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  • Yale University (university, New Haven, Connecticut, United States)

    Yale University, private university in New Haven, Connecticut, one of the Ivy League schools. It was founded in 1701 and is the third oldest university in the United States. Yale was originally chartered by the colonial legislature of Connecticut as the Collegiate School and was held at

  • Yale University Art Gallery (building, New Haven, Conncecticut, United States)

    Louis Kahn: …his first important work: the Yale University Art Gallery (1952–54) at New Haven, Connecticut, which marked a notable departure from his International Style buildings of the previous decade.

  • Yale, Caroline (American educator)

    Caroline Yale, American educator of the deaf and longtime principal of the Clarke School for the Deaf. Yale attended Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (later Mount Holyoke College; 1866–68). She taught briefly in schools in Brandon and Williston, Vermont, and in 1870 joined the staff of the Clarke

  • Yale, Caroline Ardelia (American educator)

    Caroline Yale, American educator of the deaf and longtime principal of the Clarke School for the Deaf. Yale attended Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (later Mount Holyoke College; 1866–68). She taught briefly in schools in Brandon and Williston, Vermont, and in 1870 joined the staff of the Clarke

  • Yale, Elihu (English merchant and philanthropist)

    Elihu Yale, English merchant, official of the East India Company, and benefactor of Yale University. Although born in Massachusetts, Yale was taken to England by his family at the age of three, and he never returned to America. He was educated at a private school in London. In 1671 Yale began

  • Yale, Frankie (American gangster)

    Frankie Yale, Italian-born American gangster and national president, during its heyday (1918–28), of the Unione Siciliane, a Sicilian fraternal organization that by World War I had become a crime cartel operating in several U.S. cities and active in robbery, prostitution, labour-union extortion,

  • Yale, Linus (American inventor)

    Linus Yale, American inventor and designer of the compact cylinder pin-tumbler lock that bears his name. At first Yale tried portrait painting, but he became interested in locks after his father began to manufacture bank locks in Newport, N.Y., about 1840. His first achievement was the Yale

  • Yalin-Mor, Nathan (Israeli journalist and political figure)

    Nathan Yalin-Mor, Israeli journalist and political figure best known as a leader of the Stern Gang, a Zionist terrorist organization. Yalin-Mor was one of the three leaders who succeeded Abraham Stern at the head of the Stern Gang during the period of the British mandate in Palestine. The group was

  • Yalobusha River (river, Mississippi, United States)

    Yalobusha River, river that rises in north-central Mississippi, U.S., and flows 80 miles (130 km) southwest to unite with the Tallahatchie River and form the Yazoo River. Grenada Dam (1947) impounds Grenada Lake, a flood-control reservoir, which also receives the Yalobusha’s chief tributary, the

  • Yalom, Irvin D. (American psychiatrist)

    mental disorder: Group psychotherapy: …influential model of American psychiatrist Irvin D. Yalom provides a good example of such therapies. In this approach the therapist continually encourages the patients to direct their attention to the personal interactions occurring within the group rather than to what happened in the past to individual members or events currently…

  • Yalong Jiang (river, China)

    Yalong River, long secondary tributary of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) in central and southern China. The Yalong rises in the Bayan Har Mountains in southern Qinghai province at an elevation of nearly 16,500 feet (5,000 metres). The upper stream flows southeastward from the Bayan Har Mountains

  • Yalong River (river, China)

    Yalong River, long secondary tributary of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) in central and southern China. The Yalong rises in the Bayan Har Mountains in southern Qinghai province at an elevation of nearly 16,500 feet (5,000 metres). The upper stream flows southeastward from the Bayan Har Mountains

  • Yalou, Le (essay by Valéry)

    Paul Valéry: …on the Sino-Japanese conflict (“Le Yalou,” written 1895) and the threat of German aggression (“La Conquête allemande,” 1897) reveal the same anxious awareness of the forces menacing Western civilization as his very last public lecture on Voltaire (delivered in 1944).

  • Yalow, Rosalyn S. (American medical physicist)

    Rosalyn S. Yalow, American medical physicist and joint recipient (with Andrew V. Schally and Roger Guillemin) of the 1977 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, awarded for her development of radioimmunoassay (RIA), an extremely sensitive technique for measuring minute quantities of biologically

  • Yalow, Rosalyn Sussman (American medical physicist)

    Rosalyn S. Yalow, American medical physicist and joint recipient (with Andrew V. Schally and Roger Guillemin) of the 1977 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, awarded for her development of radioimmunoassay (RIA), an extremely sensitive technique for measuring minute quantities of biologically

  • Yalta (Ukraine)

    Yalta, city, Crimea, southern Ukraine. It faces the Black Sea on the southern shore of the Crimean Peninsula. Settlement on the site dates from prehistoric times, but modern Yalta developed only in the early 19th century, becoming a town in 1838. Its favourable climate with mild winters and its

  • Yalta Conference (World War II)

    Yalta Conference, (February 4–11, 1945), major World War II conference of the three chief Allied leaders—Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom, and Premier Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union—which met at Yalta in Crimea to plan the

  • Yalu Jiang (river, Asia)

    Yalu River, river of northeastern Asia that forms the northwestern boundary between North Korea and the Northeast region (Manchuria) of China. The Chinese provinces of Jilin and Liaoning are bordered by the river. Its length is estimated to be about 500 miles (800 km), and it drains an area of some

  • Yalu River (river, Asia)

    Yalu River, river of northeastern Asia that forms the northwestern boundary between North Korea and the Northeast region (Manchuria) of China. The Chinese provinces of Jilin and Liaoning are bordered by the river. Its length is estimated to be about 500 miles (800 km), and it drains an area of some

  • Yalu River, Battle of the (first Sino-Japanese War [1894])

    Battle of the Yalu River, also called the Battle of the Yellow Sea, (17 September 1894), large naval engagement and decisive Japanese victory in the Korea Bay, part of the first Sino-Japanese War. In the second half of the nineteenth century, Japan and China put major resources into creating modern

  • Yalu, Battle of the (Sino-Japanese War)

    naval warfare: The age of steam and big gun: …battles were those of the Yalu (September 17, 1894), the Yellow Sea (August 10 and 14, 1904), and Tsushima (May 27–29, 1905), in which the gun regained primacy to such an extent that the Russian vice admiral Stepan Osipovich Makarov could confidently write, “A good gun causes victory, armour only…

  • Yalunka (people)

    Sierra Leone: Ethnic groups: Yalunka, and Loko in the north; the Kono and Kisi in the east; and the Sherbro in the southwest. Minor groups include the coastal Bullom, Vai, and Krim and the Fulani and Malinke, who are immigrants from Guinea concentrated in the north and

  • yam (plant)

    Yam, any of several plant species of the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) grown for their edible tubers. Yams are native to warmer regions of both hemispheres, and several species are cultivated as staple food crops in the tropics. In certain tropical cultures, notably in West Africa and New

  • Yam (Semitic deity)

    Yamm, (Hebrew: “Sea”) ancient West Semitic deity who ruled the oceans, rivers, lakes, and underground springs. He also played an important role in the Baal myths recorded on tablets uncovered at Ugarit, which say that at the beginning of time Yamm was awarded the divine kingship by El, the chief

  • yam bean (plant)

    Jícama, (Pachyrhizus erosus), leguminous vine of the pea family (Fabaceae), grown for its edible tubers. Jícama is native to Mexico and Central and South America and is an important local food crop. Some varieties (known as jícama de aqua in Spanish) have clear juices, and some (jícama de leche)

  • yam family (plant family)

    Dioscoreaceae, the yam family of the flowering plant order Dioscoreales, consisting of 4 genera and 870 species of herbaceous or woody vines and shrubs, distributed throughout tropical and warm temperate regions. Members of the family have thick, sometimes woody roots or tuber-like underground

  • yam order (plant order)

    Dioscoreales, the yam order of flowering plants, belonging to the monocotyledons (characterized by a single seed leaf) and containing three families, about 22 genera, and more than 1,000 species. Under the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) botanical classification system, the order contained five

  • Yam Zapolsky, Peace of (Russian-Lithuanian history [1582])

    Livonian War: …upon a peace settlement (Peace of Yam Zapolsky), whereby Russia returned all the Lithuanian territory it had captured and renounced its claims to Livonia. In 1583 Russia also made peace with Sweden, surrendering several Russian towns along the Gulf of Finland (its only access to the Baltic Sea) and…

  • Yama (Tibetan Buddhist god)

    Yama, in Tibetan Buddhism, one of the eight fierce protective deities. See

  • Yama (Iranian religion)

    Yima, in ancient Iranian religion, the first man, the progenitor of the human race, and son of the sun. Yima is the subject of conflicting legends obscurely reflecting different religious currents. According to one legend, Yima declined God’s (Ahura Mazdā’s) offer to make him the vehicle of the

  • Yama (Hindu god)

    Yama, in the mythology of India, the god of the dead. The Vedas describe him as the first man who died, blazing the path of mortality down which all humans have since followed. He is the guardian of the south (the region of death) and presides over the resting place of the dead, which is located

  • yama (Yoga)

    Yama, (Sanskrit: “restraint”), in the Yoga system of Indian philosophy, first of the eight stages intended to lead the aspirant to samādhi, or state of perfect concentration. An ethical preparation, meant to purify the individual, yama involves the abstinence from injury to others and from lying,

  • Yama (work by Kuprin)

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Kuprin: …best known novel, Yama (1909–15; Yama: The Pit), deals with the red-light district of a southern port city. It dwells with enthusiasm on the minutiae of the everyday life of the prostitutes, their housekeeping, economics, and social stratification. As Kuprin’s spokesman in the novel puts it, “all the horror is…

  • Yama no oto (work by Kawabata)

    Kawabata Yasunari: …and Yama no oto (1949–54; The Sound of the Mountain) are considered to be his best novels. The later book focuses on the comfort an old man who cannot chide his own children gets from his daughter-in-law.

  • Yama-no-kami (Japanese religion)

    Yama-no-kami, in Japanese popular religion, any of numerous gods of the mountains. These kami are of two kinds: (1) gods who rule over mountains and are venerated by hunters, woodcutters, and charcoal burners and (2) gods who rule over agriculture and are venerated by farmers. Chief among them is

  • Yama: The Pit (work by Kuprin)

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Kuprin: …best known novel, Yama (1909–15; Yama: The Pit), deals with the red-light district of a southern port city. It dwells with enthusiasm on the minutiae of the everyday life of the prostitutes, their housekeeping, economics, and social stratification. As Kuprin’s spokesman in the novel puts it, “all the horror is…

  • Yamabe Akahito (Japanese poet)

    Japanese literature: The significance of the Man’yōshū: … written by the 8th-century poet Yamabe Akahito are so perfectly conceived as to make the chōka they follow at times seem unnecessary; the concision and evocativeness of these poems, identical in form with the tanka, are close to the ideals of later Japanese poetry. Nevertheless, the supreme works of the…

  • yamabushi (Japanese religion)

    Shugen-dō: The Shugen-dō practitioner, the yamabushi (literally, “one who bows down in the mountains”), engages in spiritual and physical disciplines in order to attain magical power effective against evil spirits. Mountains, considered in folk religions “other worlds,” were for the esoteric Buddhists training grounds for ascetics.

  • Yamada Kengyō (Japanese musician)

    Japanese music: Schools and genres: …of still another school by Yamada Kengyō (1757–1817). In present-day Japan the Ikuta and Yamada schools remain popular, whereas the earlier traditions have faded considerably. Both schools have provided famous composers, and there are several pieces from their schools, as well as a few earlier works, that are now shared…

  • Yamada Kōsaku (Japanese composer)

    Japanese music: Composers in Western styles: Yamada Kōsaku was training in Germany when the Meiji era ended (1912) and returned to Japan with a new name, Koscak, and a strong interest in the founding of opera companies and symphony orchestras, as well as in the teaching of Western music. His opera…

  • Yamada school (Japanese music)

    Japanese music: Schools and genres: …present-day Japan the Ikuta and Yamada schools remain popular, whereas the earlier traditions have faded considerably. Both schools have provided famous composers, and there are several pieces from their schools, as well as a few earlier works, that are now shared by the guilds as part of the classical repertoire…

  • Yamada, Isuzu (Japanese actress)

    Isuzu Yamada, (Mitsu Yamada), Japanese actress (born Feb. 5, 1917, Osaka, Japan—died July 9, 2012, Tokyo, Japan), was a major national star who was acclaimed for her portrayals of headstrong women navigating a male-dominated society, most notably in films directed by Kenji Mizoguchi and Akira

  • Yamada, Mitsu (Japanese actress)

    Isuzu Yamada, (Mitsu Yamada), Japanese actress (born Feb. 5, 1917, Osaka, Japan—died July 9, 2012, Tokyo, Japan), was a major national star who was acclaimed for her portrayals of headstrong women navigating a male-dominated society, most notably in films directed by Kenji Mizoguchi and Akira

  • Yamaga gorui (work by Yamaga Sokō)

    Yamaga Sokō: …the basic Confucian virtue, benevolence, Yamaga emphasized the second virtue, righteousness, which he interpreted as obligation or duty.

  • Yamaga Sokō (Japanese military strategist)

    Yamaga Sokō, military strategist and Confucian philosopher who set forth the first systematic exposition of the missions and obligations of the samurai (warrior) class and who made major contributions to Japanese military science. Yamaga’s thought became the central core of what later came to be

  • Yamaga Takasuke (Japanese military strategist)

    Yamaga Sokō, military strategist and Confucian philosopher who set forth the first systematic exposition of the missions and obligations of the samurai (warrior) class and who made major contributions to Japanese military science. Yamaga’s thought became the central core of what later came to be

  • Yamagata (prefecture, Japan)

    Yamagata, prefecture (ken), northern Honshu, Japan, on the Sea of Japan (East Sea). Much of the prefecture is mountainous. Bandai-Asahi National Park, stretching from north to south, includes the Dewa Sangan (Three Mountains of Dewa [Gassan, Yudono-san, Haguro-san]), which are sacred to the

  • Yamagata Aritomo (prime minister of Japan)

    Yamagata Aritomo, Japanese soldier and statesman who exerted a strong influence in Japan’s emergence as a formidable military power at the beginning of the 20th century. He was the first prime minister under the parliamentary regime, serving in 1889–91 and 1898–1900. Yamagata was from a family of

  • Yamagata Bantō (Japanese scholar)

    Japan: Western studies: …century were Shiba Kōkan and Yamagata Bantō. An artist who began within the Kanō school tradition and then studied ukiyo-e with Harunobu, Kōkan was widely influenced by Dutch studies and Western rationalism in general. He is known as the pioneer of etching in Japan; but in his writings, Kōkan also…

  • Yamaguchi (prefecture, Japan)

    Yamaguchi, prefecture (ken), extreme western Honshu, Japan, bordered by the Sea of Japan (East Sea; north), the Shimonoseki Strait (southwest), and the Inland Sea (south). Most of its area is composed of plateaus and hills, and there are no extensive plains. The limestone caves and outcroppings of

  • Yamaguchi, Goro (Japanese musician)

    Goro Yamaguchi, Japanese musician whose mastery of the wooden flute known as the shakuhachi was such that he was named a “living national treasure” in Japan; part of one of his recordings was included in a selection of music sent into space on NASA’s Voyager 2 (b. 1933, Tokyo, Japan—d. Jan. 3,

  • Yamaguchi, Tsutomu (Japanese engineer, translator, and educator)

    Tsutomu Yamaguchi, Japanese engineer, translator, and educator (born March 16, 1916, Nagasaki, Japan—died Jan. 4, 2010, Nagasaki), was the only officially documented survivor of both the Hiroshima (Aug. 6, 1945) and Nagasaki (Aug. 9, 1945) atomic bombings during World War II. Yamaguchi was on a

  • Yamaguchi-gumi (Japanese criminal organization)

    Taoka Kazuo: …a giant crime organization, the Yamaguchi-gumi. Though centred in Kōbe, it had interests and affiliates nationwide and consisted of more than 10,000 members (known as yakuza) divided into more than 500 bands.

  • Yamaha Corporation (Japanese piano manufacturer)

    player piano: By the 1990s the Yamaha Corporation, a Japanese piano manufacturer, had introduced the “Disklavier,” an acoustic player piano equipped with a computer that, by reading data on a floppy disc or compact disc, could re-create on the piano virtually every nuance of a performance—the tone, touch, timing, and dynamic…

  • Yamaha DX-7 (music synthesizer)

    electronic instrument: Digital synthesizers: …best-known of these was the Yamaha DX-7, which was based on the results of Chowning’s research in FM Synthesis. Introduced in 1983, the DX-7 was polyphonic, had a five-octave touch-sensitive keyboard, and offered a wide choice of timbres, which the player could adjust or change to suit his requirements. Well…

  • Yamaka (Buddhist literature)

    Abhidhamma Pitaka: …to a particular author, (6) Yamaka (“Pairs”), a series of questions on psychological phenomena, each dealt with in two opposite ways, and (7) Patthana (“Activations,” or “Causes”), a complex and voluminous treatment of causality and 23 other kinds of relationships between phenomena, mental or material. Historically one of the most…

  • Yamal Peninsula (peninsula, Russia)

    Yamal Peninsula, Arctic lowland region in northwestern Siberia, west-central Russia. It is bounded on the west by the Kara Sea and Baydarata Bay, on the east and southeast by the Gulf of Ob, and on the north by the Malygina Strait. The peninsula has a total length of 435 miles (700 km), a maximum

  • Yamal-Nenets (district, Russia)

    Yamalo-Nenets, autonomous okrug (district), in northwestern Siberia, central Russia. It was established in 1930 as an autonomous okrug for the Nenets, or Samoyed, people, although by the late 20th century they constituted only about one-tenth of the population. The okrug covers the northern part of

  • Yamalo-Nenets (district, Russia)

    Yamalo-Nenets, autonomous okrug (district), in northwestern Siberia, central Russia. It was established in 1930 as an autonomous okrug for the Nenets, or Samoyed, people, although by the late 20th century they constituted only about one-tenth of the population. The okrug covers the northern part of

  • Yamamoto Eizō (Japanese poet)

    Ryōkan, Zen Buddhist priest of the late Tokugawa period (1603–1867) who was renowned as a poet and calligrapher. The eldest son of a village headman, he became a Buddhist priest at about the age of 17 under the religious name of Taigu Ryōkan. When he was 21 he met an itinerant monk, Kokusen, and

  • Yamamoto Gombee, Count (prime minister of Japan)

    Count Yamamoto Gonnohyōe, Japanese naval officer who served two terms as prime minister of his country (1913–14; 1923–24). Yamamoto’s well-placed political contacts aided his rapid rise in the navy. During the Sino-Japanese War he served as aide-de-camp to general headquarters and in 1898 was

  • Yamamoto Gonnohyōe, Count (prime minister of Japan)

    Count Yamamoto Gonnohyōe, Japanese naval officer who served two terms as prime minister of his country (1913–14; 1923–24). Yamamoto’s well-placed political contacts aided his rapid rise in the navy. During the Sino-Japanese War he served as aide-de-camp to general headquarters and in 1898 was

  • Yamamoto Isoroku (Japanese military officer)

    Yamamoto Isoroku, Japanese naval officer who conceived of the surprise attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941. Yamamoto graduated from the Japanese Naval Academy in 1904, and a year later he was wounded in action at the Battle of Tsushima during the Russo-Japanese War. In

  • Yamamoto Kajirō (Japanese film director)

    Kurosawa Akira: Early life: …mainly as an assistant to Yamamoto Kajirō, one of Japan’s major directors of World War II films. During this period Kurosawa became known as an excellent scenarist. Some of his best scenarios were never filmed but only published in journals; yet they were noticed by specialists for their freshness of…

  • Yamamoto Kanae (Japanese artist)

    Japanese art: Wood-block prints: Also prominent was Yamamoto Kanae. A notable feature of sōsaku hanga works was a movement toward defining shapes using colour rather than outlines, as in traditional wood-block prints.

  • Yamamoto Sōken (Japanese artist)

    Ogata Kōrin: …accomplished painter, and later under Yamamoto Sōken, a member of the officially recognized Kanō school. Sōken, who was skillful in both Chinese-style ink painting and the traditional Tosa school painting, which employed Japanese subject matter and a colourful decorative style, instructed his pupil in both these manners. Other influences on…

  • Yaman as-Saida, Al- (ancient region, Arabia)

    Arabia Felix, (Latin: “Happy, or Flourishing, Arabia”) in ancient geography, the comparatively fertile region in southwestern and southern Arabia (in present-day Asir and Yemen), a region that contrasted with Arabia Deserta in barren central and northern Arabia and with Arabia Petraea (“Stony

  • Yaman, Al-

    Yemen, country situated at the southwestern corner of the Arabian Peninsula. It is mostly mountainous and generally arid, though there are broad patches with sufficient precipitation to make agriculture successful. The people speak various dialects of Arabic and are mostly Muslims (see Islam). The

  • Yaman, Al- (former country, Yemen)

    Yemen: Two Yemeni states: …Aden renamed the country the People’s Republic of South Yemen. Short of resources and unable to obtain any significant amounts of aid, either from the Western states or from those in the Arab world, it began to drift toward the Soviet Union, which eagerly provided economic and technical assistance in…

  • Yaman, Bāb al- (gate, Sanaa, Yemen)

    Sanaa: The contemporary city: …Yemen Gate (Bāb al-Yaman), renamed Liberty Gate after the revolution of 1962. Old Sanaa includes 106 mosques, 12 hammams (baths), and 6,500 houses, all built before the 11th century ce. Multistoried tower houses, built of dark basalt stone and brick, are decorated with intricate frieze work and beautiful carved windows.…

  • Yámana (people)

    Yámana, South American Indian people, very few in number, who were the traditional occupants of the south coast of Tierra del Fuego and the neighbouring islands south to Cape Horn. In the 19th century they numbered between 2,500 and 3,000. The Yámana language forms a distinct linguistic group m

  • Yamana Mochitoyo (Japanese feudal lord)

    Yamana Mochitoyo, head of the most powerful warrior clan in western Japan in the 15th century. Yamana’s attempts to increase his family’s rank and influence brought him into conflict with a rival clan in eastern Japan and resulted in the ōnin War (1467–77), which was followed by a century of i

  • Yamanaka Shinya (Japanese scientist)

    Shinya Yamanaka, Japanese physician and researcher who developed a revolutionary method for generating stem cells from existing cells of the body. This method involved inserting specific genes into the nuclei of adult cells (e.g., connective-tissue cells), a process that resulted in the reversion

  • Yamanaka, Lake (lake, Japan)

    Mount Fuji: …Goko), comprising, east to west, Lake Yamanaka, Lake Kawaguchi, Lake Sai, Lake Shōji, and Lake Motosu, all formed by the damming effects of lava flows. The lowest, Lake Kawaguchi, at 2,726 feet (831 metres), is noted for the inverted reflection of Mount Fuji on its still waters. Tourism in the…

  • Yamanaka, Shinya (Japanese scientist)

    Shinya Yamanaka, Japanese physician and researcher who developed a revolutionary method for generating stem cells from existing cells of the body. This method involved inserting specific genes into the nuclei of adult cells (e.g., connective-tissue cells), a process that resulted in the reversion

  • Yamanashi (prefecture, Japan)

    Yamanashi, landlocked ken (prefecture), central Honshu, Japan. The prefectural capital, Kōfu, is located in central Yamanashi. Much of the prefecture’s area is mountainous, including Mount Shirane (10,472 feet [3,192 metres]) and other peaks of the southern Japanese Alps in the west and northwest

  • Yamanoe Okura (Japanese poet)

    Yamanoue Okura, one of the most individualistic, even eccentric, of Japan’s classical poets, who lived and wrote in an age of bold experimentation when native Japanese poetry was developing rapidly under the stimulus of Chinese literature. His poems are characterized by a Confucian-inspired moral

  • Yamanouchi family (Japanese history)

    Yamanouchi family, family of Japanese feudal lords who from 1600 to 1868 dominated the important fief of Tosa on the island of Shikoku. The rise in the Yamanouchi family’s fortunes began with Yamanouchi Kazutoyo (1546–1605). For his successes on the battlefield in the service of Toyotomi Hideyoshi,

  • Yamanouchi Kazutoyo (Japanese feudal lord)

    Yamanouchi family: …Yamanouchi family’s fortunes began with Yamanouchi Kazutoyo (1546–1605). For his successes on the battlefield in the service of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, then the most powerful general in Japan, Kazutoyo was rewarded with a small fief. After Hideyoshi’s death, Kazutoyo switched his loyalty to Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543–1616), whom he aided at the…

  • Yamanouchi Toyoshige (Japanese feudal lord)

    Yamanouchi family: …head of the Yamanouchi family, Yamanouchi Toyoshige (1827–72), tried to negotiate a favourable settlement for the Tokugawas with the dissident lords. But, when his efforts failed, he joined the rebels in overthrowing the Tokugawa rule in order to prevent warriors of rival fiefs from obtaining too much influence in the…

  • Yamanoue Okura (Japanese poet)

    Yamanoue Okura, one of the most individualistic, even eccentric, of Japan’s classical poets, who lived and wrote in an age of bold experimentation when native Japanese poetry was developing rapidly under the stimulus of Chinese literature. His poems are characterized by a Confucian-inspired moral

  • Yamāntaka (Buddhist deity)

    Yamāntaka, in northern Buddhism, one of the eight fierce protective deities. See d

  • Yamantau, Mount (mountain, Russia)

    Ural Mountains: Physiography: …(1,200 metres) and culminating in Mount Yamantau, 5,380 feet (1,640 metres); the section terminates in the wide uplands (less than 2,000 feet [600 metres]) of the Mughalzhar Hills.

  • Yamasaki, Minoru (American architect)

    Minoru Yamasaki, American architect whose buildings, notable for their appeal to the senses, departed from the austerity often associated with post-World War II modern architecture. Following his graduation from the University of Washington, Seattle, Yamasaki went in 1934 to New York City, where he

  • Yamasee (people)

    Yamasee War: …history, conflict between Indians, mainly Yamasee, and British colonists in the southeastern area of South Carolina, resulting in the collapse of Indian power in that area. Embittered by settlers’ encroachment upon their land and by unresolved grievances arising from the fur trade, a group of Yamasees rose and killed 90…

  • Yamasee War (British-North American history)

    Yamasee War, (1715–16), in British-American colonial history, conflict between Indians, mainly Yamasee, and British colonists in the southeastern area of South Carolina, resulting in the collapse of Indian power in that area. Embittered by settlers’ encroachment upon their land and by unresolved

  • Yamashina Temple (temple, Japan)

    Japanese architecture: The Nara period: Kōfuku, the titular temple of the powerful Fujiwara clan, originally was established as Yamashina Temple in the area of present-day Kyōto in the mid-7th century. It was relocated to Nara in 710 by clan leader Fujiwara Fuhito (659–720) and given the name Kōfuku. In scale…

  • Yamashina, Naoharu (Japanese executive)

    Naoharu Yamashina, Japanese entrepreneur who founded the Bandai Co., a trendsetting toy manufacturer that produced the highly popular action figures Mighty Morphin Power Rangers and the virtual pet Tamagotchi (b. 1918?--d. Oct. 28,

  • Yamashiro (province, Japan)

    Japan: The ōnin War (1467–77): …the local warriors of southern Yamashiro province met in the Byōdō Temple at Uji and successfully demanded the withdrawal of the two Hatakeyama armies. As a result, southern Yamashiro became self-governing for more than eight years.

  • Yamashita Hōbun (Japanese general)

    Yamashita Tomoyuki, Japanese general known for his successful attacks on Malaya and Singapore during World War II. After graduating from the Army Academy (1905) and the Army War College (1916), Yamashita was an officer for the Army General Staff Office. He rose rapidly through the ranks of the I

  • Yamashita Park (park, Yokohama, Japan)

    Tokyo-Yokohama Metropolitan Area: Green space: The most popular, Yamashita, is on land reclaimed from the bay with debris from the 1923 earthquake. The Sankei Garden, some distance south of the city centre, was built and presented to the city by a 19th-century silk merchant. The park once reposed by the bay, but reclamation…

  • Yamashita Tomoyuki (Japanese general)

    Yamashita Tomoyuki, Japanese general known for his successful attacks on Malaya and Singapore during World War II. After graduating from the Army Academy (1905) and the Army War College (1916), Yamashita was an officer for the Army General Staff Office. He rose rapidly through the ranks of the I

  • Yamashita, Yasuhiro (Japanese athlete)
  • Yamatai (ancient kingdom, Japan)

    Himiko: …an area referred to as Yamatai, the location of which remains in dispute. The characters used to represent the name Himiko mean “sun child,” or “sun daughter” in archaic Japanese, and it is interesting to note that later Japanese rulers claimed to be descendants of the sun goddess. That Himiko…

  • Yamato (Japan)

    Yamato, city, Kanagawa ken (prefecture), Honshu, Japan, in the eastern part of the Sagamihara Plateau. During the Tokugawa period (1603–1867) it was a local trade centre for the surrounding sericultural region. An air base of the Imperial Japanese Army, established in the city in 1942, was taken

  • Yamato (Japanese battleship)

    Battle of Okinawa: Invasion: …kamikaze planes and the battleship Yamato. The Japanese had hoped that Yamato might finish off the Allied fleet after it had been weakened by the wave of kamikazes, but with no air cover, the largest battleship ever constructed was easy prey for Mitscher’s carrier-based planes. The sinking of the Yamato…

  • Yamato Cycle (Japanese literary tradition)

    Japanese mythology: The myths of the Yamato Cycle figure prominently in these cosmologies. In the beginning, the world was a chaotic mass, an ill-defined egg, full of seeds. Gradually, the finer parts became heaven (yang), the heavier parts earth (yin). Deities were produced between the two: first, three single deities, and…

  • Yamato family (Japanese dynasty)

    kabane: The imperial Japanese Yamato line arose as the most powerful members of this kabane system, although during the 6th century ad, a number of leaders, especially those possessing the high ranks of omi and muraji, overshadowed the Yamato rulers, causing many of them to become no more than…

  • yamato koto (musical instrument)

    Wagon, musical instrument, Japanese six-stringed board zither with movable bridges. The wooden body of the wagon is about 190 cm (75 inches) in length. The musician plays the wagon while seated behind the instrument, which rests on the floor. The strings may be strummed with a plectrum (which is

  • Yamato Ridge (submarine formation, Pacific Ocean)

    Sea of Japan: Geology: Yamato Ridge consists of granite, rhyolite, andesite, and basalt, with boulders of volcanic rock scattered on the seabed. Geophysical investigation has revealed that, while the ridge is of continental origin, the Japan Basin and the Yamato Basin are of oceanic origin.

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