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  • Yamato Takeru (Japanese mythological figure)

    Yamato Takeru, Japanese folk hero, noted for his courage and ingenuity, who may have lived in the 2nd century ad. His tomb at Ise is known as the Mausoleum of the White Plover. The legendary son of the legendary 12th emperor Keikō, Yamato Takeru was supposedly responsible for expanding the

  • Yamato Takeru No Mikoto (Japanese mythological figure)

    Yamato Takeru, Japanese folk hero, noted for his courage and ingenuity, who may have lived in the 2nd century ad. His tomb at Ise is known as the Mausoleum of the White Plover. The legendary son of the legendary 12th emperor Keikō, Yamato Takeru was supposedly responsible for expanding the

  • Yamato-e (Japanese art)

    Yamato-e, (Japanese: “Japanese painting”), style of painting important in Japan during the 12th and early 13th centuries. It is a Late Heian style, secular and decorative with a tradition of strong colour. The Yamato-e style was partly native in inspiration and partly derived from one of the styles

  • yamato-goto (musical instrument)

    Wagon, musical instrument, Japanese six-stringed board zither with movable bridges. The wooden body of the wagon is about 190 cm (75 inches) in length. The musician plays the wagon while seated behind the instrument, which rests on the floor. The strings may be strummed with a plectrum (which is

  • Yamato-Kōriyama (Japan)

    Yamato-Kōriyama, (Kōriyama-Goldfish), city, Nara ken (prefecture), western Honshu, Japan. It is located 3 miles (5 km) southwest of Nara city. A prehistoric settlement, it became a castle town during the last decade of the 15th century. With the opening of a trunk line of the National Railway, a

  • Yamatohime No Mikoto (Japanese ruler)

    Himiko, first known ruler of Japan and the supposed originator of the Grand Shrine of Ise, still considered the most important Shintō sanctuary in Japan. According to Japanese legend, Himiko was the daughter of the emperor Suinin (fl. 1st century bc–1st century ad), who gave her custody of the

  • Yamauchi family (Japanese history)

    Yamanouchi family, family of Japanese feudal lords who from 1600 to 1868 dominated the important fief of Tosa on the island of Shikoku. The rise in the Yamanouchi family’s fortunes began with Yamanouchi Kazutoyo (1546–1605). For his successes on the battlefield in the service of Toyotomi Hideyoshi,

  • Yamauchi, Hiroshi (Japanese business executive)

    Hiroshi Yamauchi, Japanese business executive (born Nov. 7, 1927, Kyoto, Japan—died Sept. 19, 2013, Kyoto), spent more than half a century at the helm of Nintendo, one of the world’s largest electronic games companies. After Yamauchi assumed control of Nintendo, which was founded by his

  • Yamazaki Ansai (Japanese philosopher)

    Yamazaki Ansai, propagator in Japan of the philosophy of the Chinese neo-Confucian philosopher Chu Hsi (1130–1200). Ansai reduced neo-Confucianism to a simple moral code, which he then blended with the native Shintō religious doctrines. This amalgamation was known as Suika Shintō. A Buddhist monk

  • Yamazaki Sōkan (Japanese poet)

    Yamazaki Sōkan, Japanese renga (“linked-verse”) poet of the late Muromachi period (1338–1573) who is best known as the compiler of Inu tsukuba shū (c. 1615; “Mongrel Renga Collection”), the first published anthology of haikai (comic renga). Little is known of Sōkan’s life. According to tradition he

  • Yambol (Bulgaria)

    Yambol, town, east-central Bulgaria, on the Tundzha (Tundja) River. North of the present town are the ruins of Kabyle (or Cabyle), which originated as a Bronze Age settlement in the 2nd millennium bce and was conquered by the Macedonians under Philip II in 342–341 bce. Taken by Rome in 72 bce,

  • Yamboli (Bulgaria)

    Yambol, town, east-central Bulgaria, on the Tundzha (Tundja) River. North of the present town are the ruins of Kabyle (or Cabyle), which originated as a Bronze Age settlement in the 2nd millennium bce and was conquered by the Macedonians under Philip II in 342–341 bce. Taken by Rome in 72 bce,

  • yambú (dance form)

    Latin American dance: Cuba: Rumba has three distinct forms: yambú, guaguancó, and columbia. Before the dance section of each form, a diana, or sung prelude, establishes the mood: romantic, erotic, or competitive. Yambú is a dance in which a single couple slowly and respectfully dances within a circle created by the conga drummers, singers,…

  • Yamburg (gas field, Russia)

    natural gas: Russia: Yamburg, Russia’s second largest gas field, was discovered north of the Arctic Circle and north of Urengoy. Its original reserves were estimated at 4.7 tcm (166 tcf) of gas, mostly from Upper Cretaceous reservoir rocks at depths of 1,000 to 1,210 metres (3,300 to 4,000…

  • Yamdena Island (island, Indonesia)

    Tanimbar Islands: …largest of the group is Yamdena Island, the principal town of which is Saumlaki, a port on the southern coast. This island has thickly wooded hills along its eastern coast, while its western coast is lower and often swampy. Surrounding islands include Larat to the north of Yamdena, with high…

  • yamen (Chinese history)

    China: Unification: …few, actual administration in the yamen, or administrative headquarters, depended heavily on the clerical staff. Beyond the yamen walls, control was in the hands of an officially sanctioned but locally staffed sub-bureaucracy.

  • Yaméogo, Maurice (president of Burkina Faso)

    Burkina Faso: Independence: …ousted the elected government of Maurice Yaméogo. Lamizana dominated the country’s politics until November 1980, when a series of strikes launched by workers, teachers, and civil servants led to another coup, this time headed by Col. Saye Zerbo.

  • Yamethin (Myanmar)

    Yamethin, town, central-northern Myanmar (Burma), occupying a high point on the central plain. For centuries it was an important junction on the caravan trade route between the Shan region to the east and Myingyan, 90 miles (145 km) northwest, on the Irrawaddy River. Modern Yamethin, a

  • Yami (Hindu deity)

    Saptamatrika: …Indrani (wife of Indra), and Chamunda, or Yami (wife of Yama). One text, the Varaha-purana, states that they number eight, including Yogeshvari, created out of the flame from Shiva’s mouth.

  • Yami (people)

    calendar: Standard units and cycles: …situation grew up among the Yami fishermen of Botel Tobago Island (Lan Yü, Taiwan). They use a calendar based on phases of the Moon, and sometime about March—the precise date depends on the degree of error of their lunar calendar compared with the tropical year—they go out in boats with…

  • Yami language

    Austronesian languages: Formosan: The Yami language, which is spoken on Lan-yü (Botel Tobago) island off the southeastern coast of Taiwan, forms a subgroup with Ivatan and Itbayaten in the northern Philippines. The other 14 surviving aboriginal languages of Taiwan may fall into as many as six primary branches of…

  • yamim nora?im (Judaism)

    Yamim nora?im, (Hebrew: “days of awe”) in Judaism, the High Holy Days of Rosh Hashana (on Tishri 1 and 2) and Yom Kippur (on Tishri 10), in September or October. Though the Bible does not link these two major festivals, the Talmud does. Consequently, yamim nora?im is sometimes used to designate the

  • Yamīn al-Dawlah Abū al-Qāsim Ma?mūd ibn Sebüktigin (king of Ghazna)

    Ma?mūd, sultan of the kingdom of Ghazna (998–1030), originally comprising what are now Afghanistan and northeastern Iran but, through his conquests, eventually including northwestern India and most of Iran. He transformed his capital, Ghazna (modern Ghazni, Afghanistan), into a cultural centre

  • Yaminites (ancient people)

    Abraham: The Genesis narrative in the light of recent scholarship: …so also remarkably are the Banu Yamina (“Benjaminites”). It is not that the latter are identical with the family of Benjamin, a son of Jacob, but rather that a name with such a biblical ring appears in these extrabiblical sources in the 18th century bce. What seems beyond doubt is…

  • Yamkhad (ancient kingdom, Syria)

    Anatolia: The Old Hittite Kingdom: …to the important kingdom of Yamkhad (centred at Aleppo), of which Alalakh was a vassal state. For the rest of Hattusilis’ reign, Aleppo apparently remained the principal power in North Syria, to whose armies and allies his own troops were to find themselves repeatedly opposed.

  • Yamm (Semitic deity)

    Yamm, (Hebrew: “Sea”) ancient West Semitic deity who ruled the oceans, rivers, lakes, and underground springs. He also played an important role in the Baal myths recorded on tablets uncovered at Ugarit, which say that at the beginning of time Yamm was awarded the divine kingship by El, the chief

  • Yamnotri temple (temple, Uttarakhand, India)

    Uttarakhand: Pilgrimage centres: The Yamnotri temple, in the western part of the Garhwal region, lies at an elevation of about 10,600 feet (3,200 metres). Its chief deity is Yamuna, the Hindu river goddess. The Yamuna River emerges from the Yamnotri glacier nearby. The shrine of Gangotri, in the northwestern…

  • Yamoussoukro (C?te d’Ivoire)

    Yamoussoukro, town and capital (de jure), south-central C?te d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast), located about 170 miles (274 km) northwest of the country’s de facto capital, Abidjan. Although Yamoussoukro was officially named the new national capital in 1983, the transfer of government functions proceeded

  • Yamoussoukro Basilica (church, Yamoussoukro, C?te d’Ivoire)

    Yamoussoukro Basilica, Roman Catholic basilica in Yamoussoukro, C?te d’Ivoire, that is the largest Christian church in the world. The basilica’s rapid construction in 1986–89 was ostensibly paid for by C?te d’Ivoire’s president, Félix Houphou?t-Boigny, and the building is situated in his

  • Yampa River (river, United States)

    Yampa River, river, in the western United States, rising in the White River National Forest of northwestern Colorado, in the Rocky Mountains. Draining an area of approximately 9,500 square miles (24,600 square km) in south-central Wyoming and northwestern Colorado, the river flows north past

  • yampee (plant)

    Dioscoreaceae: bulbifera); and yampee, or cush-cush (D. trifida).

  • Yampi Sound (bay, Western Australia, Australia)

    Yampi Sound, portion of the Indian Ocean off the north coast of Western Australia, between King Sound and Collier Bay. It contains the four island clusters of the Buccaneer Archipelago, named for the buccaneer William Dampier. The largest of the islands are Koolan, Irvine (with extensive underwater

  • Yampolsky, Mariana (Mexican photographer)

    Mariana Yampolsky, American-born Mexican photographer (born Sept. 6, 1925, Chicago, Ill.—died May 3, 2002, Mexico City, Mex.), moved to Mexico as a young woman and spent half a century capturing idyllic, elegiac images of that country, its people, and its daily life. Her work was exhibited all o

  • Yamskaya (Russia)

    Noginsk, city, Moscow oblast (region), western Russia, on the Klyazma River east of Moscow. Originally Yamskaya village, it became the town of Bogorodsk in 1781 and was renamed Noginsk in 1930. It is one of the largest Russian textile centres; cotton forms most of its production. Pop. (2006 est.)

  • Yamuna (Hindu deity)

    Varuna: …the river goddesses Ganga and Yamuna.

  • Yamuna River (river, India)

    Yamuna River, major river of northern India, primarily in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh states. It is one of the country’s most-sacred rivers. The Yamuna rises on the slopes of the Bandarpunch massif in the Great Himalayas near Yamnotri (Jamnotri) in western Uttarakhand. It flows in a southerly

  • Yamunacarya (Indian philosopher)

    Indian philosophy: The ultralogical period: The philosopher Yamunacharya (flourished 1050 ce) taught the path of prapatti, or complete surrender to God. The philosophers Ramanuja (11th century), Madhva, and Nimbarka (c. 12th century) developed theistic systems of Vedanta and severely criticized Shankara’s Advaita Vedanta.

  • Yamzho Yun (lake, China)

    Tibet: Drainage and soils: …lie two other large lakes, Yamzho Yun (Yangzho Yong) and Puma Yung (Pumo). In western Tibet two adjoining lakes are located near the Nepal border—Lake Mapam, sacred to both Buddhists and Hindus, and Lake La’nga.

  • yan (bronze vessel)

    Yan, type of ancient Chinese bronze steamer, or cooking vessel, used particularly for grain. It consisted of a deep upper bowl with a pierced bottom, which was placed upon or attached to a lower, legged vessel similar in shape to the li. It was produced during the Shang, or Yin (18th–12th century

  • Yan (ancient kingdom, China)

    Beijing: The early empires: …feudal states, the kingdom of Yan, established its capital, named Ji, near the present city of Beijing; this was the first capital city to be associated with the site. The city was destroyed by the troops of Shihuangdi, founder of the Qin dynasty (221–207 bc).

  • Yan Fu (Chinese scholar)

    Yan Fu, Chinese scholar who translated into Chinese works by T.H. Huxley, John Stuart Mill, Herbert Spencer, Adam Smith, and others in an attempt to show that the secret to Western wealth and power did not lie in Western technological advances, such as gunmaking, but in the ideas and institutions

  • Yan Liben (Chinese painter)

    Yan Liben, one of the most famous Chinese figure painters in the early years of the Tang dynasty (618–907). Yan was a high official within the imperial court, but his fame derives from his skill as a painter. He is recorded as having painted Buddhist and Daoist subjects and as having received

  • Yan Lide (Chinese painter)

    Yan Liben: His brother, Yan Lide, was also a famous official and painter.

  • Yan Mountains (mountains, China)

    Beijing: City site: …dawn of Chinese history, the Yan range has constituted a formidable barrier between the North China Plain to the south, the Mongolian Plateau to the north, and the Liao River Plain in the southern region of the Northeast (historically Manchuria). A few passes, however, cut through the ranges—the most important…

  • Yan Qingshu (Chinese author)

    Hong Kong literature: Tang Ren (Yan Qingshu), a pro-communist writer, was famous for historical novels such as Jinling chunmeng (“Spring Dream of Nanjing”), a work about Chiang Kai-shek. Some of the works of Li Bihua (English pen name: Lilian Lee) in the 1980s and 1990s can also be…

  • Yan Ruoju (Chinese scholar)

    Yan Ruoqu, great Chinese scholar from the early period of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12) who proved that 25 chapters of the Shujing, or Shangshu, one of the Five Classics of Confucianism, upon which the government modeled itself for more than a thousand years, were forged. Yan early became

  • Yan Ruoqu (Chinese scholar)

    Yan Ruoqu, great Chinese scholar from the early period of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12) who proved that 25 chapters of the Shujing, or Shangshu, one of the Five Classics of Confucianism, upon which the government modeled itself for more than a thousand years, were forged. Yan early became

  • Yan Song (Chinese official)

    China: The dynastic succession: …an unpopular grand secretary named Yan Song, the Jiajing emperor withdrew almost entirely from governmental cares. Both emperors cruelly humiliated and punished hundreds of officials for their temerity in remonstrating.

  • Yan Xijai (Chinese philosopher)

    Yan Yuan, Chinese founder of a pragmatic empirical school of Confucianism opposed to the speculative neo-Confucian philosophy that had dominated China since the 11th century. Yan’s father was abducted into the Manchu army when Yan was three. He never returned, and the family lived in poverty. As a

  • Yan Xishan (Chinese warlord)

    Shanxi: History: …in 1911/12, the Shanxi warlord Yan Xishan (1883–1960) ruled as an absolute dictator until the end of the Sino-Japanese War (1937–45). Yan was instrumental in establishing the nucleus of a heavy industrial base and in opening the southern section of the Tongpu railway in 1935.

  • Yan Yuan (Chinese philosopher)

    Yan Yuan, Chinese founder of a pragmatic empirical school of Confucianism opposed to the speculative neo-Confucian philosophy that had dominated China since the 11th century. Yan’s father was abducted into the Manchu army when Yan was three. He never returned, and the family lived in poverty. As a

  • Yan’an (China)

    Yan’an, city, northern Shaanxi sheng (province), north-central China. It became famous as the wartime stronghold of the Chinese communists from the mid-1930s to 1949. Yan’an is on the heavily dissected Loess Plateau, which consists of loess (windblown soil) that is deeply etched by gullies. The

  • Yan’an period (Chinese history)

    Mao Zedong: The road to power: …phase is often called the Yan’an period (for the town in Shaanxi where the communists were based), although Mao did not move to Yan’an until December 1936. In August 1935 the Comintern at its Seventh Congress in Moscow proclaimed the principle of an antifascist united front, and in May 1936…

  • Yan-Li school (Chinese philosophical movement)

    Yan Yuan: …philosophical movement known as the Yan-Li school. A short-lived society to study and disseminate its doctrines was formed in 1920 in Beijing. Yan’s major works were reprinted in the late 19th century as the Yan-Li yishu (“Works of Yan and Li”).

  • yana (Buddhism)

    pratyeka-buddha: In early Buddhism, the various yanas, or ways of enlightenment, included the way of the disciple (shravakayana) and the way of the self-enlightened buddha (pratyeka-buddhayana). The latter concept was retained only in the Theravada tradition. By contrast, Mahayana Buddhists emphasize the ideal of the bodhisattva,

  • Yana (people)

    Yana, Hokan-speaking North American Indians formerly living along the eastern tributaries of the upper Sacramento River, from the Pit River to southwest of Lassen Peak, in what is now California. Traditional Yana territory comprised a myriad of foothills and narrow, rugged canyons, partly wooded

  • Yana-Indigirka (lowlands, Asia)

    Asia: The plains and lowlands: …as the North Siberian and Yana-Indigirka lowlands and the North China Plain—or in the piedmont depressions of Mesopotamia, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, and mainland Southeast Asia. Those plains have monotonously level surfaces with wide valleys, through which the great Asian rivers and their tributaries flow. The topography of the plains in…

  • Yanagi Sōetsu (Japanese artist)

    Japanese art: Ceramics: Yanagi Sōetsu espoused anonymity, functionality, and simplicity as a corrective to the industrialism and self-aggrandizement characteristic of the age. In league with potters such as the British artist Bernard Leach, Hamada Shōji, and Kawai Kanjirō, Yanagi engendered a robust, charming type of ceramic which recalled…

  • Yanagimachi, Ryuzo (American scientist)

    Ryuzo Yanagimachi, Japanese-born American scientist whose team cloned the second live mammal, a mouse, and was the first to produce successive generations of clones. Yanagimachi attended Hokkaido University in Sapporo, earning a bachelor’s degree in zoology in 1953 and a doctorate in animal

  • Yanam (India)

    Yanam, town, Puducherry union territory, eastern India. It constitutes an enclave within northeastern Andhra Pradesh state, on the main mouth of the Godavari River. Yanam was formerly part of the Chola empire. The area came under Muslim occupation in the 16th century. In the 17th and 18th centuries

  • Yanaon (India)

    Yanam, town, Puducherry union territory, eastern India. It constitutes an enclave within northeastern Andhra Pradesh state, on the main mouth of the Godavari River. Yanam was formerly part of the Chola empire. The area came under Muslim occupation in the 16th century. In the 17th and 18th centuries

  • Yanayev, Gennadi (Soviet politician)

    Gennady Ivanovich Yanayev, Soviet bureaucrat (born Aug. 26, 1937, Perevoz, Russia, U.S.S.R.—died Sept. 24, 2010, Moscow, Russia), was one of eight hard-line coup leaders, or “putschists,” who in August 1991 tried to oust Soviet Pres. Mikhail Gorbachev and take over the government with Yanayev, then

  • Yanbu? (Saudi Arabia)

    Yanbu?, town, western Saudi Arabia, on the Red Sea north of Jiddah. It serves as the country’s second Red Sea port, after Jiddah, and is the main port for Medina, 100 miles (160 km) to the east. The economy of Yanbu? was traditionally based on the pilgrim trade and the export of agricultural

  • Yancey, James Edward (American musician)

    Jimmy Yancey, American blues pianist who established the boogie-woogie style with slow, steady, simple left-hand bass patterns. These became more rapid in the work of his students Albert Ammons and Meade “Lux” Lewis, who popularized the “Yancey Special” bass pattern. Yancey was also known for the

  • Yancey, Jimmy (American musician)

    Jimmy Yancey, American blues pianist who established the boogie-woogie style with slow, steady, simple left-hand bass patterns. These became more rapid in the work of his students Albert Ammons and Meade “Lux” Lewis, who popularized the “Yancey Special” bass pattern. Yancey was also known for the

  • Yancey, Mama (American musician)

    Jimmy Yancey: …he married Estella Harris (Mama Yancey), who sang with him at house parties throughout the 1920s, ’30s, and ’40s. They had three recording sessions together and performed on network radio in 1939 and at Carnegie Hall in New York City in 1948. From 1925 until shortly before his death,…

  • Yancey, William Lowndes (American politician)

    William Lowndes Yancey, American southern political leader and “fire-eater” who, in his later years, consistently urged the South to secede in response to Northern antislavery agitation. Though born in Georgia, Yancey in 1822 moved with his mother and stepfather, an antislavery Presbyterian

  • Yancheng (China)

    Yancheng, city, north-central Jiangsu sheng (province), eastern China, in the province’s eastern coastal district. Yancheng is now some 25 miles (40 km) from the coast, but in ancient times it was close to the sea and, from the 8th century onward, had to be constantly protected by dikes. The most

  • Yancheng National Nature Reserve (nature reserve, China)

    Yancheng: Yancheng National Nature Reserve (established 1983) and the smaller Dafeng Milu National Nature Reserve (1986) encompass much of Jiangsu’s Yellow Sea coastline north and south of Yancheng. They protect salt marsh and mudflat habitats and are home to large populations of fish and aquatic birds…

  • Yandabo, Treaty of (Myanmar-United Kingdom [1826])

    Anglo-Burmese Wars: The Treaty of Yandabo (February 1826) formally ended the First Anglo-Burmese War. The British victory had been achieved mainly because India’s superior resources had made possible a sustained campaign running through two rainy seasons. But in the fighting the British-led Indian troops had suffered more than…

  • Yandi (Chinese mythological emperor)

    Shennong, (Chinese: “Divine Husbandman”) in Chinese mythology, second of the mythical emperors, said to have been born in the 28th century bce with the head of a bull and the body of a man. By inventing the cart and plow, by taming the ox and yoking the horse, and by teaching his people to clear

  • Yá?ez Pinzón, Vicente (Spanish shipowner and navigator)
  • Yá?ez, Agustín (Mexican writer and statesman)

    Agustín Yá?ez, Mexican novelist, short-story writer, and active political figure whose novels, explorations of their protagonists’ social realities, established a major current in 20th-century Mexican fiction. Born in a provincial neighbourhood of Guadalajara, Yá?ez was enamoured of its traditions

  • Yá?ez, Fernando (Spanish artist)

    Western painting: Spain: …decade of the 16th century, Fernando Yá?ez, who may have assisted Leonardo da Vinci on the “Battle of Anghiari” in 1505, executed works showing a good knowledge of Italian Renaissance developments. Further Italianate tendencies emerged strongly in the Valencian works of Juan de Macip and his son Juan de Juanes.…

  • yang (Eastern philosophy)

    Yinyang, in Eastern thought, the two complementary forces that make up all aspects and phenomena of life. Yin is a symbol of earth, femaleness, darkness, passivity, and absorption. It is present in even numbers, in valleys and streams, and is represented by the tiger, the colour orange, and a

  • Yang Baibing (Chinese general)

    Yang Baibing, Chinese general (born Sept. 9, 1920, Chongqing, Sichuan province, China [now in Chongqing municipality, China]—died Jan. 15, 2013, Beijing, China), was said to have given the order to the military to brutally suppress pro-democracy demonstrations in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square in June

  • Yang Cheng (Chinese judge)

    Fu Shen: Yang Cheng (or Yang Xiji), who served the Wudi emperor (reigned 502–549 ce) as a criminal judge in Hunan province, was deeply disturbed that the ruler was destroying the normal family life of dwarfs by pressing them into service as personal servants and court entertainers.…

  • Yang Chu (Chinese philosopher)

    Yang Zhu, Chinese philosopher traditionally associated with extreme egoism but better understood as an advocate of naturalism. He may also have been the first Chinese philospher to discuss human nature (xing; literally “natural tendencies”). When asked whether he would surrender merely one hair

  • Yang Chuan-kwang (Taiwanese athlete)

    Rafer Johnson: …duel between Johnson and Taiwan’s Yang Chuan-kwang, who was Johnson’s friend and teammate at UCLA. After the first day, Johnson led Yang by 55 points, despite the fact that Yang had finished ahead of Johnson in four of the five competitions. On the second day, Johnson fell from the lead…

  • Yang Dechang (Taiwanese film director)

    Edward Yang, (Yang Dechang), Taiwanese film director(born Sept. 24, 1947, Shanghai, China—died June 29, 2007, Beverly Hills, Calif.), was in the vanguard of the Taiwanese New Wave, a 1980s movement that brought international attention to the island state with films that probed political, economic,

  • Yang Dezhi (Chinese military official)

    Yang Dezhi (Yang Te-chih), Chinese military official (born 1911, Zhuzhou [Chu-chou], Hunan province, China—died Oct. 25, 1994, Beijing [Peking], China), joined the communist People’s Liberation Army (PLA) at its creation and went on to serve in virtually every major Chinese military conflict for th

  • Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Malaysian monarch)

    Malaysia: Constitutional framework: …state—a monarch—who bears the title Yang di-Pertuan Agong (“paramount ruler”) and who is elected from among nine hereditary state rulers for a five-year term. The Malaysian constitution, drafted in 1957 following the declaration of independence (from the British) by the states of what is now Peninsular Malaysia, provides for a…

  • Yang Guang (emperor of Sui dynasty)

    Yangdi, posthumous name (shi) of the second and penultimate emperor (604–617/618) of the Sui dynasty (581–618). Under the Yangdi emperor canals were built and great palaces erected. He acceded to the throne in 604, and it is generally agreed that he did so after assassinating his father (the Wendi

  • Yang Guifei (Chinese concubine)

    Yang Guifei, notorious beauty and concubine of the great Tang emperor Xuanzong (reigned 712–756). Because of her the emperor is said to have neglected his duties, and the Tang dynasty (618–907) was greatly weakened by a rebellion that ensued. Her story has been the subject of many outstanding

  • Yang Guozhong (Chinese minister)

    An Lushan: An Lushan’s rebellion: …developed between An Lushan and Yang Guozhong, the cousin of Yang Guifei, who attempted to take over Li Linfu’s position. Though Yang Guozhong could attack and destroy An Lushan’s supporters at court, he was unsuccessful in his attempts to establish a countervailing military base in the provinces or to undermine…

  • Yang Hsiu-ch’ing (Chinese rebel leader)

    Yang Xiuqing, organizer and commander in chief of the Taiping Rebellion, the political-religious uprising that occupied most of South China between 1850 and 1864. A dealer in firewood, Yang joined the Taiping band shortly before the rebellion broke out and quickly rose to a high position. In 1851,

  • Yang Hsiung (Chinese poet and philosopher)

    Yang Xiong, Chinese poet and philosopher best known for his poetry written in the form known as fu. As a quiet and studious young man, Yang Xiong came to admire and practice the fu form. When he was past age 40, he went to live in the imperial capital, Chang’an, where his reputation as a poet won

  • Yang Hu-ch’eng (Chinese general)

    China: War between Nationalists and communists: …and the Northwestern army under Yang Hucheng (Yang Hu-ch’eng) to attack the communist forces in northern Shaanxi. Many officers in those armies sympathized with the communist slogan “Chinese don’t fight Chinese”; they preferred to fight Japan, a sentiment particularly strong in the homeless Manchurian army. Zhang Xueliang was conducting secret…

  • Yang Hucheng (Chinese general)

    China: War between Nationalists and communists: …and the Northwestern army under Yang Hucheng (Yang Hu-ch’eng) to attack the communist forces in northern Shaanxi. Many officers in those armies sympathized with the communist slogan “Chinese don’t fight Chinese”; they preferred to fight Japan, a sentiment particularly strong in the homeless Manchurian army. Zhang Xueliang was conducting secret…

  • Yang Hui (Chinese mathematician)

    Yang Hui, mathematician active in the great flowering of Chinese mathematics during the Southern Song dynasty. Although practically nothing is known about the life of Yang, his books are among the few contemporary Chinese mathematics works to survive. A remark in the preface to one of his treatises

  • Yang Hui suanfa (work by Yang Hui)

    Yang Hui: …a Song dynasty edition of Yang Hui suanfa (1275; “Yang Hui’s Mathematical Methods”). The latter contains three treatises, Chengchu tongbian benmo (1274; “Fundament and Periphery for Continuity and Change in Multiplication and Division”), Tianmu bilei chengchu jiefa (1275; “Quick Methods for Multiplication and Division in Surveying and Analogous Categories”), and…

  • Yang Jian (emperor of Sui dynasty)

    Wendi, posthumous name (shi) of the emperor (reigned 581–604) who reunified and reorganized China after 300 years of instability, founding the Sui dynasty (581–618). He conquered southern China, which long had been divided into numerous small kingdoms, and he broke the power of the Turks in the

  • Yang Jiang (Chinese writer and translator)

    Yang Jiang, (Yang Jikang), Chinese writer and translator (born July 17, 1911, Beijing, China—died May 25, 2016, Beijing), was a versatile writer greatly admired for her spare, elegant prose, as exemplified in her best-known works, Gan xiao liu ji (1981; Six Chapters from My Life “Downunder”, Eng.

  • Yang Jikang (Chinese writer and translator)

    Yang Jiang, (Yang Jikang), Chinese writer and translator (born July 17, 1911, Beijing, China—died May 25, 2016, Beijing), was a versatile writer greatly admired for her spare, elegant prose, as exemplified in her best-known works, Gan xiao liu ji (1981; Six Chapters from My Life “Downunder”, Eng.

  • Yang Kuei-fei (Chinese concubine)

    Yang Guifei, notorious beauty and concubine of the great Tang emperor Xuanzong (reigned 712–756). Because of her the emperor is said to have neglected his duties, and the Tang dynasty (618–907) was greatly weakened by a rebellion that ensued. Her story has been the subject of many outstanding

  • Yang Lan (Chinese businesswoman and journalist)

    Yang Lan, Chinese businesswoman and television journalist who was considered one of China’s most powerful women in media, known for her on-air work, which often focused on social and cultural issues, and for cofounding Sun Media Group. The daughter of two professors, Yang in 1990 received a

  • Yang Liwei (Chinese astronaut)

    Yang Liwei, Chinese astronaut and the first person sent into space by the Chinese space program. In 1983 he enlisted in the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA), where he was chosen to enter the aviation college of the PLA Air Force. He graduated in 1987 and became a fighter pilot, accumulating

  • Yang Meizi (Chinese emperor)

    Ma Yuan: Early life and works: …Ningzong, who, with his empress, Yang Meizi, wrote poems or short inscriptions inspired by a number of his paintings.

  • Yang Qianguang (Chinese mathematician)

    Yang Hui, mathematician active in the great flowering of Chinese mathematics during the Southern Song dynasty. Although practically nothing is known about the life of Yang, his books are among the few contemporary Chinese mathematics works to survive. A remark in the preface to one of his treatises

  • Yang Quyun (Chinese leader)

    China: Reformist and revolutionist movements at the end of the dynasty: …the leadership of his associate Yang Quyun. Sun participated in an abortive attempt to capture Guangzhou in 1895, after which he sailed for England and then went to Japan in 1897, where he found much support. Tokyo became the revolutionaries’ principal base of operation.

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