and forming its walls may consist of all three germinal layers (in reptiles and birds),…

  • yolk-sac placenta (anatomy)

    animal reproductive system: Provisions for the developing embryo: The yolk-sac placenta does not invade maternal tissues, but intimate interlocking folds may occur between the two. The chorioallantoic membranes of reptiles and mammals exhibit many degrees of intimacy with maternal tissues, from simple contact to a deeply rooted condition (deciduate placentas). Chorioallantoic or chorionic placentas…

  • Yolo City (California, United States)

    Woodland, city, seat (1862) of Yolo county, central California, U.S. It lies in the Sacramento Valley, 20 miles (30 km) northwest of Sacramento. It was founded in 1853 by Henry Wyckoff and was first known as Yolo City; the present name, suggested by its location in a grove of oak trees, was adopted

  • Yom ha-Bikkurim (Judaism)

    Shavuot, (“Festival of the Weeks”), second of the three Pilgrim Festivals of the Jewish religious calendar. It was originally an agricultural festival, marking the beginning of the wheat harvest. During the Temple period, the first fruits of the harvest were brought to the Temple, and two loaves of

  • Yom ha-kippurim (Judaism)

    Yom Kippur, most solemn of Jewish religious holidays, observed on the 10th day of the lunar month of Tishri (in the course of September and October), when Jews seek to expiate their sins and achieve a reconciliation with God. Yom Kippur concludes the “10 days of repentance” that begin with Rosh

  • Yom Ha-Zikkaron (Judaism)

    Rosh Hashana, (Hebrew: “Beginning of the Year”) a major Jewish observance now accepted as inaugurating the religious New Year on Tishri 1 (September or October). Because the New Year ushers in a 10-day period of self-examination and penitence, Rosh Hashana is also called the annual Day of Judgment;

  • Yom Hashoa (Israeli holiday)

    feast: National and local festivals: In Israel, Holocaust Remembrance Day commemorates the systematic destruction of European Jews by Nazi Germany in the 1930s and ’40s.

  • Yom Hashoah ve Hagevurah (Israeli holiday)

    feast: National and local festivals: In Israel, Holocaust Remembrance Day commemorates the systematic destruction of European Jews by Nazi Germany in the 1930s and ’40s.

  • Yom Kippur (Judaism)

    Yom Kippur, most solemn of Jewish religious holidays, observed on the 10th day of the lunar month of Tishri (in the course of September and October), when Jews seek to expiate their sins and achieve a reconciliation with God. Yom Kippur concludes the “10 days of repentance” that begin with Rosh

  • Yom Kippur War (Middle East [1973])

    Yom Kippur War, damaging inconclusive war and the fourth of the Arab-Israeli wars. The war was initiated by Egypt and Syria on October 6, 1973, on the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur and during Ramadan, the month of fasting in Islam, and it continued until October 26, 1973. The war, which eventually

  • Yom River (river, Thailand)

    Thailand: Drainage: …its tributary the Wang), the Yom, and the Nan—flow generally south through narrow valleys to the plains and then merge to form the Chao Phraya, Thailand’s principal river. The delta floodplain of the Chao Phraya is braided into numerous small channels and is joined by other rivers—notably the Pa Sak—as…

  • Y?m Sangs?p (Korean writer)

    Korean literature: Modern literature: 1910 to the end of the 20th century: Y?m Sangs?p, the first to introduce psychological analysis and scientific documentation into his stories, defined naturalism as an expression of awakened individuality. Naturalism’s purpose, Y?m asserted, was to expose the sordid aspects of reality, especially the sorrow and disillusionment occurring as authority figures are debased…

  • Yom Teruah (Judaism)

    Rosh Hashana, (Hebrew: “Beginning of the Year”) a major Jewish observance now accepted as inaugurating the religious New Year on Tishri 1 (September or October). Because the New Year ushers in a 10-day period of self-examination and penitence, Rosh Hashana is also called the annual Day of Judgment;

  • Yomi no Kuni (Japanese mythology)

    Shintō: Early clan religion and ceremonies: …world), and the Hades (Yomi no Kuni, the world after death) were arranged in vertical order. The other view was a two-dimensional one in which this world and the Perpetual Country (Tokoyo, a utopian place far beyond the sea) existed in horizontal order. Though the three-dimensional view of the…

  • yomihon (Japanese literature)

    Yomihon, (Japanese: “books for reading”) a subgenre of gesaku, a type of popular Japanese literature of the Tokugawa, or Edo, period (1603–1867). Yomihon were distinguished from books, enjoyed mainly for their illustrations, and were noted for their extended plots culled from Chinese and Japanese

  • Yomiuri Giants (Japanese baseball team)

    Yomiuri shimbun: …in Japan (now called the Yomiuri Giants), which helped to increase its circulation.

  • Yomiuri shimbun (Japanese newspaper)

    Yomiuri shimbun, Japanese national daily newspaper, the largest in circulation and the most sensational in editorial style of Japan’s “big three” dailies. Yomiuri was founded in 1874, one of five new dailies created early in the Meiji period (1868–1912) to meet the need for a vernacular newspaper

  • Yomou (Guinea)

    Yomou, town, southeastern Guinea. It is the chief trading centre (rice, cassava, coffee, and palm oil and kernels) for a densely forested region of the Guinea Highlands mainly inhabited by the Guerze (Kpelle) and Mano (Manon) peoples. The surrounding area borders Liberia on the east, west, and

  • Yomud carpet

    Yomut carpet, floor covering handwoven by the Yomut Turkmen of Turkmenistan, usually of good to excellent quality. In contrast to Tekke carpets, there is considerable variety of design among the larger Yomut carpets. Many have diagonal rows in which a single diamond- or lozenge-shaped motif is

  • Yomut (people)

    Turkmenistan: Turkmen tribes and Russian invasion: …the ascendancy passed to the Yomuts, Tekkes, Ersaris, and Saryks, who began to move out of the desert into the oases of Khorezm and to the Atrek, Tejen, and Morghāb rivers and to adopt a settled way of life. There was bitter rivalry among the tribes, particularly between the Tekke…

  • Yomut (breed of horse)

    Turkmenistan: Agriculture: The Akhal Teke and Yomut breeds of horses deserve their fame as handsome, fleet animals with great endurance. Arabian dromedary (one-humped) camels are indispensable in desert areas for transporting sheepherders, for drawing water from deep desert wells, and as a source of wool, milk, and meat.

  • Yomut carpet

    Yomut carpet, floor covering handwoven by the Yomut Turkmen of Turkmenistan, usually of good to excellent quality. In contrast to Tekke carpets, there is considerable variety of design among the larger Yomut carpets. Many have diagonal rows in which a single diamond- or lozenge-shaped motif is

  • Yon-tan-rgya-mtsho (Dalai Lama)

    Dalai Lama: The fourth Dalai Lama, Yon-tan-rgya-mtsho (1589–1617), was a great-grandson of Altan Khan and the only non-Tibetan Dalai Lama.

  • Yonago (Japan)

    Yonago, city, western Tottori ken (prefecture), western Honshu, Japan. It is located on the delta of the Hino River, which forms the Yonago Plain. The city occupies the base of a sandspit called Yumiga Beach, which extends from the mouth of the river northwest into the Sea of Japan (East Sea).

  • Yonaguni Monument (underwater rock structure, near Yonaguni Island, Japan)

    Yonaguni Monument, underwater rock structure that was discovered in the mid-1980s near Yonaguni Island, Japan. While some believe the ziggurat-like formation is from an ancient city, others argue that it was naturally created. The rectangular monument, which was first detected by a scuba diver, is

  • Yonamine, Kaname (American baseball and football player)

    Wally Yonamine, (Kaname Yonamine), American athlete (born June 24, 1925, Olowalu, Maui, Hawaii—died Feb. 28, 2011, Honolulu, Hawaii), was the first Asian American to play (1947) professional football in the U.S., but the scrappy running back for the San Francisco 49ers left the team after a wrist

  • Yonamine, Wally (American baseball and football player)

    Wally Yonamine, (Kaname Yonamine), American athlete (born June 24, 1925, Olowalu, Maui, Hawaii—died Feb. 28, 2011, Honolulu, Hawaii), was the first Asian American to play (1947) professional football in the U.S., but the scrappy running back for the San Francisco 49ers left the team after a wrist

  • Yonath, Ada (Israeli biochemist)

    Ada Yonath, Israeli protein crystallographer who was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize for Chemistry, along with Indian-born American physicist and molecular biologist Venkatraman Ramakrishnan and American biophysicist and biochemist Thomas Steitz, for her research into the atomic structure and function

  • Yonder Stands Your Orphan (work by Hannah)

    Barry Hannah: …of the western genre; and Yonder Stands Your Orphan (2001), which tells the stories of a town of eclectic and unsavoury characters, including a murderer, a former drug addict, and a septuagenarian beauty. His short story collections include Captain Maximus (1985), which also contains the outline of an original screenplay;…

  • Yondu (comic-book superhero)

    Guardians of the Galaxy: …with powerful psychokinetic abilities, and Yondu, a humanoid native of Alpha Centauri. The quartet adopts the collective name the Guardians of the Galaxy and embarks on a mission to drive the Badoon from their strongholds across the galaxy.

  • Yonezawa (Japan)

    Yonezawa, city, southern Yamagata ken (prefecture), north-central Honshu, Japan. From the Muromachi period (1338–1573) to the Meiji Restoration (1868) it was a castle town of the Uesugi daimyo family. The ruling family initiated agrarian reforms by constructing irrigation systems and allowing

  • yong (Chinese philosophy)

    China: Confucianism and philosophical Daoism: …the world of change (called yong, “function”). It started from the assumption that all temporally and spatially limited phenomena—anything “nameable”; all movement, change, and diversity; in short, all “being”—is produced and sustained by one impersonal principle, which is unlimited, unnameable, unmoving, unchanging, and undiversified. This important movement, which found its…

  • Yong (prince of Tang dynasty)

    China: Late Tang (755–907): Prince Yong, who was given control of the southeast, was the only one to take up his command; during 757 he attempted to set himself up as the independent ruler of the crucially important economic heart of the empire in the Huai and Yangtze valleys but…

  • Yong River (river, China)

    Nanning: …the north bank of the Yong River (the chief southern tributary of the Xi River system) and lies some 19 miles (30 km) below the confluence of the You and the Zuo rivers. The Yong River (which later becomes the Yu River) affords a good route to Guangzhou (Canton) and…

  • Yong’an (China)

    Yong’an, city, west-central Fujian sheng (province), southeastern China. It is situated on the Sha River, a southern tributary of the Min River. Yong’an was set up as a county in 1452 during the Ming dynasty. During the Sino-Japanese War (1937–45), Yong’an replaced Fuzhou as the temporary

  • Yongbi ?ch’?n ka (Korean poem)

    Korean literature: Poetry: … is Yongbi ?ch’?n ka (1445–47; “Songs of Flying Dragons”), a cycle compiled in praise of the founding of the Chos?n (Yi) dynasty. Korean poetry originally was meant to be sung, and its forms and styles reflect its melodic origins. The basis of its prosody is a line of alternating groups…

  • Y?ngby?n (nuclear reactor, North Korea)

    Agreed Framework: …from its nuclear facility at Y?ngby?n into enough plutonium to manufacture four or five nuclear weapons. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the organization charged with enforcing the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), urged the UN Security Council to impose strict

  • Yongding He (river, China)

    Yongding River, River, northeastern China. It rises beyond the Great Wall in Hebei province and flows southeastward through Beijing municipality. It continues through Tianjin municipality, where it becomes the principal stream forming the Hai River, which flows from the Yongding’s junction with the

  • Yongding River (river, China)

    Yongding River, River, northeastern China. It rises beyond the Great Wall in Hebei province and flows southeastward through Beijing municipality. It continues through Tianjin municipality, where it becomes the principal stream forming the Hai River, which flows from the Yongding’s junction with the

  • Yonge Street (street, Ontario, Canada)
  • Yonge, Charlotte M. (British author)

    Charlotte M. Yonge, English novelist who dedicated her talents as a writer to the service of the church. Her books helped to spread the influence of the Oxford Movement, which sought to bring about a return of the Church of England to the High Church ideals of the late 17th century. Her first

  • Yonge, Charlotte Mary (British author)

    Charlotte M. Yonge, English novelist who dedicated her talents as a writer to the service of the church. Her books helped to spread the influence of the Oxford Movement, which sought to bring about a return of the Church of England to the High Church ideals of the late 17th century. Her first

  • Yonge, Nicholas (composer)

    madrigal: In 1588 Nicholas Yonge published Musica Transalpina, a large collection of Italian madrigals in English translation. Thomas Morley, the most popular and Italianate of the Elizabethan madrigalists, assimilated the Italian style and adapted it to English taste, which preferred a lighter mood of poetry and of music.…

  • Yonge, Sir Maurice (British zoologist)

    feeding behaviour: Types of food procurement: …put forward by British zoologists Sir Maurice Yonge and J.A.C. Nicol, based on the structural mechanisms utilized, although, as Nicol observed, “many animals make use of a variety of feeding mechanisms, conjointly, or separately as occasion demands”:

  • Yonghe (Taiwan)

    Yung-ho, former municipality (shih, or shi), northern Taiwan. In 2010 it became a city district of the special municipality of New Taipei City, the successor of the former T’ai-pei county. Yung-ho is situated on the west bank of the Hsin-tien (Xindian) River, opposite Taipei special municipality,

  • Yongji Canal (canal, China)

    Cangzhou: …after the completion of the Yongji canal linking the area of Tianjin with the Huang He (Yellow River) and Luoyang in Henan province. Because the city was in an area of poor natural drainage traversed by several large rivers, in the late 7th century a canal was constructed to give…

  • Yongjia (China)

    Wenzhou, city and port, southeastern Zhejiang sheng (province), southeastern China. It is situated on the south bank of the Ou River, some 19 miles (30 km) from its mouth. The estuary of the Ou River is much obstructed by small islands and mudbanks, but the port is accessible by ships of up to

  • Y?ngjo (Korean king)

    Y?ngjo, (reigned 1724–76) king of the Korean Chos?n dynasty. A reformer, Y?ngjo reinstated the universal military service tax but then reduced it by half, making up the deficiency with other taxes. He adopted an accounting system and reduced an onerous cloth tax. Y?ngjo upgraded the status of the

  • Yongle (emperor of Ming dynasty)

    Yongle, reign name (nianhao) of the third emperor (1402–24) of China’s Ming dynasty (1368–1644), which he raised to its greatest power. He moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, which was rebuilt with the Forbidden City. Zhu Di’s father, the Hongwu emperor, had rapidly risen from a poor orphan

  • Yongle dadian (Chinese encyclopaedia)

    Yongle dadian, (Chinese: “Great Canon [literally, Vast Documents] of the Yongle Era”) Chinese compilation that was the world’s largest known encyclopaedia. Compiled during the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) by thousands of Chinese scholars under the direction of the Yongle emperor (reigned 1402–24), it

  • Yongli (emperor of Nan Ming dynasty)

    Zhu Youlang, claimant to the Ming throne after the Manchu forces of Manchuria had captured the Ming capital at Beijing and established the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12). A grandson of the Ming emperor Shenzong (reigned 1572–1620, reign name Wanli), Zhu was given the title of the prince of Gui. After

  • Yonglo (emperor of Ming dynasty)

    Yongle, reign name (nianhao) of the third emperor (1402–24) of China’s Ming dynasty (1368–1644), which he raised to its greatest power. He moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, which was rebuilt with the Forbidden City. Zhu Di’s father, the Hongwu emperor, had rapidly risen from a poor orphan

  • Yongluo Dadien (Chinese encyclopaedia)

    Yongle dadian, (Chinese: “Great Canon [literally, Vast Documents] of the Yongle Era”) Chinese compilation that was the world’s largest known encyclopaedia. Compiled during the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) by thousands of Chinese scholars under the direction of the Yongle emperor (reigned 1402–24), it

  • Yongning (China)

    Nanning, city and capital of the Zhuang Autonomous Region of Guangxi, China. The city is located in the south-central part of Guangxi on the north bank of the Yong River (the chief southern tributary of the Xi River system) and lies some 19 miles (30 km) below the confluence of the You and the Zuo

  • Y?ngsan hoesang (Korean musical work)

    Korean music: Court instrumental music: …in orchestral traditions is the Y?ngsan hoesang, which consists of nine pieces—normally performed eight or nine at a time—that together may take nearly an hour to play. The title is based on a former religious chant about the Buddha preaching on Y?ngsan (Mount Y?ng), but the pieces attached to this…

  • Y?ngsan River (river, South Korea)

    Y?ngsan River, river, southwestern South Korea. Rising in extreme northern Ch?lla-namdo (North Ch?lla Province), the Y?ngsan River flows southwest into the Yellow Sea near Mokp’o. The drainage basin is South Korea’s most important rice growing area and was the scene in the mid-1970s of the

  • Y?ngsan-gang (river, South Korea)

    Y?ngsan River, river, southwestern South Korea. Rising in extreme northern Ch?lla-namdo (North Ch?lla Province), the Y?ngsan River flows southwest into the Yellow Sea near Mokp’o. The drainage basin is South Korea’s most important rice growing area and was the scene in the mid-1970s of the

  • Y?ngung sidae (work by Yi)

    Yi Muny?l: In Y?ngung sidae (1984; The Age of Heroes), Yi imaginatively reconstructed what he imagined his father’s life might have been like after his defection to communist North Korea. In each of the 16 short stories making up K?dae tasbi n?n kohyang e kaji mot’ari (1980; You Can’t Go Home…

  • Yongyan (emperor of Qing dynasty)

    Jiaqing, reign name (nianhao) of the fifth emperor of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12), during whose reign (1796–1820) a partial attempt was made to restore the flagging state of the empire. He was proclaimed emperor and assumed the reign title of Jiaqing in 1796, after the abdication of his father,

  • Yongzheng (emperor of Qing dynasty)

    Yongzheng, reign name (nianhao) of the third emperor (reigned 1722–35) of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12), during whose rule the administration was consolidated and power became concentrated in the emperor’s hands. As the fourth son of the Kangxi emperor, Yinzhen was not immediately in line for the

  • yongzhong (Chinese bell)

    zhong: …a wooden frame, are called yongzhong; those having a ring that allows for vertical suspension are called niuzhong. The earliest known yongzhong dates to the 10th century bc, and the earliest niuzhong to the 8th century bc. At the time, the shape of both the yongzhong and the niuzhong was…

  • yoni (Hinduism)

    Yoni, (Sanskrit: “abode,” “source,” “womb,” or “vagina”) in Hinduism, the symbol of the goddess Shakti, the feminine generative power and, as a goddess, the consort of Shiva. In Shaivism, the branch of Hinduism devoted to worship of the god Shiva, the yoni is often associated with the lingam, which

  • Yonju (China)

    Yangzhou, city, southwest-central Jiangsu province (sheng), eastern China. It lies to the north of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) at the southern terminus of the section of the Grand Canal that joins the Huai River to the Yangtze. Pop. (2002 est.) 548,204. In the 4th and 3rd centuries bce,

  • Yonkers (New York, United States)

    Yonkers, city, Westchester county, southeastern New York, U.S., on the east shore of the Hudson River, in a hilly region north of the Bronx, New York. The site, once a major village, Nappeckamack, of the Manhattan Indians, was acquired by the Dutch West India Company in 1639. Adriaen van der

  • Yonne (department, France)

    Burgundy: Sa?ne-et-Loire, Nièvre, and Yonne. In 2016 the Burgundy région was joined with the région of Franche-Comté to form the new administrative entity of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté.

  • Yonne River (river, France)

    Yonne River, river, north central France, a left-bank tributary of the Seine River. From its source in the Nièvre département at the foot of Mont Preneley, located in the Morvan heights west of Autun, to its confluence with the Seine at Montereau, the Yonne is 182 mi (293 km) long. It speeds

  • Yono (Japan)

    Saitama: …them was the much smaller Yono, which did not become urbanized until after the war and whose area was restricted by its two expanding neighbours. Merger discussions among the three were initiated before the war but did not begin in earnest until the early 1990s; negotiations continued for another decade…

  • Yonsama (Korean actor and business executive)

    Bae Yong-Jun, South Korean actor and business executive who achieved fame as the romantic lead in a number of globally syndicated televised drama series. He was also known for his various business ventures, notably the entertainment firm KeyEast. Bae found his calling as an actor as a teenager and

  • Yoovidhya, Chaleo (Thai businessman)

    Chaleo Yoovidhya, Thai businessman (born Aug. 17, 1923, Phichit province, Siam [now in Thailand]—died March 17, 2012, Bangkok, Thai.), created the energy drink Krathing (or Krating) Daeng (“Red Gaur”), which was distributed in the West under the trademarked name Red Bull. Chaleo was born into a

  • Yopal (Colombia)

    Yopal, town and capital of Casanare departamento, eastern Colombia. The original settlement (caserío) of Yopal was founded in 1935 by Pedro Pablo González, and it has been the seat of Casanare intendency (now departamento) since the creation of Casanare in 1974. Located at the western edge of the

  • yopo (drug)

    Cohoba, hallucinogenic snuff made from the seeds of a tropical American tree (Piptadenia peregrina) and used by Indians of the Caribbean and South America at the time of early Spanish explorations. DMT (N,N-dimethyltryptamine) and bufotenine (qq.v.) are thought to have been the active principles. C

  • Yoram (king of Israel)

    Jehoram, one of two contemporary Old Testament kings. Jehoram, the son of Ahab and Jezebel and king (c. 849–c. 842 bc) of Israel, maintained close relations with Judah. Together with Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, Jehoram unsuccessfully attempted to subdue a revolt of Moab against Israel. As had his

  • Yorba Linda (California, United States)

    Yorba Linda, city, Orange county, southern California, U.S. The area was explored by a Spanish expedition in 1769, and in 1801 Juan Pablo Grijalva received a Spanish land grant known as Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana; Grijalva’s descendants, the Peraltas and the Yorbas, inherited the land, and the

  • Yorck (German film)

    Gustav Ucicky: Ucicky’s first nationalistic film, Yorck (1931), was panned in the United States as being no more than an overglorified depiction of an episode of German history. Though similarly criticized in Austria, the movie launched a string of films that were approved for the German public by Joseph Goebbels, Nazi…

  • Yorck von Wartenburg, Johann David Ludwig, Graf (Prussian field marshal)

    Johann Yorck, count von Wartenburg, Prussian field marshal, reformer, and successful commander during the Wars of Liberation (1813–15) against France. His initiative in signing a separate neutrality agreement with Russia during the Napoleonic invasion of that country (Convention of Tauroggen, 1812)

  • Yordan, Philip (American screenwriter and producer)
  • yorde merkava (Judaism)

    Judaism: Early stages to the 6th century ce: …of the supernatural world” (yorde merkava). The latter comprise ecstatic hymns, descriptions of the “dwellings” (hekhalot) located between the visible world and the ever-inaccessible Divinity, whose transcendence is paradoxically expressed by anthropomorphic descriptions consisting of inordinate hyperboles (Shi?ur qoma, “Divine Dimensions”). A few documents have been preserved that attest…

  • Yore de?a (Jewish law)

    Jacob ben Asher: …governing prayer and ritual; (2) Yore de?a (“Teacher of Knowledge”), setting forth the laws concerning things that are permitted or forbidden, such as dietary laws; (3) Even ha-?ezer (“Stone of Help”), containing the laws governing family relations, such as marriage and divorce; and (4) ?oshen mishpa? (“Breastplate of Judgment”), epitomizing…

  • Yorghan Tepe (ancient city, Iraq)

    Nuzu, ancient Mesopotamian city, located southwest of Kirkūk, Iraq. Excavations undertaken there by American archaeologists in 1925–31 revealed material extending from the prehistoric period to Roman, Parthian, and Sāsānian periods. In Akkadian times (2334–2154 bc) the site was called Gasur; but

  • Yorick Club (literary club)

    Marcus Clarke: …and helped to found the Yorick Club, which numbered among its members many of the literary lights of his day.

  • Yorimitsu (Japanese mythology)

    Yorimitsu, one of the most popular of the legendary Japanese warrior heroes and a member of the martial Minamoto clan. In his exploits he is always accompanied by four trusty lieutenants. One adventure concerns his vanquishing the boy-faced giant Shuten-dōji (“Drunkard Boy”), who lived on human b

  • York (county, Maine, United States)

    York, county, extreme southwestern Maine, U.S. It is located in a coastal region bordered by New Hampshire to the west and southwest (that border largely defined by the Salmon Falls and Piscataqua rivers), the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Ossipee and Saco rivers to the north. Maine and New

  • York (county, South Carolina, United States)

    York, county, northern South Carolina, U.S. North Carolina forms the northern border, the Catawba River part of the eastern border, and the Broad River part of the western border. On the northern border is Lake Wylie, created by one of the state’s first hydroelectric projects, the Catawba Dam on

  • York (county, Pennsylvania, United States)

    York, county, southern Pennsylvania, U.S., bordered to the northeast and east by the Susquehanna River, to the south by Maryland, and to the northwest by Yellow Breeches Creek. It consists of a hilly piedmont region that rises to the Blue Ridge Mountains in the northwest. The county waterways

  • York (Maine, United States)

    York, town, York county, southwestern Maine, U.S., situated at the mouth of the York River on the Atlantic Ocean, 43 miles (69 km) southwest of Portland. York includes the communities of York Village, Cape Neddick, York Beach, and York Harbor. Settled in 1624 on a site called Agamenticus by Captain

  • York (American explorer)

    William Clark: …Discovery (which included Clark’s slave York) departed on May 14, 1804, with Clark operating as the expedition’s principal waterman and cartographer. His monumental maps of the West (1810–14) represented the best available until the 1840s. Moreover, he kept one of the most faithful journals on the trip, and his imaginative…

  • York (Ontario, Canada)

    York, former city (1983–98), southeastern Ontario, Canada. In 1998 it amalgamated with the cities of Toronto, Etobicoke, Scarborough, and North York and the borough of East York to form the City of Toronto. York was established as a borough in 1967, through the amalgamation of the township of York

  • York (city and unitary authority, England, United Kingdom)

    York, city and unitary authority, geographic county of North Yorkshire, historic county of Yorkshire, northern England. It lies at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss, about midway between London and Edinburgh. It is the cathedral city of the archbishop of York and was historically the

  • York (Pennsylvania, United States)

    York, city, seat (1749) of York county, southeastern Pennsylvania, U.S., on Codorus Creek, 28 miles (45 km) southeast of Harrisburg. It is the focus of a metropolitan district that includes the boroughs of North York and West York and a number of townships. York was laid out (1741) in

  • York and Albany, Frederick Augustus, Duke of (English nobleman)

    Frederick Augustus, duke of York and Albany, second son of King George III of Great Britain, younger brother of George IV, and British field commander in two unsuccessful campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars. In conjunction with an Austrian force, Frederick’s army scored victories over the

  • York Factory (historical settlement, Manitoba, Canada)

    York Factory, historical settlement in northeastern Manitoba, Canada. It lies at the mouth of the Hayes River, on Hudson Bay. It was the site of a Hudson’s Bay Company post (Fort Nelson) built in 1683 and destroyed in 1684 by the French; a new fort, named for the duke of York (later King James II),

  • York Island (island, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador)

    San Salvador Island, one of the Galapagos Islands, in the eastern Pacific Ocean about 600 miles (965 km) west of mainland Ecuador. Its relief is dominated by two volcanoes, the larger rising to 1,700 feet (520 m), that form the mass of the island’s area of 203 square miles (526 square km).

  • York Minster (cathedral, York, England, United Kingdom)

    stained glass: England: The nave clerestory windows in York Minster contain some reused panels from a series of narrative windows, one of which depicted the life of St. Benedict (c. 1140–60). Another panel, a single figure of a king from a Jesse tree, shows some affinity in style with the glass at Saint-Denis…

  • York plays (medieval cycle)

    York plays, a cycle of 48 plays, dating from the 14th century, of unknown authorship, which were performed during the Middle Ages by craft guilds in the city of York, in the north of England, on the summer feast day of Corpus Christi. Some of the York plays are almost identical with corresponding

  • York Realist (playwright)

    York plays: …often referred to as the York Realist.

  • York Retreat (asylum, York, England, United Kingdom)

    mental disorder: Early history: …William Tuke, who established the York Retreat for the humane care of the mentally ill in 1796, and the physician Vincenzo Chiarugi, who published a humanitarian regime for his hospital in Florence in 1788. In the mid-19th century Dorothea Dix led a campaign to increase public awareness of the inhumane…

  • York round (archery)

    archery: History: …in the British men’s championship York round (six dozen, four dozen, and two dozen arrows shot at each of the three distances). These recreational activities with the bow evolved into the modern sport of archery. In 1844 the first of the Grand National Archery Meetings—the British championships—was held at York,…

  • York University (university, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)

    York University, privately endowed university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, founded in 1959. It has faculties of administrative studies, arts, education, environmental studies, fine arts, and graduate studies as well as schools of law, business, and of pure and applied science. Among its research

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